James 2

The Sin of Partiality

1 1My brethren, 2do not hold your faith in our 3glorious Lord Jesus Christ with an attitude of 4personal favoritism.
2 For if a man comes into your assembly with a gold ring and dressed in 5fine clothes, and there also comes in a poor man in 6dirty clothes,
3 and you pay special attention to the one who is wearing the 7fine clothes, and say, "You sit here in a good place," and you say to the poor man, "You stand over there, or sit down by my footstool,"
4 have you not made distinctions among yourselves, and become judges 8with evil motives?
5 Listen, 9my beloved brethren: did not 10God choose the poor of this world to be 11rich in faith and 12heirs of the kingdom which He 13promised to those who love Him?
6 But you have dishonored the poor man. Is it not the rich who oppress you and personally 14drag you into court?
7 15Do they not blaspheme the fair name by which you have been called?
8 If, however, you 16are fulfilling the royal law according to the Scripture, "17YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF," you are doing well.
9 But if you 18show partiality, you are committing sin and are convicted by the law as transgressors.
10 For whoever keeps the whole law and yet 19stumbles in one point, he has become 20guilty of all.
11 For He who said, "21DO NOT COMMIT ADULTERY," also said, "22DO NOT COMMIT MURDER." Now if you do not commit adultery, but do commit murder, you have become a transgressor of the law.
12 So speak and so act as those who are to be judged by 23the law of liberty.
13 For 24judgment will be merciless to one who has shown no mercy; mercy triumphs over judgment.

Faith and Works

14 25What use is it, 26my brethren, if someone says he has faith but he has no works? Can that faith save him?
15 27If a brother or sister is without clothing and in need of daily food,
16 and one of you says to them, "28Go in peace, be warmed and be filled," and yet you do not give them what is necessary for their body, what use is that?
17 Even so 29faith, if it has no works, is dead, being by itself.
18 30But someone may well say, "You have faith and I have works; show me your 31faith without the works, and I will 32show you my faith 33by my works."
19 You believe that 34God is one. 35You do well; 36the demons also believe, and shudder.
20 But are you willing to recognize, 37you foolish fellow, that 38faith without works is useless?
21 39Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered up Isaac his son on the altar?
22 You see that 40faith was working with his works, and as a result of the 41works, faith was perfected;
23 and the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "42AND ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS RECKONED TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS," and he was called 43the friend of God.
24 You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone.
25 In the same way, was not 44Rahab the harlot also justified by works 45when she received the messengers and sent them out by another way?
26 For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also 46faith without works is dead.

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James 2 Commentary

Chapter 2

All professions of faith are vain, if not producing love and justice to others. (1-13) The necessity of good works to prove the sincerity of faith, which otherwise will be of no more advantage than the faith of devils. (14-26)

Verses 1-13 Those who profess faith in Christ as the Lord of glory, must not respect persons on account of mere outward circumstances and appearances, in a manner not agreeing with their profession of being disciples of the lowly Jesus. St. James does not here encourage rudeness or disorder: civil respect must be paid; but never such as to influence the proceedings of Christians in disposing of the offices of the church of Christ, or in passing the censures of the church, or in any matter of religion. Questioning ourselves is of great use in every part of the holy life. Let us be more frequent in this, and in every thing take occasion to discourse with our souls. As places of worship cannot be built or maintained without expense, it may be proper that those who contribute thereto should be accommodated accordingly; but were all persons more spiritually-minded, the poor would be treated with more attention that usually is the case in worshipping congregations. A lowly state is most favourable for inward peace and for growth in holiness. God would give to all believers riches and honours of this world, if these would do them good, seeing that he has chosen them to be rich in faith, and made them heirs of his kingdom, which he promised to bestow on all who love him. Consider how often riches lead to vice and mischief, and what great reproaches are thrown upon God and religion, by men of wealth, power, and worldly greatness; and it will make this sin appear very sinful and foolish. The Scripture gives as a law, to love our neighbour as ourselves. This law is a royal law, it comes from the King of kings; and if Christians act unjustly, they are convicted by the law as transgressors. To think that our good deeds will atone for our bad deeds, plainly puts us upon looking for another atonement. According to the covenant of works, one breach of any one command brings a man under condemnation, from which no obedience, past, present, or future, can deliver him. This shows us the happiness of those that are in Christ. We may serve him without slavish fear. God's restraints are not a bondage, but our own corruptions are so. The doom passed upon impenitent sinners at last, will be judgment without mercy. But God deems it his glory and joy, to pardon and bless those who might justly be condemned at his tribunal; and his grace teaches those who partake of his mercy, to copy it in their conduct.

Verses 14-26 Those are wrong who put a mere notional belief of the gospel for the whole of evangelical religion, as many now do. No doubt, true faith alone, whereby men have part in Christ's righteousness, atonement, and grace, saves their souls; but it produces holy fruits, and is shown to be real by its effect on their works; while mere assent to any form of doctrine, or mere historical belief of any facts, wholly differs from this saving faith. A bare profession may gain the good opinion of pious people; and it may procure, in some cases, worldly good things; but what profit will it be, for any to gain the whole world, and to lose their souls? Can this faith save him? All things should be accounted profitable or unprofitable to us, as they tend to forward or hinder the salvation of our souls. This place of Scripture plainly shows that an opinion, or assent to the gospel, without works, is not faith. There is no way to show we really believe in Christ, but by being diligent in good works, from gospel motives, and for gospel purposes. Men may boast to others, and be conceited of that which they really have not. There is not only to be assent in faith, but consent; not only an assent to the truth of the word, but a consent to take Christ. True believing is not an act of the understanding only, but a work of the whole heart. That a justifying faith cannot be without works, is shown from two examples, Abraham and Rahab. Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness. Faith, producing such works, advanced him to peculiar favours. We see then, ver. ( 24 ) , how that by works a man is justified, not by a bare opinion or profession, or believing without obeying; but by having such faith as produces good works. And to have to deny his own reason, affections, and interests, is an action fit to try a believer. Observe here, the wonderful power of faith in changing sinners. Rahab's conduct proved her faith to be living, or having power; it showed that she believed with her heart, not merely by an assent of the understanding. Let us then take heed, for the best works, without faith, are dead; they want root and principle. By faith any thing we do is really good; as done in obedience to God, and aiming at his acceptance: the root is as though it were dead, when there is no fruit. Faith is the root, good works are the fruits; and we must see to it that we have both. This is the grace of God wherein we stand, and we should stand to it. There is no middle state. Every one must either live God's friend, or God's enemy. Living to God, as it is the consequence of faith, which justifies and will save, obliges us to do nothing against him, but every thing for him and to him.

Cross References 46

  • 1. James 1:16
  • 2. Hebrews 12:2
  • 3. Acts 7:2; 1 Corinthians 2:8
  • 4. Acts 10:34; James 2:9
  • 5. Luke 23:11; James 2:3
  • 6. Zechariah 3:3
  • 7. Luke 23:11
  • 8. Luke 18:6; John 7:24
  • 9. James 1:16
  • 10. Job 34:19; 1 Corinthians 1:27
  • 11. Luke 12:21; Revelation 2:9
  • 12. Matthew 5:3; Matthew 25:34
  • 13. James 1:12
  • 14. Acts 8:3; Acts 16:19
  • 15. Acts 11:26; 1 Peter 4:16
  • 16. Matthew 7:12
  • 17. Leviticus 19:18
  • 18. Acts 10:34; James 2:1
  • 19. James 3:2; 2 Peter 1:10; Jude 24
  • 20. Matthew 5:19; Galatians 5:3
  • 21. Exodus 20:14; Deuteronomy 5:18
  • 22. Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17
  • 23. James 1:25
  • 24. Proverbs 21:13; Matthew 5:7; Matthew 18:32-35; Luke 6:37
  • 25. James 1:22f
  • 26. James 1:16
  • 27. Matthew 25:35; Luke 3:11
  • 28. 1 John 3:17
  • 29. Galatians 5:6; James 2:20, 26
  • 30. Romans 9:19
  • 31. Romans 3:28; Romans 4:6; Hebrews 11:33
  • 32. James 3:13
  • 33. Matthew 7:16; Galatians 5:6
  • 34. Deuteronomy 6:4; Mark 12:29
  • 35. James 2:8
  • 36. Matthew 8:29; Mark 1:24; Mark 5:7; Luke 4:34; Acts 19:15
  • 37. Romans 9:20; 1 Corinthians 15:36
  • 38. Galatians 5:6; James 2:17, 26
  • 39. Gen 22:9, 10, 12, 16-18
  • 40. John 6:29; Hebrews 11:17
  • 41. 1 Thessalonians 1:3
  • 42. Genesis 15:6; Romans 4:3
  • 43. 2 Chronicles 20:7; Isaiah 41:8
  • 44. Hebrews 11:31
  • 45. Josh 2:4, 6, 15
  • 46. Galatians 5:6; James 2:17, 20

Footnotes 20

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle dissuades from a respect of persons, on account of outward circumstances; shows that the law is to be fulfilled, and that mercy is to be exercised, as well as justice done; and exposes the folly of such who boast of faith without works: he dissuades the saints from all partiality to the rich and poor, from their relation to one another, as brethren, and from their common faith, of which Christ, the Lord of glory, is the object, Jas 2:1 supposes an instance of it, either in a court of judicature, or a religious assembly, Jas 2:2,3 and then makes an appeal unto them, and expostulates with them about it, Jas 2:4 and makes use of an argument against it, taken from the divine conduct, and an instance of his grace in the choice of persons to eternal life, Jas 2:5 a conduct very different from some persons here blamed, Jas 2:6, and other arguments follow, dissuading from a respect of persons, taken from the characters of rich men, as oppressors of the poor, litigious and quarrelsome with their neighbours, and blasphemers of the name of God, Jas 2:7 and from the law of God, which requires the love of the neighbour, and which to fulfil is to do well, Jas 2:8 and from the breach of it, by having respect to persons, whereby its penalty is incurred, Jas 2:9 for which a reason is given; because whoever offends in one point of the law, is guilty of the whole, Jas 2:10 as is a clear case, since the same lawgiver that forbids one sin, forbids another; so that he that is guilty of either of them is a transgressor of the law, Jas 2:11 wherefore it is right both to speak and act according to it, since men will be judged by it, Jas 2:12 and he will have no mercy shown him that has shown none to the poor, but merciful ones will escape damnation, Jas 2:13 and then the apostle argues from the unprofitableness of faith itself without works, Jas 2:14 and which he exemplifies in the case of a poor brother or sister who are wished well, but nothing given them; which good words, without deeds, are of no profit, Jas 2:15,16 so in like manner, faith without works is a dead faith, Jas 2:17 nor indeed can it be made out that a man has faith, if he has not works, Jas 2:18 at least such a faith as has justification and salvation connected with it; his faith, at most, is no better than that of the devils, who are damned, Jas 2:19 and that such a faith is a dead faith, Jas 2:2 and that true faith is attended with, and evidenced by works, the apostle proves by two instances; the one is that of Abraham, whose faith appeared to be genuine, and he to be a justified person, by the works he did; particularly by offering up his son Isaac; in which way his faith operated, and showed itself to be sincere and hearty; and the Scripture was fulfilled that Abraham was a believer; and had righteousness imputed to him, and was a friend of God, and a justified person, Jas 2:21-24 and the other instance is that of Rahab, whose faith was also shown by her works, and so a justified person, by receiving the spies with peace, and dismissing them with safety, Jas 2:25, and then the apostle explains what he means, by saying more than once, that faith without works is dead; which he illustrates by the simile of a man's body being dead, without the spirit or soul in it, Jas 2:26.

James 2 Commentaries

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