Hebrews 12

Jesus, the Example

1 Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also 1lay aside every encumbrance and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us 2run with 3endurance the race that is set before us,
2 fixing our eyes on Jesus, the 4author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him 5endured the cross, 6despising the shame, and has 7sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
3 For 8consider Him who has endured such hostility by sinners against Himself, so that you will not grow weary 9and lose heart.

A Father's Discipline

4 10You have not yet resisted 11to the point of shedding blood in your striving against sin;
5 and you have forgotten the exhortation which is addressed to you as sons, "12MY SON, DO NOT REGARD LIGHTLY THE DISCIPLINE OF THE LORD, NOR 13FAINT WHEN YOU ARE REPROVED BY HIM.
7 It is for discipline that you endure; 16God deals with you as with sons; for what son is there whom his father does not discipline?
8 But if you are without discipline, 17of which all have become partakers, then you are illegitimate children and not sons.
9 Furthermore, we had earthly fathers to discipline us, and we 18respected them; shall we not much rather be subject to 19the Father of spirits, and 20live?
10 For they disciplined us for a short time as seemed best to them, but He disciplines us for our good, 21so that we may share His holiness.
11 All discipline 22for the moment seems not to be joyful, but sorrowful; yet to those who have been trained by it, afterwards it yields the 23peaceful fruit of righteousness.
12 Therefore, 24strengthen the hands that are weak and the knees that are feeble,
13 and 25make straight paths for your feet, so that the limb which is lame may not be put out of joint, but rather 26be healed.
14 27Pursue peace with all men, and the 28sanctification without which no one will 29see the Lord.
15 See to it that no one 30comes short of the grace of God; that no 31root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be 32defiled;
16 that there be no * 33immoral or 34godless person like Esau, 35who sold his own birthright for a single meal.
17 For you know that even afterwards, 36when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears.

Contrast of Sinai and Zion

18 37For you have not come to 38a mountain that can be touched and to a blazing fire, and to darkness and gloom and whirlwind,
19 and to the 39blast of a trumpet and the 40sound of words which sound was such that those who heard 41begged that no further word be spoken to them.
20 For they could not bear the command, "42IF EVEN A BEAST TOUCHES THE MOUNTAIN, IT WILL BE STONED."
21 And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, "43I AM FULL OF FEAR and trembling."
22 But 44you have come to Mount Zion and to 45the city of 46the living God, 47the heavenly Jerusalem, and to 48myriads of angels,
23 to the general assembly and 49church of the firstborn who 50are enrolled in heaven, and to God, 51the Judge of all, and to the 52spirits of the righteous made perfect,
24 and to Jesus, the 53mediator of a new covenant, and to the 54sprinkled blood, which speaks better than 55the blood of Abel.

The Unshaken Kingdom

25 56See to it that you do not refuse Him who is 57speaking. For 58if those did not escape when they 59refused him who 60warned them on earth, much less will we escape who turn away from Him who 61warns from heaven.
26 And 62His voice shook the earth then, but now He has promised, saying, "63YET ONCE MORE I WILL SHAKE NOT ONLY THE EARTH, BUT ALSO THE HEAVEN."
27 This expression, "Yet once more," denotes 64the removing of those things which can be shaken, as of created things, so that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.
28 Therefore, since we receive a 65kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us show gratitude, by which we may 66offer to God an acceptable service with reverence and awe;
29 for 67our God is a consuming fire.

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Hebrews 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

An exhortation to be constant and persevere, The example of Christ is set forth, and the gracious design of God in all the sufferings believers endured. (1-11) Peace and holiness are recommended, with cautions against despising spiritual blessings. (12-17) The New Testament dispensation shown to be much more excellent than the Old. (18-29)

Verses 1-11 The persevering obedience of faith in Christ, was the race set before the Hebrews, wherein they must either win the crown of glory, or have everlasting misery for their portion; and it is set before us. By the sin that does so easily beset us, understand that sin to which we are most prone, or to which we are most exposed, from habit, age, or circumstances. This is a most important exhortation; for while a man's darling sin, be it what it will, remains unsubdued, it will hinder him from running the Christian race, as it takes from him every motive for running, and gives power to every discouragement. When weary and faint in their minds, let them recollect that the holy Jesus suffered, to save them from eternal misery. By stedfastly looking to Jesus, their thoughts would strengthen holy affections, and keep under their carnal desires. Let us then frequently consider him. What are our little trials to his agonies, or even to our deserts? What are they to the sufferings of many others? There is a proneness in believers to grow weary, and to faint under trials and afflictions; this is from the imperfection of grace and the remains of corruption. Christians should not faint under their trials. Though their enemies and persecutors may be instruments to inflict sufferings, yet they are Divine chastisements; their heavenly Father has his hand in all, and his wise end to answer by all. They must not make light of afflictions, and be without feeling under them, for they are the hand and rod of God, and are his rebukes for sin. They must not despond and sink under trials, nor fret and repine, but bear up with faith and patience. God may let others alone in their sins, but he will correct sin in his own children. In this he acts as becomes a father. Our earthly parents sometimes may chasten us, to gratify their passion, rather than to reform our manners. But the Father of our souls never willingly grieves nor afflicts his children. It is always for our profit. Our whole life here is a state of childhood, and imperfect as to spiritual things; therefore we must submit to the discipline of such a state. When we come to a perfect state, we shall be fully reconciled to all God's chastisement of us now. God's correction is not condemnation; the chastening may be borne with patience, and greatly promote holiness. Let us then learn to consider the afflictions brought on us by the malice of men, as corrections sent by our wise and gracious Father, for our spiritual good.

Verses 12-17 A burden of affliction is apt to make the Christian's hands hang down, and his knees grow feeble, to dispirit him and discourage him; but against this he must strive, that he may better run his spiritual race and course. Faith and patience enable believers to follow peace and holiness, as a man follows his calling constantly, diligently, and with pleasure. Peace with men, of all sects and parties, will be favourable to our pursuit of holiness. But peace and holiness go together; there can be not right peace without holiness. Where persons fail of having the true grace of God, corruption will prevail and break forth; beware lest any unmortified lust in the heart, which seems to be dead, should spring up, to trouble and disturb the whole body. Falling away from Christ is the fruit of preferring the delights of the flesh, to the blessing of God, and the heavenly inheritance, as Esau did. But sinners will not always have such mean thoughts of the Divine blessing and inheritance as they now have. It agrees with the profane man's disposition, to desire the blessing, yet to despise the means whereby the blessing is to be gained. But God will neither sever the means from the blessing, nor join the blessing with the satisfying of man's lusts. God's mercy and blessing were never sought carefully and not obtained.

Verses 18-29 Mount Sinai, on which the Jewish church state was formed, was a mount such as might be touched, though forbidden to be so, a place that could be felt; so the Mosaic dispensation was much in outward and earthly things. The gospel state is kind and condescending, suited to our weak frame. Under the gospel all may come with boldness to God's presence. But the most holy must despair, if judged by the holy law given from Sinai, without a Saviour. The gospel church is called Mount Zion; there believers have clearer views of heaven, and more heavenly tempers of soul. All the children of God are heirs, and every one has the privileges of the first-born. Let a soul be supposed to join that glorious assembly and church above, that is yet unacquainted with God, still carnally-minded, loving this present world and state of things, looking back to it with a lingering eye, full of pride and guile, filled with lusts; such a soul would seem to have mistaken its way, place, state, and company. It would be uneasy to itself and all about it. Christ is the Mediator of this new covenant, between God and man, to bring them together in this covenant; to keep them together; to plead with God for us, and to plead with us for God; and at length to bring God and his people together in heaven. This covenant is made firm by the blood of Christ sprinkled upon our consciences, as the blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled upon the altar and the victim. This blood of Christ speaks in behalf of sinners; it pleads not for vengeance, but for mercy. See then that you refuse not his gracious call and offered salvation. See that you do not refuse Him who speaketh from heaven, with infinite tenderness and love; for how can those escape, who turn from God in unbelief or apostacy, while he so graciously beseeches them to be reconciled, and to receive his everlasting favour! God's dealing with men under the gospel, in a way of grace, assures us, that he will deal with the despisers of the gospel, in a way of judgment. We cannot worship God acceptably, unless we worship him with reverence and godly fear. Only the grace of God enables us to worship God aright. God is the same just and righteous God under the gospel as under the law. The inheritance of believers is secured to them; and all things pertaining to salvation are freely given in answer to prayer. Let us seek for grace, that we may serve God with reverence and godly fear.

Cross References 67

  • 1. Romans 13:12; Ephesians 4:22
  • 2. 1 Corinthians 9:24; Galatians 2:2
  • 3. Hebrews 10:36
  • 4. Hebrews 2:10
  • 5. Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 2:9
  • 6. 1 Corinthians 1:18, 23; Hebrews 13:13
  • 7. Hebrews 1:3
  • 8. Revelation 2:3
  • 9. Galatians 6:9; Hebrews 12:5
  • 10. Hebrews 10:32f; Hebrews 13:13
  • 11. Philippians 2:8
  • 12. Job 5:17; Proverbs 3:11
  • 13. Hebrews 12:3
  • 14. Proverbs 3:12
  • 15. Psalms 119:75; Revelation 3:19
  • 16. Deuteronomy 8:5; 2 Samuel 7:14; Proverbs 13:24; Proverbs 19:18; Proverbs 23:13
  • 17. 1 Peter 5:9
  • 18. Luke 18:2
  • 19. Numbers 16:22; Numbers 27:16; Revelation 22:6
  • 20. Isaiah 38:16
  • 21. 2 Peter 1:4
  • 22. 1 Peter 1:6
  • 23. Isaiah 32:17; 2 Timothy 4:8; James 3:17
  • 24. Isaiah 35:3
  • 25. Proverbs 4:26; Galatians 2:14
  • 26. Galatians 6:1; James 5:16
  • 27. Romans 14:19
  • 28. Romans 6:22; Hebrews 12:10
  • 29. Matthew 5:8; Hebrews 9:28
  • 30. 2 Corinthians 6:1; Galatians 5:4; Hebrews 4:1
  • 31. Deuteronomy 29:18
  • 32. Titus 1:15
  • 33. Hebrews 13:4
  • 34. 1 Timothy 1:9
  • 35. Genesis 25:33
  • 36. Genesis 27:30-40
  • 37. 2 Corinthians 3:7-13; Hebrews 12:18f
  • 38. Exodus 19:12, 16f; Exodus 20:18; Deuteronomy 4:11; Deuteronomy 5:22
  • 39. Exodus 19:16, 19; Exodus 20:18; Matthew 24:31
  • 40. Exodus 19:19; Deuteronomy 4:12
  • 41. Exodus 20:19; Deuteronomy 5:25; Deuteronomy 18:16
  • 42. Exodus 19:12
  • 43. Deuteronomy 9:19
  • 44. Revelation 14:1
  • 45. Ephesians 2:19; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 11:10; Revelation 21:2
  • 46. Hebrews 3:12
  • 47. Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 11:16
  • 48. Revelation 5:11
  • 49. Exodus 4:22; Hebrews 2:12
  • 50. Luke 10:20
  • 51. Genesis 18:25; Psalms 50:6; Psalms 94:2
  • 52. Hebrews 11:40; Revelation 6:9, 11
  • 53. 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15
  • 54. Hebrews 9:19; Hebrews 10:22; 1 Peter 1:2
  • 55. Genesis 4:10; Hebrews 11:4
  • 56. Hebrews 3:12
  • 57. Hebrews 1:1
  • 58. Hebrews 2:2; Hebrews 10:28
  • 59. Hebrews 12:19
  • 60. Exodus 20:22; Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 11:7
  • 61. Exodus 20:22; Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 11:7
  • 62. Exodus 19:18; Judges 5:4
  • 63. Haggai 2:6
  • 64. Isaiah 34:4; Isaiah 54:10; Isaiah 65:17; Romans 8:19, 21; 1 Corinthians 7:31; Hebrews 1:10f
  • 65. Daniel 2:44
  • 66. Hebrews 13:15, 21
  • 67. Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Isaiah 33:14; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Hebrews 10:27, 31

Footnotes 10

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle presses to a constant exercise of faith and patience, amidst the various afflictions the saints are exercised with; delivers out several exhortations useful in the Christian life; and shows the difference between the legal and Gospel dispensations. Having in the preceding chapter given many illustrious instances and examples of faith, he makes use of this cloud of witnesses, as he calls them, to engage the Hebrews to drop their unbelief, and run with faith and patience the race set before them, Heb 12:1, and which he further urges from the example of Christ; from his concern in faith, being the author and finisher of it; from what he suffered when here on earth, both the contradiction of sinners, and the death of the cross, for the joy of having his people with him in heaven; and from his glorious state, being set down at the right hand of God. Whereas, as yet, they had not been called to shed their blood in their warfare against sin, Heb 12:2-4. And that they must expect chastisement, and should bear it patiently, he cites a passage of Scripture out of Pr 3:11,12 which suggests, that those who are the children of God, and are loved and received by him, are chastened and scourged, Heb 12:5,6. Wherefore this was no other than dealing with them as children; and should they not be thus dealt with, it would be an argument that they were bastards, and not sons, Heb 12:7,8. And next the apostle argues from the right of parents to chastise their children, and the subjection that is yielded to them; that if the corrections of them, who were the fathers of their bodies, were quietly submitted to; then much more should those of the Father of their souls; and the rather, since the chastenings of the former are only for temporal good, and according to their fallible judgments; whereas the latter are for spiritual profit, and an increase of holiness, Heb 12:9,10. And though it must be allowed, that no chastening, for the present time, is matter of joy, but of grief; yet the effects of them are the peaceable fruits of righteousness, to them that are exercised by them, Heb 12:11. Wherefore the apostle exhorts the believing Hebrews to encourage themselves and others under afflictions; and to behave in such manner, and carry it so evenly, that they might not be an occasion of stumbling to weak believers, Heb 12:12,13. He exhorts them in general to follow peace with all men, and particularly holiness; which is absolutely necessary to the beatific vision of God, Heb 12:14, and to take care that no heresy or immorality spring up among them, and be connived at, and cherished by them, to the troubling of some, and defiling of others, Heb 12:15, and particularly, lest the sin of uncleanness, or any sort of profaneness, should be found among them; of which Esau, the brother of Jacob, from whence they sprung, was guilty; whose profaneness lay in selling his birthright for a morsel of meat, and whose punishment was, that he should be deprived of the blessing; which decree was irrevocable, notwithstanding his tears, Heb 12:16,17 and to enforce these exhortations, the apostle observes to these believers, that they were not now under the law, but in a Gospel church state. The terror of the legal dispensation they were delivered from is described by the place where the law was given, a mount burning with fire; by circumstances attending it, blackness, darkness, and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet; by the matter of it, a voice of words, which they that heard, entreated they might hear no more; and by the effect the whole had upon. Moses himself, who quaked and trembled at what he saw and heard, Heb 12:18-21. The happiness of the Gospel dispensation, or of the Gospel church state, is expressed by the names of it, called Mount Zion, the city of the living God, the new Jerusalem; and by the company the saints have there, and their fellowship with them; angels innumerable; elect men, whose names are written in heaven, and whose spirits are made perfectly just; God the Judge of all, and Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant; whose blood being sprinkled on their consciences, spoke peace and pardon to them; such as neither Abel's blood nor sacrifice could speak, Heb 12:22-24. From whence the apostle argues, that care should be taken not to neglect and despise the voice of Christ, who is now in heaven, and speaks from thence in his Gospel and ordinances; seeing they escaped not who rejected him that spoke on earth, at Mount Sinai, which was shaken by his voice; and the rather, since it appears from a prophecy in Hag 2:6,7, that under the Gospel dispensation, not only the earth but the heavens would he shaken, Heb 12:25,26 which is an emblem of the shaking and removing the ordinances of the ceremonial law, that Gospel ordinances might take place, and remain for ever, Heb 12:27. Upon the whole, the apostle exhorts the believing Hebrews, that seeing they had received the immovable kingdom of grace, and were admitted into the Gospel dispensation, or church state; that they would hold fast the Gospel of the grace of God, and serve the Lord, according to his revealed will, with reverence and godly fear, which would be acceptable to him; or otherwise he would be a consuming fire; as he is to all the despisers and neglecters of his Gospel and ordinances, Heb 12:28,29.

Hebrews 12 Commentaries

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