Exodus 11

The Last Plague

1 Now the LORD said to Moses, "One more plague I will bring on Pharaoh and on Egypt; 1after that he will let you go from here. When he lets you go, he will surely drive you out from here completely.
2 "Speak now in the hearing of the people that 2each man ask from his neighbor and each woman from her neighbor for articles of silver and articles of gold."
3 3The LORD gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. 4Furthermore, the man Moses himself was greatly esteemed in the land of Egypt, both in the sight of Pharaoh's servants and in the sight of the people.
4 Moses said, "Thus says the LORD, 'About 5midnight * I am going out into the midst of Egypt,
5 and 6all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the firstborn of the cattle as well.
6 'Moreover, there shall be 7a great cry in all the land of Egypt, such * as there has not been before and such as shall never be again.
7 '8But against any of the sons of Israel a dog will not even bark *, whether against man or beast, that you may understand how the LORD makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.'
8 "9All these your servants will come down to me and bow themselves before me, saying, 'Go out, you and all the people who follow you,' and after that I will go out." 10And he went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.
9 Then the LORD said to Moses, "11Pharaoh will not listen to you, so 12that My wonders will be multiplied in the land of Egypt."
10 13Moses and Aaron performed all these wonders before Pharaoh; yet 14the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the sons of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 11 Commentary

Chapter 11

God's last instructions to Moses respecting Pharaoh and the Egyptians. (1-3) The death of the first-born threatened. (4-10)

Verses 1-3 A secret revelation was made to Moses while in the presence of Pharaoh, that he might give warning of the last dreadful judgment, before he went out. This was the last day of the servitude of Israel; they were about to go away. Their masters, who had abused them in their work, would have sent them away empty; but God provided that the labourers should not lose their hire, and ordered them to demand it now, at their departure, and it was given to them. God will right the injured, who in humble silence commit their cause to him; and none are losers at last by patient suffering. The Lord gave them favour in the sight of the Egyptians, by making it appear how much he favoured them. He also changed the spirit of the Egyptians toward them, and made them to be pitied of their oppressors. Those that honour God, he will honour.

Verses 4-10 The death of all the first-born in Egypt at once: this plague had been the first threatened, but is last executed. See how slow God is to wrath. The plague is foretold, the time is fixed; all their first-born should sleep the sleep of death, not silently, but so as to rouse the families at midnight. The prince was not too high to be reached by it, nor the slaves at the mill too low to be noticed. While angels slew the Egyptians, not so much as a dog should bark at any of the children of Israel. It is an earnest of the difference there shall be in the great day, between God's people and his enemies. Did men know what a difference God puts, and will put to eternity, between those that serve him and those that serve him not, religion would not seem to them an indifferent thing; nor would they act in it with so much carelessness as they do. When Moses had thus delivered his message, he went out from Pharaoh in great anger at his obstinacy; though he was the meekest of the men of the earth. The Scripture has foretold the unbelief of many who hear the gospel, that it might not be a surprise or stumbling-block to us, ( Romans 10:16 ) . Let us never think the worse of the gospel of Christ for the slights men put upon it. Pharaoh was hardened, yet he was compelled to abate his stern and haughty demands, till the Israelites got full freedom. In like manner the people of God will find that every struggle against their spiritual adversary, made in the might of Jesus Christ, every attempt to overcome him by the blood of the Lamb, and every desire to attain increasing likeness and love to that Lamb, will be rewarded by increasing freedom from the enemy of souls.

Cross References 14

  • 1. Ex 12:31, 33, 39
  • 2. Exodus 3:22; Exodus 12:35, 36
  • 3. Exodus 3:21; Exodus 12:36; Psalms 106:46
  • 4. Deuteronomy 34:10-12
  • 5. Exodus 12:29
  • 6. Exodus 12:12, 29; Psalms 78:51; Psalms 105:36; Psalms 135:8; Psalms 136:10
  • 7. Exodus 12:30
  • 8. Exodus 8:22; Joshua 10:21
  • 9. Exodus 12:31-33
  • 10. Hebrews 11:27
  • 11. Exodus 7:4
  • 12. Exodus 7:3
  • 13. Exodus 4:21
  • 14. Exodus 7:3; Exodus 9:12; Exodus 10:20, 27; Joshua 11:20; Isaiah 63:17; John 12:40

Footnotes 7

Chapter Summary


Moses having an intimation from the Lord that one plague more would be brought on Pharaoh, and then he would let Israel go, when they should borrow of their neighbours jewels of gold and silver, the people being in great favour with the Egyptians, Ex 11:1-3, he declares to Pharaoh, before he went out of his presence, the slaying of all the firstborn in Egypt, which would issue in the dismission of Israel, and then he went out from him in great anger, Ex 11:4-8, but still Pharaoh would not hearken, and his heart was hardened, and he refused again to let Israel go, Ex 10:9,10.

Exodus 11 Commentaries

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