1 Peter 1

A Living Hope, and a Sure Salvation

1 1Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who reside as 2aliens, 3scattered throughout 4Pontus, 5Galatia, 6Cappadocia, 7Asia, and 8Bithynia, 9who are chosen
2 according to the 10foreknowledge of God the Father, 11by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, [a]to 12obey Jesus Christ and be 13sprinkled with His blood: 14May grace and peace [b]be yours in the fullest measure.
3 15Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who 16according to His great mercy 17has caused us to be born again to 18a living hope through the 19resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
4 to obtain an 20inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and 21will not fade away, 22reserved in heaven for you,
5 who are 23protected by the power of God 24through faith for 25a salvation ready 26to be revealed in the last time.
6 27In this you greatly rejoice, even though now 28for a little while, 29if necessary, you have been distressed by 30various [c]trials,
7 so that the [d]31proof of your faith, being more precious than gold which [e]is perishable, 32even though tested by fire, 33may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at 34the revelation of Jesus Christ;
8 and 35though you have not seen Him, you 36love Him, and though you do not see Him now, but believe in Him, you greatly rejoice with joy inexpressible and [f]full of glory,
9 obtaining as 37the outcome of your faith the salvation of [g]your souls.
10 38As to this salvation, the prophets who 39prophesied of the 40grace that would come to you made * careful * searches and inquiries,
11 [h]seeking to know what person or time 41the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He 42predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories [i]to follow *.
12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you through those who 43preached the gospel to you by 44the Holy Spirit sent from heaven -things into which 45angels long to [j]look.
13 Therefore, [k]46prepare your minds for action, [l]47keep sober in spirit, fix your 48hope completely on the 49grace [m]to be brought to you at 50the revelation of Jesus Christ.
14 As [n]51obedient children, do not [o]52be conformed to the former lusts which were yours in your 53ignorance,
15 but [p]54like the Holy One who called you, [q]55be holy yourselves also 56in all your behavior;
16 because it is written, "57YOU SHALL BE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY."
17 If you 58address as Father the One who 59impartially 60judges according to each one's work, conduct yourselves 61in fear during the time of your 62stay on earth;
18 knowing that you were not [r]63redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your 64futile way of life inherited from your forefathers,
19 but with precious 65blood, as of a 66lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.
20 For He was 67foreknown before 68the foundation of the world, but has 69appeared [s]in these last times 70for the sake of you
21 who through Him are 71believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and 72gave Him glory, so that your faith and 73hope are in God.
22 Since you have 74in obedience to the truth 75purified your souls for a [t]76sincere love of the brethren, fervently love one another from [u]the heart,
23 for you have been 77born again 78not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, that is, through the living and enduring 79word of God.
25 81BUT THE WORD OF THE LORD ENDURES FOREVER." And this is 82the word which was [v]preached to you.

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1 Peter 1 Commentary

Chapter 1

The same great doctrines, as in St. Paul's epistles, are here applied to same practical purposes. And this epistle is remarkable for the sweetness, gentleness, and humble love, with which it is written. It gives a short, and yet a very clear summary, both of the consolations and the instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, raising his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both from corruption within, and temptations and afflictions without.

The apostle blesses God for his special benefits through Christ. (1-9) Salvation by Christ foretold in ancient prophecy. (10-12) All are exhorted to holy conversation. (13-16) Such as is suitable to their principles, privileges, and obligations. (17-25)

Verses 1-9 This epistle is addressed to believers in general, who are strangers in every city or country where they live, and are scattered through the nations. These are to ascribe their salvation to the electing love of the Father, the redemption of the Son, and the sanctification of the Holy Ghost; and so to give glory to one God in three Persons, into whose name they had been baptized. Hope, in the world's phrase, refers only to an uncertain good, for all worldly hopes are tottering, built upon sand, and the worldling's hopes of heaven are blind and groundless conjectures. But the hope of the sons of the living God is a living hope; not only as to its object, but as to its effect also. It enlivens and comforts in all distresses, enables to meet and get over all difficulties. Mercy is the spring of all this; yea, great mercy and manifold mercy. And this well-grounded hope of salvation, is an active and living principle of obedience in the soul of the believer. The matter of a Christian's joy, is the remembrance of the happiness laid up for him. It is incorruptible, it cannot come to nothing, it is an estate that cannot be spent. Also undefiled; this signifies its purity and perfection. And it fadeth not; is not sometimes more or less pleasant, but ever the same, still like itself. All possessions here are stained with defects and failings; still something is wanting: fair houses have sad cares flying about the gilded and ceiled roofs; soft beds and full tables, are often with sick bodies and uneasy stomachs. All possessions are stained with sin, either in getting or in using them. How ready we are to turn the things we possess into occasions and instruments of sin, and to think there is no liberty or delight in their use, without abusing them! Worldly possessions are uncertain and soon pass away, like the flowers and plants of the field. That must be of the greatest worth, which is laid up in the highest and best place, in heaven. Happy are those whose hearts the Holy Spirit sets on this inheritance. God not only gives his people grace, but preserves them unto glory. Every believer has always something wherein he may greatly rejoice; it should show itself in the countenance and conduct. The Lord does not willingly afflict, yet his wise love often appoints sharp trials, to show his people their hearts, and to do them good at the latter end. Gold does not increase by trial in the fire, it becomes less; but faith is made firm, and multiplied, by troubles and afflictions. Gold must perish at last, and can only purchase perishing things, while the trial of faith will be found to praise, and honour, and glory. Let this reconcile us to present afflictions. Seek then to believe Christ's excellence in himself, and his love to us; this will kindle such a fire in the heart as will make it rise up in a sacrifice of love to him. And the glory of God and our own happiness are so united, that if we sincerely seek the one now, we shall attain the other when the soul shall no more be subject to evil. The certainty of this hope is as if believers had already received it.

Verses 10-12 Jesus Christ was the main subject of the prophets' studies. Their inquiry into the sufferings of Christ and the glories that should follow, would lead to a view of the whole gospel, the sum whereof is, That Christ Jesus was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification. God is pleased to answer our necessities rather than our requests. The doctrine of the prophets, and that of the apostles, exactly agree, as coming from the same Spirit of God. The gospel is the ministration of the Spirit; its success depends upon his operation and blessing. Let us then search diligently those Scriptures which contain the doctrines of salvation.

Verses 13-16 As the traveller, the racer, the warrior, and the labourer, gathered in their long and loose garments, that they might be ready in their business, so let Christians do by their minds and affections. Be sober, be watchful against all spiritual dangers and enemies, and be temperate in all behaviour. Be sober-minded in opinion, as well as in practice, and humble in your judgment of yourselves. A strong and perfect trust in the grace of God, is agreeable with best endeavours in our duty. Holiness is the desire and duty of every Christian. It must be in all affairs, in every condition, and towards all people. We must especially watch and pray against the sins to which we are inclined. The written word of God is the surest rule of a Christian's life, and by this rule we are commanded to be holy every way. God makes those holy whom he saves.

Verses 17-25 Holy confidence in God as a Father, and awful fear of him as a Judge, agree together; and to regard God always as a Judge, makes him dear to us as a Father. If believers do evil, God will visit them with corrections. Then, let Christians not doubt God's faithfulness to his promises, nor give way to enslaving dread of his wrath, but let them reverence his holiness. The fearless professor is defenceless, and Satan takes him captive at his will; the desponding professor has no heart to avail himself of his advantages, and is easily brought to surrender. The price paid for man's redemption was the precious blood of Christ. Not only openly wicked, but unprofitable conversation is highly dangerous, though it may plead custom. It is folly to resolve, I will live and die in such a way, because my forefathers did so. God had purposes of special favour toward his people, long before he made manifest such grace unto them. But the clearness of light, the supports of faith, the power of ordinances, are all much greater since Christ came upon earth, than they were before. The comfort is, that being by faith made one with Christ, his present glory is an assurance that where he is we shall be also, ( John 14:3 ) . The soul must be purified, before it can give up its own desires and indulgences. And the word of God planted in the heart by the Holy Ghost, is a means of spiritual life, stirring up to our duty, working a total change in the dispositions and affections of the soul, till it brings to eternal life. In contrast with the excellence of the renewed spiritual man, as born again, observe the vanity of the natural man. In his life, and in his fall, he is like grass, the flower of grass, which soon withers and dies away. We should hear, and thus receive and love, the holy, living word, and rather hazard all than lose it; and we must banish all other things from the place due to it. We should lodge it in our hearts as our only treasures here, and the certain pledge of the treasure of glory laid up for believers in heaven.

Cross References 82

  • 1. 2 Peter 1:1
  • 2. 1 Peter 2:11
  • 3. James 1:1
  • 4. Acts 2:9
  • 5. Acts 16:6
  • 6. Acts 2:9
  • 7. Acts 2:9
  • 8. Acts 16:7
  • 9. Matthew 24:22; Luke 18:7
  • 10. Romans 8:29; 1 Peter 1:20
  • 11. 2 Thessalonians 2:13
  • 12. 1 Peter 1:14, 22
  • 13. Hebrews 10:22; Hebrews 12:24
  • 14. 2 Peter 1:2
  • 15. 2 Corinthians 1:3
  • 16. Galatians 6:16; Titus 3:5
  • 17. James 1:18; 1 Peter 1:23
  • 18. 1 Peter 1:13, 21; 1 Peter 3:5, 15; 1 John 3:3
  • 19. 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Peter 3:21
  • 20. Acts 20:32; Romans 8:17; Colossians 3:24
  • 21. 1 Peter 5:4
  • 22. 2 Timothy 4:8
  • 23. John 10:28; Philippians 4:7
  • 24. Ephesians 2:8
  • 25. 1 Corinthians 1:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:13
  • 26. 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 5:1
  • 27. Romans 5:2
  • 28. 1 Peter 5:10
  • 29. 1 Peter 3:17
  • 30. James 1:2; 1 Peter 4:12
  • 31. James 1:3
  • 32. 1 Corinthians 3:13
  • 33. Romans 2:7
  • 34. Luke 17:30; 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 4:13
  • 35. John 20:29
  • 36. Ephesians 3:19
  • 37. Romans 6:22
  • 38. Matthew 13:17; Luke 10:24
  • 39. Matthew 26:24
  • 40. 1 Peter 1:13
  • 41. 2 Peter 1:21
  • 42. Matthew 26:24
  • 43. 1 Peter 1:25; 1 Peter 4:6
  • 44. Acts 2:2-4
  • 45. 1 Timothy 3:16
  • 46. Ephesians 6:14
  • 47. 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 8; 2 Timothy 4:5; 1 Peter 4:7; 1 Peter 5:8
  • 48. 1 Peter 1:3
  • 49. 1 Peter 1:10
  • 50. 1 Peter 1:7
  • 51. 1 Peter 1:2
  • 52. Romans 12:2; 1 Peter 4:2
  • 53. Ephesians 4:18
  • 54. 1 Thessalonians 4:7; 1 John 3:3
  • 55. 2 Corinthians 7:1
  • 56. James 3:13
  • 57. Leviticus 11:44; Leviticus 19:2; Leviticus 20:7
  • 58. Psalms 89:26; Jeremiah 3:19; Matthew 6:9
  • 59. Acts 10:34
  • 60. Matthew 16:27
  • 61. 2 Corinthians 7:1; Hebrews 12:28; 1 Peter 3:15
  • 62. 1 Peter 2:11
  • 63. Isaiah 52:3; 1 Corinthians 6:20; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:12
  • 64. Ephesians 4:17
  • 65. Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 1:2
  • 66. John 1:29
  • 67. Acts 2:23; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:2; Revelation 13:8
  • 68. Matthew 25:34
  • 69. Hebrews 9:26
  • 70. Hebrews 2:14
  • 71. Romans 4:24; Romans 10:9
  • 72. John 17:5, 24; 1 Timothy 3:16; Hebrews 2:9
  • 73. 1 Peter 1:3
  • 74. 1 Peter 1:2
  • 75. James 4:8
  • 76. John 13:34; Romans 12:10; Hebrews 13:1; 1 Peter 2:17; 1 Peter 3:8
  • 77. John 3:3; 1 Peter 1:3
  • 78. John 1:13
  • 79. Hebrews 4:12
  • 80. Isaiah 40:6f; James 1:10
  • 81. Isaiah 40:8
  • 82. Hebrews 6:5

Footnotes 22

Chapter Summary


That Simon, called Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, was the writer of this epistle, is not questioned by any; nor was the genuineness and authenticity of it ever made a doubt of. Eusebius says {a}, that it had been confessed by all, and received without controversy; and that the ancients, without any scruple, had made use of it in their writings. It is called his "general", or catholic epistle, because it was not written to any particular person, or to any particular church, but in general, to a number of Christians dispersed in several places. The time when this epistle was written is not certain; some place it in the year of Christ 44 or 45, and so make it to be the most ancient of all the epistles, and which is the more commonly received opinion; but Dr. Lightfoot {b} places it in the year 65, because in it the apostle speaks of the end of all things being at hand, and of the fiery trial just coming on them, and of judgment beginning at the house of God, 1Pe 4:7,12,17 all which he applies to the destruction of Jerusalem; though others fix it to 61, in the seventh year of Nero {c}. The place from whence it seems to be written was Babylon, 1Pe 5:13 which is to be understood not figuratively, either of Rome or Jerusalem, but properly of Babylon, the metropolis of Chaldea, or Assyria. The persons to whom it is written were Jews, at least chiefly; for there might be some Gentiles among them, who may be taken notice of in some parts of the epistle; but the principal part were Jews, as appears from their being called the strangers of the dispersion, or, as James calls them, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad"; from the mention of the tradition of their fathers; from their having their conversation honest among the Gentiles, and their past life among them; from urging subjection to the civil magistrates among the Heathens, and the right use of their Christian liberty as to the ceremonies of the law; and from the near destruction of Jerusalem, which could only affect them; and from the use made of the writings of the Old Testament, and the authority of the prophets; see \1Pe 1:1,18 2:12 4:3 2:13,16 4:7,12,17\ as well as from the second epistle, which was written to the same; see \2Pe 1:19 2:1 3:1,2,15\ in which he seems to refer to the epistle to the Hebrews, written by Paul, as to these. And besides, Peter was the minister of the circumcision, or of the circumcised Jews, as Paul was of the Gentiles; and even those passages in this epistle, which seem most likely to concern the Gentiles, may be understood of the Jews, as which speak of their ignorance, idolatry, and having not been a people, \1Pe 1:14 4:3 2:10\ which were true of them before conversion, and as living among Gentiles. The occasion of writing it was this; Peter meeting with Sylvanus, a faithful brother, and who had been a companion of the Apostle Paul, he takes this opportunity of sending a letter by him to the converted Jews, dispersed among the Gentile countries, where he, with Paul, and others, travelled: the design of which is to testify of the true doctrine of grace, in which they were agreed; see 1Pe 5:12. And accordingly in it he does treat of the doctrine of electing grace, of redeeming grace, of regenerating and sanctifying grace, and of persevering grace; and exhorts believers to the exercise of grace, of faith, hope, and love, and to the discharge of such duties becoming their several stations, whereby they might evidence to others the truth of grace in themselves, and adorn the doctrine of the grace of God, and recommend it to others: and particularly he exhorts them patiently to bear all afflictions and persecutions they should meet with, for their profession of the true grace of God, in which he encourages them to stand steadfast: and this is the general scope and design of the epistle.

{a} Eccl. Hist. l. 3. c. 3. {b} Harmony Vol. I. p. 335. {c} Fabricii Bibliothec. Graec. l. 4. c. 5. sect. 10. p. 164.


In this chapter, after the inscription and salutation, the apostle gives thanks to God for various blessings of grace bestowed, or to be bestowed upon the persons he writes to; and then, with the best of arguments and motives, urges them to the performance of several duties of religion. In the inscription, the person who is the writer of the epistle is described, both by his name, and by his office; and also the persons to whom it is sent, by their outward condition, strangers dispersed through several countries particularly mentioned, and by their spiritual estate, elect men; the source and spring of which election is the foreknowledge of God the Father; the means, the sanctification of the Spirit; and the end, obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Christ; and to these the apostle wishes a multiplication of grace and peace, 1Pe 1:1,2 and then he gives thanks to God for the regeneration of them; the efficient cause of which is God the Father; the moving cause, his abundant mercy; the means, the resurrection of Christ from the dead; the end, a lively hope of a glorious inheritance, 1Pe 1:3,4 and next follows a description of regenerate ones; they are such who are kept by the power of God through faith, unto salvation; who rejoice in hope of that salvation, though now for a little while are sorrowful, by reason of afflictions, which are for the trial of their faith; they are believers in Christ, lovers of him, and rejoice in him, and shall at last receive the end of their faith, the salvation of their souls, 1Pe 1:5-9 the excellency of which salvation is set forth from the concern the prophets had in it, the scrutiny they made into it, and the revelation of it made to them; from the concern the apostles had in it, and their report of it, and from the desire of angels to look into it, 1Pe 1:10-12 upon which the apostle exhorts to the exercise of various graces and duties, to attention of mind, to sobriety, to a constant hope of eternal glory, and to holiness of life and conversation, 1Pe 1:13,14 the arguments engaging to which are taken from the nature of God, who had called them by his grace, 1Pe 1:15,16 from their concern with him, as a Father and a judge; from their state and condition, as sojourners in this world, and from their redemption by the blood of Christ from a vain conversation, 1Pe 1:17-19 and of Christ, the Redeemer of them, many things are said, as that he was ordained before the foundation of the world to be the Redeemer; was manifested in human nature in these last days, for the sake of such that believe; was raised from the dead, and glorified, that there might be a sufficient foundation for the exercise of faith and hope in God, 1Pe 1:20,21 and next the apostle exhorts to brotherly love, in purity, and with fervency; from the consideration of the internal purification of them by the Spirit, through obedience to the truth; and from their regeneration, the cause of which was not corruptible, but incorruptible seed; and the means, the living and abiding word of God, 1Pe 1:22,23 which is illustrated by a passage out of Isa 40:6-8 setting forth the frailty and mortality of men, and the transitoriness of all outward enjoyments; to which is opposed the duration of the everlasting Gospel, the means of regeneration, 1Pe 1:24,25.

1 Peter 1 Commentaries

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