Now the Philistines gathered their forces for war and assembled1 at Socoh in Judah. They pitched camp at Ephes Dammim, between Socoh2 and Azekah.3
References for 1 Samuel 17:1
Saul and the Israelites assembled and camped in the Valley of Elah4 and drew up their battle line to meet the Philistines.
References for 1 Samuel 17:2
The Philistines occupied one hill and the Israelites another, with the valley between them.
A champion named Goliath,5 who was from Gath, came out of the Philistine camp. He was over nine feet tall.
References for 1 Samuel 17:4
He had a bronze helmet on his head and wore a coat of scale armor of bronze weighing five thousand shekels;
References for 1 Samuel 17:5
on his legs he wore bronze greaves, and a bronze javelin6 was slung on his back.
References for 1 Samuel 17:6
His spear shaft was like a weaver's rod,7 and its iron point weighed six hundred shekels. His shield bearer8 went ahead of him.
References for 1 Samuel 17:7
Goliath stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel, "Why do you come out and line up for battle? Am I not a Philistine, and are you not the servants of Saul? Choose9 a man and have him come down to me.
References for 1 Samuel 17:8
If he is able to fight and kill me, we will become your subjects; but if I overcome him and kill him, you will become our subjects and serve us."
Then the Philistine said, "This day I defy10 the ranks of Israel! Give me a man and let us fight each other.11"
References for 1 Samuel 17:10
On hearing the Philistine's words, Saul and all the Israelites were dismayed and terrified.
Now David was the son of an Ephrathite12 named Jesse,13 who was from Bethlehem14 in Judah. Jesse had eight15 sons, and in Saul's time he was old and well advanced in years.
References for 1 Samuel 17:12
Jesse's three oldest sons had followed Saul to the war: The firstborn was Eliab;16 the second, Abinadab;17 and the third, Shammah.18
References for 1 Samuel 17:13
David was the youngest. The three oldest followed Saul,
but David went back and forth from Saul to tend19 his father's sheep20 at Bethlehem.
References for 1 Samuel 17:15
For forty days the Philistine came forward every morning and evening and took his stand.
Now Jesse said to his son David, "Take this ephah21 of roasted grain22 and these ten loaves of bread for your brothers and hurry to their camp.
References for 1 Samuel 17:17
Take along these ten cheeses to the commander of their unit. See how your brothers23 are and bring back some assurance from them.
References for 1 Samuel 17:18
They are with Saul and all the men of Israel in the Valley of Elah, fighting against the Philistines."
Early in the morning David left the flock with a shepherd, loaded up and set out, as Jesse had directed. He reached the camp as the army was going out to its battle positions, shouting the war cry.
Israel and the Philistines were drawing up their lines facing each other.
David left his things with the keeper of supplies,24 ran to the battle lines and greeted his brothers.
References for 1 Samuel 17:22
As he was talking with them, Goliath, the Philistine champion from Gath, stepped out from his lines and shouted his usual25 defiance, and David heard it.
References for 1 Samuel 17:23
When the Israelites saw the man, they all ran from him in great fear.
Now the Israelites had been saying, "Do you see how this man keeps coming out? He comes out to defy Israel. The king will give great wealth to the man who kills him. He will also give him his daughter26 in marriage and will exempt his father's family from taxes27 in Israel."
References for 1 Samuel 17:25
David asked the men standing near him, "What will be done for the man who kills this Philistine and removes this disgrace28 from Israel? Who is this uncircumcised29 Philistine that he should defy30 the armies of the living31 God?"
References for 1 Samuel 17:26
They repeated to him what they had been saying and told him, "This is what will be done for the man who kills him."