Try out the new BibleStudyTools.com. Click here!

Chapter I

inquire after the scattered Jews, was suggested by a series of striking providences in the case of some of the individuals concerned. The Rev. Robert S. Candlish, D. D., Minister of St. George's, Edinburgh, saw these providences, and seized on the idea. On the part of our Church, "the thing was done suddenly;" but it soon became evident that "God had prepared the people."* The Committee of our General Assembly, appointed to consider what might be done in the way of setting on foot Missionary operations among the Jews, were led unanimously to adopt this plan after prayerful and anxious deliberation. Our own anticipations of the result of our inquiries might be described by a reference to Nehemiah.f We thought we could see that, if the Lord brought us home in safety, many people would ask us "concerning the Jews that had escaped and were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem;" and that our Report might lead not a few to " weep, and mourn, and fast, and pray, before the God of heaven," for Israel. We have good reason to believe that this has been the effect. In Scotland, at least, many more "watchmen have been set upon the walls of Jerusalem," J men of Nehemiah's spirit, who keep their eye upon its ruins, favouring its very dust, and who " will never hold their

• 2 Chron. xxix. 36. t Neh. i. 2, 4 t Isa. Ixii. 6,7.

seek their good, a few weeks sufficed to have every preparation completed. Those of us who had Parishes to leave behind, felt that, in a case like this, we might act as did the shepherds at Bethlehem, leaving our flocks for a season under the care of the Shepherd of Israel, whose long lost sheep we were now going to seek. Nor have we had any cause to regret our confidence, and one at least of our number found this anticipation of the Good Shepherd's care more than realized on his return.

As we went on our way through Glasgow, Greenock, and Liverpool, the members of our Church commended us to the Lord. On our arrival in London, the officebearers and members of the London Jewish Society, and many other Christian friends in the city, showed us no small kindness. The Religious Tract Society furnished us with their publications in various languages. What we saw of the Jews there, and of the operations of the London Society among them, was very useful to us. Provided with Lord Palmerston's passport, and letters to her Majesty's foreign Consuls, through the kindness of Sir George Grey and Lord Ashley, as well as with letters to friends and merchants in the various countries we expected to visit, we were commended to the Lord in Regent Square Church the night before we set out. Many prayers also followed us, and the prayers of our brethren have not been in vain.

We sailed from Dover on the morning of 12th April, I83fj. Soon its white cliffs—its chalky hills—were left behind, and after three hours' sail ove»a boisterous sea BOOLOONE—POPERY—PROTESTANTS. 3

we landed in Boulogne. We felt, as the shores of Albion faded from our view, that we needed, in our circumstances, the faith of Abraham, when it was said to him, ** Get thee unto a land that I will shew thee;" * for we knew not what was to be the result of our journeying among the seed of Israel.

A pillar to the memory of Napoleon, upon a height near the shore, attracts the eye in approaching the harbour of Boulogne. No sooner had we landed, than the demand for our passports, the pacing of the gens oVarmes along the shore, and the general aspect of the people, reminded us that we were in a less favoured land than we had left. We wished to press on to Paris that night, as we were afraid of not reaching Marseilles before the 21st, the day when the Alexandrian steamer was to sail, but we found that there was no diligence till next morning. In this there was a kind design of Providence, intended both to encourage and teach us, as we found before the evening had past.

Boulogne is said to contain 25,000 inhabitants, of whom 5000 are English visitors. The Leanne, a small stream, flows through it . Popery is strong here, and to meet with so many ensigns of the "Man of Sin" on our first arrival, did not make France the more agreeable to us. In an elegant recess of the Cathedral, which is rebuilding in a splendid style, stands a statue of the Madonna ana ber Child, with the inscription, "Mater patrona singularit;" the Son of God thrown into the shade, and the Virgin declared to be their " special Patroness." On the wall and on the roof is delineated the supposed miraculous cross seen in the air at Poictiers in 1827. In order to raise the sum required for rebuilding this cathedral, the expedient was adopted of levying an additional sou on every chair used in the churches of the town. A ship close by intimates that the Virgin Mary is patroness of seamen; and outside of the town, on a hill, stands a very large cross, with a full-length figure of the Saviour, erected by some fishermen who had narrowly escaped shipwreck. We learned that the sailors' wives often come from the town to this cross to pray for their absent husbands.

In respect to education, the children of the town are under the special care of the priests, and there is a college where 300 students receive instruction.

The English Protestants here are much divided among

• Gen. xii. 1.

4 BOULOGNE—JEWS.

themselves, and true religion does not seem to be in a healthy state; but we had not time to ascertain particulars regarding any native Protestants. In walking through the town, we began to notice the common continental fashion of hanging lamps over the middle of the street by ropes stretching from side to side. The old wall forms now a part of the fort, and the tower of the town-house is used for alarms in case of fire. There is an extensive view from the heights above the town.

It was not till evening that we were able to ascertain any facts regarding the Jews here. We had been told that two Jews had lately come from Dover, who resided near our hotel, but that they were men of the world rather than devout Israelites. In the evening, however, we were visited by a very interesting Jew, a person of education and agreeable manners, who spoke English fluently. He told us his history.—Originally possessed of a small fortune, he had exhausted it in travelling for the sake of his brethren, having gone to North America, to investigate the question whether or not the Indians there are really the descendants of the ten tribes. He had lived a year among the Winebagoes and Micmacs, learned the Cherokee and Oneida languages, conformed to their manners, often living almost naked, all in order to ascertain that question, which he did not hesitate to decide in the negative. He was now spending his time in retirement, with the view of being able to recruit his resources, so as to undertake new journeys among his brethren in other parts, and especially in Palestine. The circumstance of our being on our way to Palestine had chiefly induced him to visit us. In the course of conversation, we stated the feeling of love to Israel which had led us to go forth on this journey; and Dr. Keith, with great fervour, pictured the outcast state of Israel, and how plainly it seemed to be on account of some sin lying at their door, urging him to consider what the sin could be. In reply, the Jew spoke of God's general love and mercy; and when we in return exhibited the way of pardon and acceptance, he became much affected,—"chiefly," he said, "because we manifested such interest in him, and such kindness." He added, 'he wished there were more of the Church of Scotland's Missionaries;" and then immediately explained himself, "that it was only in one sense he could express such a wish, for he could not desire our success in converting persecuted them. He had heard of Dr. Keith's work on Prophecy,—expressed delight at meeting with the author,—and on being presented with the Doctor's last work on the Evidences, requested him to write his name upon it . When presented with a Hebrew New Testament, on which we had written that we would often pray that he might be brought to light and peace, he shewed much emotion. Once or twice, after rising to go away, he resumed his discourse. On finally taking leave, which he did with tears running down his face, he said with great emphasis, "If you wish to gain a Jew, treat him as a frrofAer." From him we learned that there were only eight families of Jews here, and that the children of one ofthese attend a Christian school.

This being the first night of our inquiries after the scattered sheep in a foreign land, we could not but feel peculiar encouragement from this interview. It seemed as if the Lord was in haste to give us a token of his presence.

(April 13.) Next day at ten o'clock we started for Paris, a distance of 140 miles, in the diligence, a cumbrous, heavy wagon, enormously loaded with passengers and luggage, and boxes of treasure—postillions cracking their whips most vigorously. Beyond the town, we found a peaceful scene, the river Leanne flowing gently through the vale. The hedges were sprouting, and gardens farther advanced than in Eng

• Jer. xxxi. 33. ges came round with bouquets of flowers, which they threw into the vehicle, chanting at the same time very sweetly in their native patois.

We next passed through Abbeville, with its fortifiea entrance. It has a fine old Cathedral, and the houses are built in an old fantastic style. Here we had our first specimen of a Table d'hote, with the music of a company of harpers to entertain us.

About two in the morning (Sabbath), the diligence arrived at Beauvais, where we were delayed for some hours. Our information had led us to expect that we should have been in Paris before Sabbath morning broke, and we felt this violation of the Holy Day very painfully. As morning advanced, we saw the people of the villages going forth to labour just as on other days—ploughmen in the fields, women at their cottagedoors, children at play. We soon found that buying and selling, and every sort of amusement, were the chief occupations of the people of France on the holy Sabbath. Many of the horses wore tinkling bells us they went out to the fields; but the prophecy is not yet fulfilled, when "there shall be upon the bells of the horses holiness unto the Lord." * In passing through St. Denys, we found that all was bustle and activity—vehicles of every kind coming along the road, and every one engaged in the pursuit of pleasure. A band of children, and a few women, chiefly old people, were on their way to church.

* Zech. xiv. 80.

TRENCH SABBATH—PARIS. 7

On reaching Paris, we refreshed ourselves, and set out for Marlxeuf Chapel, where divine service is conducted In Knglish. The streets presented an endless scene of gaiety and Show. There was scarcely a shop shut, and the people literally thronged every street, all in their best holiday dress. Our way led through the " Champs Elyatett" crowded with people of all ranks; each determined to find their Elysium in every form of pleasure, and openly defying the words of the Holy One of Israel.* Even children were there,—boys and girls skipping at tiieir games, and amusing themselves on gaudily painted swings. The well-conditioned and fashionable were parading up and down; many eating and drinking; the noblesse riding in all kinds of vehicles. It might be a scene like this that was witnessed in the days of Noah, or when Lot went out of Sodom—eating, drinking, planting, building, &c. Even now the day of Christ would ** come as a snare" upon all the earth! f VVe felt the contrast when we got within the walls of the Chapel. While worshipping there with a devout band, we seemed to have exchanged the din and confusion of Babel for the peace and stillness of the Holy Place. In the evening we heard a French sermon from Frederic Monod, in the upper chamber of the Oratoire, on Paul being sent "to open the blind eyes:" the assembly was small, but lively and fervent, and the singing of the Psalms in French was very sweet; it seemed to be with all the heart. In canonical hours the French Protestants use a short liturgy; they have also a short extempore prayer. Out of a population in Paris of 800,000, only 2000 attend regularly any Protestant place of worship. Still the state of Protestantism is much improved. Not long ago scarcely one faithful sermon was heard in Paris, now fourteen are preached every Sabbath-day; and there are Protestant schools, attended by 800 children, two-thirds of whom are children of Catholic parents. None of the Protestant clergy in Paris are Neologian. The Popish party are active, bringing to the city some of their best preachers, who have increased the attendance at their churches, but made scarcely any impression on the infidel part of the population. No city seems more to resemble Sodom.J: Even in our way from the church, we saw some of the horrors of a Parisian Sabbath evening; gambling and other scenes of profligacy being plainly visible from the street .

In. Iviii. 13. t Luke xvii . 26, 30. t Rev. xi. 8.

8 JEWS IN PARIS.

(April 15.) This morning (Monday), Mr. Evans from Edinburgh, and other excellent friends to whom we were introduced, assisted us in our inquiries and forwarded all our arrangements. In regard to the Jews, we found that they are not numerous, and are mostly infidels. They have a synagogue, and it is here that Rabbi Cahen has published his translation of the Old Testament, a work so imbued with Neology, that many even of his own congregation are disgusted with it. Frederic Monod said, that there had been efforts made for the conversion of the Jews, but with no success. He knew of no instance of real conversion among them in Paris. They are scattered through the mass of the population, and thus are lost to the Christian eye—and hence, in some degree, we may account for the comparatively little interest taken in this people by Christians here. The eye of the Christian in Paris rests on the masses of infidelity, and when he sees these, "he is moved with compassion," and can look no farther. Paris is by many supposed to be " the street of the great city," referred to in the Book of Revelation* Its daily scenes of open iniquity, as well as the tremendous crimes of the past, well known throughout the world, may entitle it to this awful pre-eminence. We were struck with the luxury and thoughtlessness of this great city. In its commonest hotels are seen indications of plenty; and the piled up rolls of white bread often reminded us of that feature of Sodom, "fulness of bread and abundance of idleness was in her;" "therefore, they were haughty, and committed abomination before me." f

We saw some splendid buildings. The Church of the Magdalene—The Palaces—The Pillar in the Place Vendome, and many others. We had time to walk round the city and see some of its magnificence. But even had this been Babylon with its hanging gardens and walls of brass, we would rather have found out Israel by the river-side, hanging their harps on the willows, than gazed on the trophies of Atheism and the abodes of guilt.

(April 10.) On Tuesday afternoon we set out for Chalons sur-Saone. While riding up the banks of the Seine and across the Marne, the country was very pleasant. Beautiful villages seem to be characteristic of French scenery. One or two handsome chateaux appear, with gilded railings according to French taste. Such country

• Rev, xi. 8 . t Erek. xvi. 49, 50.

cot into free conversation. As we were distributing tracts from the windows to the people that passed by, one of them offered to join us in our employment, and both seemed happy at being presented with tracts for themselves. Indeed, one of them took a good supply with him to distribute in Lyons, where he resides.

About sunset we reached Chatillon-sur-Seme. Walkin^ onward beyond the town, while the postillions were changing horses, we found it a quiet peaceful spot,—the scenery resembling the banks of the Jed a little above Jedburgh In this district, and indeed along all our journey we observed how carefully in France a church has been attached to every small village. Popery has here allowed none to escape its grasp, nor grudged to brin" its ordinances to the door of the poorest villagers.

\Ve reached Dijon about half-past six in the morning, and made up for the uncomfortable rest of the diligence by a few hours' sleep at the Hotel de la Galtre. The town is marked out by a remarkably slender, tapering spire shooting up from the cathedral. About midday we called upon the Protestant clergyman, M. AlfonseProntin, a young man labouring patiently for the truth. He has the charge of the Protestant population, who amount to 200 souls, but they are very lifeless. He told us (and we found his information verified by an intelligent member of his congregation), that there are about 400 Jews here. None of the French Protestants in the town

Ps. iv. 7. for whom he asked a tract. This old man was his father, and the father and son were Jews! The father looked at our Hebrew Bible, and read some verses aloud. We gave him the life of Dr. Capadose and a New Testament in French—both of which he took with as much joy as his little boy, shaking hands with us more than once at the window of the diligence. At the same time, another man came forward and asked one of our Hebrew tracts: he proved to be a Jew going to Lyons, but sceptical in his views, like most of the Jews in France. With him we had some conversation at various periods of our journey, and gave him the Life of Capadose on leaving his company.

At the Table (Thole, the young Roman Catholic had mentioned his conversations with us, and recommended the tracts which we were giving away. The consequence was, that before the vehicle had started a person came running down from the inn, to get some for the use of the company.

At length, fairly seated, we found a Roman Catholic priest in our company. With him we conversed sometimes in French, sometimes in Latin, on various topics, chiefly, however, on the subject of peace with God. He received from us, and read the tract "La bonne Nouvelle." At sunset, taking out his prayer-book, he requested to be left to himself for a little, and having completed his evening devotions, conversed with ua for nearly two hours longer, occasionally with some warmth.

reminded us of Isaiah's expression,* "My beloved hath a vineyard on a horn the son of oil;" i. e. a little hill projecting like a horn, with its soil rich and fertile. Tournou is a picturesque little town, on the right bank of the river, having a cathedral with two fantastic spires. We afterwards learned, that the Spirit has lately been quickening a few souls there. Maqon, half-way down the Saone, is a large town with a handsome bridge over the river. It was after leaving this town, that we first saw the snowy ridge of the Lower Alps, and part of the Jura range, in the direction of Geneva. We next sailed past Trevoux, romantically situated; its old walls and battlements hanging over the river, and the church perched upon a rock. The banks are beautifully lined with white stone. It was once the resort of a famous literary society.

About five o'clock, the boat reached Lyons. The approach is very picturesque, and becomes at last magnificent. The river seems to run along a passage cut through high solid rocks into the heart of the town. On one of the high rising grounds that meet the eye in sailing up, stood the Roman amphitheatre where Blandina was put to death. Some remains of it still exist, and the house of Pothinus is pointed out in the city.

We took up our abode in the Hotel de P Europe, and were soon visited by M. Cordes, the devoted Protestant

• In. v. 1.

J2 LYONS—JEWS—SAIL TO AVIGNON.

minister, who invited us to spend the day with him. M. Cordes, in going through the town, pointed out the market-place, where the five Swiss young men were burned at the time of the Reformation; and showed us Peter Waldo's street, which is still called " Maudite," i. e. accursed. Some streets of lofty houses reminded us of the venerable piles of building in the old town of Edinburgh.

There are 200,000 souls here, and the trade is very great. There are 6000 Protestants, and several Protestant clergy; but none evangelical or orthodox except M. Cordes. M. Adolphe Monod, now professor at Montauban, was once pastor here, but was expelled from communion by the Neologian pastors. M. Cordes succeeded, and has now a church of his own. He has 400 hearers, very lively Christians; and there have been many conversions under his ministry. God remembers his ancient witnesses in Lyons. "This Mount Zion wherein thou hast dwell"* is not an unmeaning or unavailing plea, whether offered for the land of Israel, or for other places once visited by the Spirit. There are about 400 French Protestant clergy in the kingdom, but of these scarcely half are orthodox. Of late, faithful pastors have been on the increase, and Evangelical Protestant congregations have been formed at Chalons, Ma<jon, and Trevoux, the places we passed to-day. The Jews have a synagogue here. Mr. Wilson, a Christian friend of M. Cordes, told us that he went round with M. Oster, and found fifty Jewish families, most of whom were sceptical in their opinions. He knew of only one convert, a young man, who had gone to Montlimart to follow a trade. There are, however, some Jewish children at the Protestant school, eight at the week-day and three at the infant school. If they had means, the number might be increased.

Next morning (Saturday, April 20) we sailed down the rapid Rhone for Avignon, a distance of about 100 miles. Again the Lower Alps appeared on our left—beautiful in the light of the morning sun—some of them snow-clad at the summit. The scenery on the river is exceedingly beautiful, and continues full of interest, until the frequency of similar views makes the eye weary. There is more majesty in the scenery of this river than on the Saone. Hills and rocks enclose it. The vineyards on its banks are very frequent, raised on terraces, like the steps of an

* Pa lxxiv. 2,

Montlimart, a town resembling Abernethy on the Tay. We were continually sailing under bridges, of which there are seventeen across this river. One of these, called Pont Saint l'Esprit, is a very splendid one, and has eighteen arches, each large arch including in it a smaller one, that the water may flow through unimpeded. It spans the river at a very broad point. We often met long trains of horses or mules, perhaps sixty in a train, dragging a chain of boats laden with merchandise up the river; and once or twice an immense hay-stack was conveyed up the stream in this manner.

It was five o'clock when we reached the celebrated Avignon, an ancient palace of the Popes of France. Indeed, it seems a town of ruined palaces and towers. Every thing combined to make us feel the exquisite beauty of its situation. The evening was calm, the air soft, the sky clear; the trees, in which the town is embosomed, wore their most refreshing verdure; the clock sounded from the tower amidst the stillness, reminding us of the vesper-bell. The Alps in the distant background, and the splendid river, completed the scene.

But our object was not to linger over scenery, or enjoy historical memorials. We needed to be self-denied. Accordingly, we sailed on to Beucaire, and there during night exchanged our vessel, and moved onward to the mouth of the'Rhone. In the vessel, we found that the bell had a cross on it with this inscription, " Sit nomen Dei benedictum," (Blessed be the name of God). It was one of the baptized bells of Popery. We soon reached Aries, an old town, full of antiquities, though none are of much importance. After that point, the to cast anchor close by an island at tne mouth ot the Rhone—a small, flat island, very barren and sandy This done, we all landed, waiting till the wind should change. We found no cultivation on the island. About twenty asses were feeding on rushes. The inhabitants consisted of twelve or sixteen families of fishermen; their huts were formed of rushes, each hut surmounted by a cross on the roof, as a protection from storms and other accidents. A few of the huts had vines (though not luxuriant) growing at the door, and forming arbours. There was also one fig-tree on the island, a proof of the mildness of the climate. The language used by the people is neither French nor Italian, but a mixture of both. They have no church nor school nearer than Aries or Marseilles. Only a very few could read French and understand it; however, as these few might be readers to the rest, we were anxious to leave tracts among them. The Engineer made his appearance, offering to go to every house with them. One tract. "Iicligion de VArgent" (the Money-Religion)—a satirical exposure of Popery—was got hold of by a French captain, who read it aloud to a crowd of by-standers. The Engineer, not content with his day's work, asked us to send him more from home, and he would distribute them at various times in the course of his voyages. "What would it be to England (said he) to send a man to preach the truth in every village of FranceV Some of us went apart among the grass and rushes for prayer and reading the .Scriptures. We did this in the forenoon, and again at evening, with the Rhone at our feot, in the soft air, with a clear sky above, and perfect stillness around. That night we had no other couch than the floor of the cabin. 40 boys—both of very recent origin. This information was given to us by one of the pastors, M. Monod. We found time to call on the Rabbi, a smart Frenchman. Though a Jew, his opinions are those of the Neologians. He denies the fall of man, believes that the curse on the ground was a blessing, and that a new heart means the improvement of the mind. He rejects the Talmud, and though he does not avow his rejection of the Bible, yet denies the restoration of Israel to their own land; and disbelieves the promise of a Messiah, on the ground that the good of the universe, and not of one nation, is what we are to look for. Most of the young Jews here are quite given up to the world, and cherish infidel views. The Rabbi was willing to take tracts—was proud to shew his synagogue—and said that there were about 1000 Jews in the town. We got more information in the evening; but there is very little to interest a friend of Israel here.

We had by this time ascertained that a steamer had sailed for Malta the day before, and that we must wait ten days for another. We resolved, therefore, to spend the time in visiting as much of Italy as we could. A boat was about to sail for Leghorn called the " Sully," in which we embarked, enjoying a most beautiful day, and smooth sea. The vessel coasted the shore, which is bold and precipitous. We had a near view of Toulon, the bay of the French navy, and the place where Napoleon first pointed the cannon. Its harbour is shut in by hills, and strongly fortified.

The Isle of Hierea next came in sight, whose salubriare dotted with villas, and this continued to be the aspect of the coast till we reached Genoa. Italy is indeed a beautiful region, but "gross darkness covers its people." The engineer of our vessel, a pious Presbyterian of the Synod of Ulster, agreed to circulate tracts on board, if we would send a supply; and proposed to give them to the other engineers along this coast, all of whom are Englishmen and Protestants.

We entered the splendid bay of Genoa about midday. The finest view of Genoa is from the sea. The eye is almost dazzled in wandering round the bay, by the irregular tiers of marble palaces, fantastic towers, and spires, the remnants of ancient days. The whiteness of the marble and the bright colouring of many of the houses, have a very striking appearance. Steep sloping hills enclose it from behind, and it is walled and fortified on every side; the cannon pointing down upon the town. Entering the harbours, the galley-slaves loaded with chains attracted our attention. They work in a floating machine, like the tread-mill, used for bringing up the mud of the harbour. They are sentenced by fiction of law, not for life, but for 120 years.

On landing we were examined by the police. Our names and the place where we meant to lodge in the city were demanded, betraying a jealousy which made us feel that we were no longer in a free country. We took up our residence at the Hotel Croix de. St. Malte.

The streets of Genoa are very narrow, and delightfully cool. Originally carriages could not go along them, but now some of them are made a little broader. Most of the houses have pilasters and entrances of white marble. waist and pendent crucifix, the bare head, and cowl, marking them all.

It was new to us to see oranges growing in the open air, often in flower-pots set upon the terrace or balcony, and everywhere in the gardens. In the evening we enjoyed a walk in the promenade, adorned with snady trees, marble seats, and a fine jet (Teau, while hoarse croaking frogs reminded us of Virgil's " ranae raucae." We ascended a fortified place, and looked down upon the town. We observed the olive, the vine, and the lemon, in the gardens, and the dark shady cypress in the church-yards. The evening bells were ringing, and every tower seemed to send forth a sound. Returning, we saw the fine effect of moonlight on marble buildings, giving them a soft and pleasing tinge. At the corner of every street a lamp was lighted up before a picture of Madonna, and an offering of fresh flowers laid before it. We also met the fashionables issuing forth to the spectdclc or theatre, a page lighting their steps with a bright silk lantern, all as intent on pleasure, as if the day of Babylon's doom was afar off. "They glorify themselves, and live deliciously; they say in their heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow."*

(April 25.) We began our inquiries yesterday, but received fuller information this day. We called upon the Swiss Protestant minister, who received us kindly. Genoa

• R*T. xviii. 7.

(8 JEWS IN GENOA.

contains from 90,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. Of these, only 25 are British residents, and 150 Swiss, and these have one place of worship between them. He told us that they are allowed to worship only by the sufferance of Government: they are strictly watched, and no Italian would be allowed to join their communion, even though convinced of the truth. He appeared to be sadly disheartened. Happy day when Evangelists shall be permitted to stand and proclaim the truth in the streets of Genoa! We waited upon the English Consul, who introduced us to Signor Becchi, the vice-consul, a Roman Catholic, but a very mild, candid, amiable man. He and a young English gentleman, a merchant from Ancona, gave us information regarding the Jews. They have a synagogue here, but there are only about 250 residents. The reason of there being so few, is said to be, that "one Genoese has cunning enough to cheat two Jews." So they say of Lucca, that "one Luccese can overreach three Jews."

The Jews here are not strict in their religious observances, but often do business on their Sabbath, and several of them have become Roman Catholics. Only three or four months ago, a family of seven were baptized with great pomp, simply for the sake of worldly gain. There was also recently a Jewish child baptized in the Protestant church; but the reason was, that the mother was a Protestant, and had made that agreement at her marriage. There are not more than four or five Jewish families of wealth and respectability in the town.

Signor Becchi introduced us to a Jew from Gibraltar, named Moses Parienti, an elderly man, of an amiable disposition, and one who was well acquainted with his nation. His beard was undressed, which he begged us to excuse, as he was then in mourning for the recent death of his wife. He told us, that in Genoa there are few learned Jews, and most of them are poor. He reckoned about fifty families; but many move from place to place. They are not now, he said, admitted to the casinos (clubs), although formerly they were; at which exclusion many of the citizens expressed regret. He knows that, in Italy, Roman Catholics are willing to receive Jewish children and baptize them, if the nurses do (what is sometimes done) carry them off, and take them to a priest; and, according to his statement, throughout all Tuscany, the Jews enjoy perfect freedom. He represented Leghorn as the chief place in Italy for them, and perry in iana. At verona, rama, raaua, rarma, ana Venice, a good number are found. At Florence and Modena, there are a few; and at Pisa also; but the families there are chiefly from Leghorn. At Ferrara, Becchi reckoned about 4000 souls. At Turin there are 50 Spanish, and 1500 German Jews; the latter of whom have a fine synagogue, and use a different liturgy from the Spanish. At Nice there are 400 or 500, and many of them from England. Nine months ago, an order was issued by government to put them in ghetto; but thePrussian Consul there being a Jew refused to go, and his remonstrances had the effect of leaving the matter undetermined. At Lucca none are allowed to settle, but many reside for a short time. Every three months they must get from the Duke a new permission to remain. Through all Piedmont they enjoy considerable liberty; and hence Jews are found at Trieste, Cassagli, Asli, Alessandria, Acqui, and Cuneo. At Rome, there are 5000 or 6000 who live in ghetto; and though much oppressed, yet still remain, because they make money. At Gibraltar there used to be 6000 families, but these are now reduced to 2000. At Corfu there are many. A few at Athens. The Portuguese consul-general there, Signor Pacifico, was a Jew from Lisbon.

Signor Becchi spoke of the contributions made by the Jews for the Holy Land. They keep boxes in the synagogues, over which it is written, "For Jerusalem," or, "For Saphet," &c.; and at a certain time, a commissioner is appointed to see wh.^t these contain, and to send the contents to the Holy Land. The Jews of Italy write pure Hebrew, and not Italian in Hebrew characters. He said they write really tnpn pwS (lashon hakkodesh), "the holy tongue."

20 LEGHORN.

The English gentleman from Ancona gave us much information regarding the Jews of that city. He thought that there were about 4000 there, or nearly one-fifth of the whole population, which is 24,000. They are scrupulous about engaging in business on their Sabbath, and as fair in their dealings as any in the town. At Lent and Good Friday, they are shut up in their houses; and their quarter of the town is called ghetto, as at Rome. There are other oppressions to which they are subjected; yet still they continue in the town, because they make money, the native population being stupid and indolent. They are not allowed to visit casinos, nor to buy land; but many of them have villas. Mr. Lewis Way spent six or eight months there, and often visited their synagogues. Most of the young men are deists, and devoted to the world. It is said that occasionally Roman Catholics get hold of their children and baptize them, and then they must be brought up as Christians.

We afterwards mounted up a steep path to the north of Genoa, and came upon a fine view of the Ligurian Hills. A lovely valley watered by a rivulet lay beneath, • the hills on all sides terraced for vines. Villages were scattered here and there, and six churches were in sight. At six in the evening, we bade farewell to Genoa. It is a lovely town, but the shadow of death rests upon it. Popery reigns undisturbed, holding all in chains.

(April 26.) Early this morning, we cast anchor in the harbour of Leghorn. The morning was misty and rainy, unlike the sky of Italy, and the town appeared flat ana cheerless. Sailing up a canal into the heart of the town, we soon after found ourselves comfortably settled in the San Marco Albergo, a hotel kept by a Scotsman, Mr. D. Thomson, well known to us for the kindness which he showed to our countryman, Rev. Mr. Martin, minister of St. George's, Edinburgh, during his last illness. He and Mrs. Thomson received us most cordially, and we found their house a home indeed. Hearing that Leghorn was a free port, we thought that it might be free to receive the gospel; and accordingly, without reserve, gave tracts to each of the eight men who carried up our luggage, and to some bystanders. Scarcely, however, had an hour elapsed, when an officer appeared at the inn, making inquiry if we were the persons who had been distributing books. Our box of books and tracts, and our bag of Hebrew books, were immediately sealed up i> a free port 7" On its being explained: "Is there any difficulty, then, in landing 100 Bibles V This was among the last things he said. His desire was complied with. Another interesting case occurred here, of a young man named Kennedy from Glasgow, travelling for his health, and who had been visiting Rome. He was thoughtless in the extreme; but his gay companion, on leaving him said, that now he had better turn to his Bible. This remark led him to the Scriptures. When he arrived at Leghorn, he seemed to undergo a complete change of heart, and died here full of peace and joy.

We had an opportunity the following day of visiting the English Cemetery. It is filled with many beautiful monuments of the purest marble, and is kept like a garden, profusely planted with the rose, the cypress, andthe weeping willow. We visited the graves of Smollett and Horner, at a little distance from which, a palm-tree guides to the spot where the remains of Mr. Martin are laid. There is a plain marble monument over the grave, with an inscription written by Dr. Chalmers. The tomb of J. Wentworth Murray, who died at Florence in 1821, has this simple inscription, full of meaning to surviving friends, "For a small moment have I forsaken thee, but with great mercies will I gather thee."

Leghorn is a flourishing commercial port, visited annually by 300 ships from Britain alone, but the state of religion is very low. There is a handful of Swiss and German Protestants; but not a single instance has oc

22 LEGHORN—P0PER7.

curred of a native Italian openly renouncing Popery One reason for this may be found in the law of the country, which strictly forbids apostasy from the Romish faith. And another reason, no less powerful, is to be found in the licentiousness of Protestants in Italy. The English in that country are generally gay and dissolute, regardless of all religion. One of the most profligate Italian towns is Florence, and the English residents take the lead in dissipation. Hence it has become an almost universal impression, that Protestantism is the way to infidelity.

It is to be feared, that a great number of the young Romish priests are infidels at heart, and many are great gamblers. On the other hand, some appear to be conscientious men, and exemplary in their lives, and several private persons of their community seem to be really Christians. The sincere priests preach most vehemently against prevailing vices. We were told of one who a few days before, preaching against breaking the Sabbath, spoke in this way: " Some of you will say, I have a dispensation from the Bishop or from the Pope; but I say this is the word of God, and the Bishop or the Pope is nothing to the word of God." We heard of another priest who began with the sins of the government, and then spoke of the sins of the priesthood in a most severe manner. He said, " Ye should be the light of the world, and what are ye but darkness? Ye should be the salt of the earth, and what are ye but salt without savour, ruining your own souls and the souls of others?"

The priesthood in Italy are in a great measure losing their hold upon the people, and confession is greatly neglected. We were told of a priest a fortnight before, who preached to the people, that it was lawful for a wife in certain circumstances to steal from her husband; if he was a spendthrift and neglected her, she should take what she needed. On being afterwards asked by a Protestant gentleman how he could preach such doctrines to the people, and if it would not be better that the wife should tell her case to the church ?" The church!" said the priest; "they care as much for the church as you do."

We heard of another priest preaching in this manner: "Confession is so neglected among you, that you are a mockery to the Jews. A Jew the other day missed some money: he knew that none but a Catholic had been near him, so he went and charged him with it. The man denied having touched the money. 'Well,' said the Jew, square to excess. The Pope appeared, and all fell on their knees. His holiness then stood over the kneeling multitude and pronounced his benediction. It was one of those scenes which irresistibly led the spectator to the prophetic words regarding the Man of Sin, "He, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God." *

We spent the Jewish Sabbath in making acquaintance with some intelligent Jews, of whose information we hoped to avail ourselves in the beginning of the week. On our own Sabbath (April 28) we attended service at the English Chaplaincy. In the evening, Dr. Black preached in the hotel, in the large room, next that in which Mr. Martin died, to a numerous audience, chiefly of our own countrymen. All the day long, the town was full of bustle and gaiety. The ringing of bells, and the music of the military, dissipated the Sabbath stillness. Popery has abolished the fourth commandment, as effectually as it has done the second. Instead of teaching " Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it holy," they teach by precept and by example. "Remember to keep holy the festivals."f

• 2 Thess. ii. 4.

t In the Italian Catechism, composed by order of Clement Vlir. entitled " Doltrina Christiana breve,' republished at Rome 1838, which we bought at Civita Venchia. these words are given instead of tha fourth commandment, " Ricordati di samificare le Feste."

any interest in the service. Close by the ark stood two Orientals, dressed in eastern costume, venerable men, with long grey beards, lately come from Jerusalem. Many came to them to kiss their hand, and get it laid upon their head. Others also gave this benediction.

Near the two Easterns, stood another Jew of some eminence from Saloniki. Jews from Greece, Barbary, Turkey, Syria, and Arabia, are often here, as we learned from an English Jew whom we met in the synagogue. At the door, for the first time we observed the box for alms, having the word np-w (tsedaka), "alms," over it, and another with this inscription aSvi ^mib" n*. that is— •* For the land of Israel, let it (the temple) be built and erected speedily in our days."

The whole population of Leghorn in 1835, including the suburbs, was 7(5,397, and the Jews at that time in all Tuscany were reckoned at 6486. Now (1839), in Leghorn alone there are 9000 or 10,000 Jews, some of them among the most wealthy men in the land. They have much influence over the government, and most of them are very liberal in their religious opinions.

. From the printed statistics of the Tuscan States, we gathered the following facts. "The Papal States having discouraged the Jews, they have flocked into Tuscany. The Duke of Tuscany granted land to the Jews at Sienna, where he occasionally preaches.

On the forenoon of Monday (April 29), we visited an Eastern Rabbi, named Bolaffi, whose acquaintance we had made on Saturday. He was seated on a sofa in the Eastern fashion. His dress was that of the East—his appearance imposing, and his action and elocution were very striking. We found him frank, intelligent, and learned. He liked better, however, to speak on general subjects than on religion; but at length did enter into some religious discussion. We spoke of the nature of Messiah. Bolaffi said, "He is to be a king, and a prophet, but not a priest." We quoted Psalm ex. He denied that to be spoken of Messiah; and thought that David was meant. We maintained his divine nature, and among other passages quoted Isaiah ix. 6. He admitted that the rendering " Mighty God" was justified by the Hebrew, but evaded the application, by bidding us notice that the Prophet says only, he shall be " named' so. He argued that the Protestants ought to return to the observance of the seventh day as their Sabbath, because the change was an act of the Romish Church. We came back to more vital questions, and referred to Psalm li., "Purge me with hyssop." He got away from this by turning his remarks to nn (ruach), " Spirit," arguing that the word applied even to beasts. As to the way of par

* Amos ix. 1&

26 LEGHORN—JEWISH LIBRARY AND SCHOOL.

don, he maintained that repentance was all that was needed, quoting 2d Samuel, where David said, " 1 have sinned," and Nathan answered, "The Lord hath put away thy sin." * He had read the New Testament, and his knowledge of it enabled him to object that Christ was not Prince of peace, because he himself says, " I am not come to send peace, but a sword." He contended that the Sabbath should be so kept that a fire ought not to be lighted on that day even in Siberia. At parting, he said, " Christians shut us out of Paradise, but we think that all who do good works may enter, whether they be Catholics, Mahometans, or Protestants." Each of us in turn had joined in the conversation; but Dr. Black was the chief speaker, being able to use the Italian language very fluently.

We left him and went to see the Jews' Library. Several volumes lay open on the table, and many Jews were in the room. Those present vied with each other in showing us Hebrew works upon geography, mathematics, and the sciences. They brought out a Hebrew copy of Euclid, and a Hebrew translation of Philo, and said that they had Josephus also translated into Hebrew. When we had taken a sufficient survey of their books, they led us to their School—a large, commodious building. The classes are arranged after the Lancasterian plan, and there is a regular gradation from those learning the letters and the sound of the vowel-points, to those who translate Hebrew into Italian. There are masters to teach drawing, music, history, geography, and writing. English and French are given in the upper classes. Each teacher has a large black board, and the alphabet, syllables, vowel-points, and short sentences are taught from large sheets hung up on the wall, exactly as in our own schools. We found 180 Jewish boys and 80 girls attending the school, all educated free of expense. The advanced boys and girls translated Italian into Hebrew, and vice versa, in our presence with great fluency. The young men in the Talmudical class read and translated the 1st chapter of Isaiah with Aben Ezra's Commentary, f

Next day we paid Rabbi Bolaffi a second visit. He was afThble and polite as before. Six or eight Jews were present in the room. One of us happening to sneeze, he immediately exclaimed, " Santa !" and another Jew" Fe

* 2 Sam. xii. 13. t See Appendix, No. I.

6"M* Mmti. ifc m.iii l0 xi^^ ni ma will, uwici Wl2*c lle UUUlU

not be judged for sin; and asserted, as before, that repentance is the method of procuring pardon, referring to God's promise, that as soon as the seed of Israel repent He will bring them home. Another of his objections to the New Testament was, that " First-born" and " Son," to which terms much importance is there attached, are no more than names of affection among the Jews. He understood Zechariah's words, " The man that is my fellow," in the same sense; and Micah v. 2, as proving no more than that Messiah was to be of David's line. We said, " He has come of that line." "No; even the New Testament does not say that Christ's genealogy can be traced to David; it only gives Joseph's line." "The genealogies were fully known in Christ's time, and publicly appealed to by the Evangelists. Are there any in existence now?" "Yes; there are some who know their genealogy." "Are there any of the line of David now known 7" He replied with a look of dignity, "Fo sono"—" I am one." Thus ended our interview with this interesting man. He is a fine example of the Jewish Rabbi; a subtle sophist in argument,—deeply read in the literature of the Hebrews, yet so ignorant of general knowledge, that he soberly estimated his nation now scattered through the earth at thirty millions. Alter leaving him we sent for his acceptance several tracts, such as "The City of Refuge," and "The Life of Onppadoso," along with the Italian edition of Dr. Keith's work on Prophecy.

In the evening we returned to the library to meet a polite, active, young Rabbi, Abraham Piperno. He showed us a copy of Elias Levita, dated 1541, and Zemach David. He brought out a Hebrew copy of of music, waited upon us, bringing with him a servant, who carried for his master a heavy MS. It turned out to be a work written by himself against Voltaire and Volney. We soon began to see that he had some selfish object in view, and that he was more anxious to sell his MS. than to buy the truth as it is in Jesus.

Next morning we visited a rich merchant, named Abodram, from Spain, with whom and his family, Mr. Neat, once Jewish missionary here, had been on friendly terms. He had heard of our discussion with the Rabbi, which had indeed made a stir throughout the Jewish quarter. He received us politely, and accepted a Spanish copy of Dr. Keith's work, but did not seem to care much about the object of our journey.

We then proceeded to the Jewish burying-ground, cnnno (beth hahaim), "house of the living," as we found written over the gate. It is large and extensive, and requires to be so, for it is considered unlawful to lay two dead bodies in the same grave. It is a bare, level enclosure; no cypresses wave over the tombs ; a few goats were skipping through the grass. The Jews are compelled by law to bury their dead either in the morning, or at night by torch-light . The older part of the burying-ground, lying toward the west, is full of tombstones, bearing Spanish inscriptions, for the Jews of Leghorn came originally from Spain. With some natural pride, they point out not a few of these monuments having a coronet graved upon them, which they believe to be the tombs of those among their brethren who were Spanish nobles. Upon some of the tombs are carved hands spread out to bless—marking the grave

JEWISH BURYING-GROUND. 549

of a priest; upon others a hand pouring water out of a cup—marking the grave of a Levite. At the head of almost every gravestone are these expressive letters, roup, that is, "Let his soul be bound up in the bundle of life." Some of the monuments are truncated pillars, which are intended to point out the grave of a young man cut off in his vigour. One Italian inscription runs thus:

UN VBRO SAGGIO

DELLA GIOVE.NTU DELLA POVERTA

FORTE SOSTEGNO

ISACCO FRANCHETTI

QUI RIPOSA.

O GENTI, PIaNGETE LO, IMITATE LO.

MORE DI A. I.XX. IL DE XXX APRILE

DI 1832.

i. e. one truly wise, the firm stay £of poverty, lies here. Lament him —imitate him, &c.

On the other side, the Hebrew begins thus: " This is the peaceful rest of Signore Isaac Franchetti," &c.

On another grave at the east end of the buryingground, are these simple words in Hebrew: "Funeral Pillar. The pleasant girl of Signora Reigna Andricas, a child of 12 years of age, died," &c.

Another epitaph, probably over a rabbi, runs thus:

man -ww nDDn Sp Wj

iop Pus min 'Sp mi

-|f n -WK "iik ?Sp mi

"Lament over wisdom, which is perished; Lament over the law, which is a clod of dust; Lament over light, which is darkened," &c.

In our way home, an opportunity occurred of calling upon a Rabbi from Barbary, who had a large collection of Hebrew books. Most of them were commentaries of obscure Jews, and not in good condition. His wife wore the high, sugar-loaf cap peculiar to the Barbary Jewesses. The Jew who accompanied us showed us a

30 LEGHORN—JEWISH POLITY.

Hebrew MS., which he says is prohibited by tne Rabbis, containing the theory that, when Christ comes again he will be a Messiah. We had some reason to suspect that this was an imposture, and did not purchase it .

The Chancellor Uzzielli very kindly called upon us, and gave us information regarding the civil affairs of the Jews. Of such importance are the Jews here, that their feasts are marked in the Almanac, and if a bill falls due on any of these days, they are not required to pay on that day. They are governed as a community or corporation by forty men, called " Elders." These Elders manage any assessment laid on the nation by government, gathering it from their brethren in equable proportions. They also manage cases of divorce, which are not frequent. Napoleon allowed polygamy among them, but it is a thing unknown in their community. The office of elder is hereditary in certain families ; and when a vacancy occurs, they select two individuals, and present their names to the Grand Duke, who chooses one of the two thus nominated.

The Jews of Leghorn send about £800 to Palestine every year. This sum is gathered in the boxes at the synagogue doors, and sent to the four holy cities, Jerusalem, Hebron, Saphet, and Tiberias, sometimes by individuals going to Palestine, but more frequently through their mercantile correspondents at Constantinople, where there is an agency appointed to manage such sums sent from any part of the world. The Jews in Leghorn believe in the restoration of their nation to the Holy Land; but, added the Chancellor, it is "piu credenza, che desiderio," "more a belief of the head, than a desire of the heart."

A Jew who had been our guide, Jacob Mossias, in

Erospect of our departure, asked us to give him a Herew New Testament, which we did, along with some tracts. We bought several books from him; among others, Abarbinel on the Passover, containing a Jew ish map of Palestine, and some singular Jewish woodcuts.

"Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live."*

We had now taken our passage for Malta, and were preparing to sail next day, when all were summoned to appear

• Ezek. xxxvii. 9.

Israel. The return of the Jews and the fall of Popery are two events that seem intimately connected in prophecy. It was therefore well ordered that, in seeking the lost sheep of the house of Israel, we should meet with treatment at the hand of their oppressors, fitted to awaken in us the cry, "How long, O Lord."*

On calmly reviewing all that we had seen of Israel in France and Italy, and considering what might be done to carry the gospel to them, we came to the following conclusions.

In France, the state of the Jews seems to call for the labours of an evangelist or itinerant Missionary, for the Jews are not gathered together in great numbers in any one town, but distributed among many. Such a Missionary would not require a great knowledge of the Talmud and of Jewish learning as in other countries, but rather a mind capable of grappling with the sophisms of infidelity; above all, the power of simply and affectionately urging the gospel upon them. Having the command of the French and Hebrew languages, he might be an eminent blessing to the Jews scattered over the towns of France.

With regard to Italy, there can be little doubt that Leghorn affords the most promising station. The Jews are

* Ps. lxxxix. 46; Rev. vi 10.

domestic circle of Israel, in that land of the shadow of death.

In the afternoon of Friday (May 3), we embarked in the Lycurge for Malta, our kind friends accompanying us to the boat. Upon the deck of the vessel we met with individuals from many various nations. Besides French, English, and Italians, there were an American traveller, a German, and a young Greek, known by his horizontal moustache and the fantastic dress of his native mountains, full of spirit, and proud of his liberated country. In addition to these, we had the newly appointed Bishop of Tripoli, of the Graeco-Romish church in Syria, a mild-looking man, with very fine long hair, beard and moustache, marked features, and a pleasing expression, dressed in a brown mantle over a red gown, with a purple sash, gold chain, and cross. Two younger priests and a servant accompanied him, all of the same pleasing appearance. We had also several soldiers on board, a Romish priest, several monks, and three veiled nuns from Spain, all on their way to Rome.

We sailed over a calm unruffled sea, and passing the small island of Gorgonna, coasted the more celebrated Elba. A white cloud was leaning on its heights as we passed. Had Napoleon never been there, that island might often have been seen with no more notice than an inquiry, What is its name? Now, however, every eye

CIV1TA VECCHIA—POPERV. 33

gazes on it with interest as the vessel passes by. Formerly it was known for its mines, of which Virgil sings—

•. Ilva

Insula incxhaustis Chalybum generosa metallia :"*

('• The rugged Ilva, Rich in her endless beds of steely ore.")

A devout superstitious Roman Catholic, come from Holland on a pilgrimage to Rome, entered into discussion with us. His pronunciation of Latin nearly agreed with ours, so that we were able to converse freely till night separated us. We spoke also with one of the monks from a Spanish monastery, and found him a most bigoted, ignorant devotee. The party from Syria spoke Arabic and a very little Italian, so that our intercourse was limited though interesting. The bishop accepted from us a very small Italian New Testament, raising his eyebrows in astonishment that the whole could be comprised in so small a compass. But when we told him that in our country we were Bishops, his wonder almost amounted to incredulity, as he eyed us from head to foot, observing the youthful countenances of some of us, and our simple attire. The young Greek spoke freely with us in Italian. He is employed as a guide to lead travellers through the scenes of ancient history in his native country. Full of vivacity, his tongue seemed never to rest, but was either singing the songs or describing the romantic scenes of Greece till night came down. Then he spread out his mat on the deck, and after going through his evening devotions, wrapped himself up in his rough, shaggy capote, and resigned himself to repose.

When next morning dawned, we found ourselves not far from Citrita Vecchia, where we anchored for two hours. We landed and rambled through the town. The country round appeared to be very desolate and mostly uncultivated. The town itself is wretched in the extreme, and the streets are gloomy and dull; the only objects to attract the eye being the carts in the market drawn by oxen, and the cross surmounting every dwelling.

Entering a bookseller's shop, we purchased several Popish Catechisms and Tracts, believing that we would here find a specimen of Popery undisguised. We were not deceived in our expectation. In one of the cate

•iEn. x. 173

84 VOYAGE TO MALTA—OOZO.

chisms, the second commandment is altogether excluded, while prayers to saints and directions as to the worship of the Virgin, are given at full length. We next wandered into an open church, and after examining the usual crucifixes, paintings, altar-pieces, and confessionals, found our way into a curious side-room, or rather vault, a mortuary adorned with human skulls. In the niches round stood skeletons, some of which held a cross in their bony hands, others a scythe and hour-glass. Mottoes such as these were affixed, " Aspice in me et miserere meiBreves dies hominis sunt" (Behold and pity me—Few are the days of man.) These are meant to excite spectators to pray for the dead. Another skeleton had this motto, " Expecto donee venerit immutatio mea" (I wait till my change come.) Another referred to purgatory, " Non exibis inde donee reddas novissimum quadrantem" (Thou shalt not come out hence until thou pay the utmost farthing.) One in particular drew our attention. The skeleton fingers held a bag open for any visitor to drop in money, and over it was written, " Elemosina por i poveri morti di campagna" (Alms for the poor dead of the country.)

This town is the " Centum Cellee" mentioned by Pliny,* and was in his day a port of Etruria.

Re-embarking, we soon lost sight of the Italian shore. Next day was the Sabbath, a silent Sabbath, far from the assemblies of God's worshippers.

(May 6.) No land appeared till Monday morning, when we obtained a distant view of Sicily. Mount Eryx might be one of the heights we saw. At all events, we were now viewing hills of which we used to read in our earlier days,

"Milie mete Siculis errant in montibua actios ;"t
(My thousand lambs roam the Sicilian hills;)

and were traversing the very sea of which Horace sang in all the pride of a Roman citizen, when he looked on its dashing waves^

"Nee dirum Hannibalem, nee Siculum mare,
Poeno purpureum sanguine." t
(Nor dreaded Hannibal, nor the Sicilian Sea
Dyed red with Punic blood.)

By sunset the same evening we came in sight of Gozo, rocky and steep, and as we looked round upon the blue

* Epist. vi. 31. t Virg. Eclog. 2, 21. I Od. ii. 12, 2.

ISLAND OP MALTA—VALETTA. 35

waters, without a bound but the horizon, remembered Paul, having no doubt that this is the part of the sea at the mouth of the Adriatic on which he was tossed.

About ten in the evening, we drew near Malta, and soon sailed far up into the splendid harbour of Valetta, formed by one of the creeks in which the island abounds. We cast anchor in the smooth deep water, near some of the ships of war stationed here. The lights twinkling on the heights showed the direction of the town, while the solemn bells tolled the hours of night. A small boat came alongside, and a voice hailed us in English. It was some individual who held office in the place. He inquired if we were all "en pratique" i. e. free from plague,—if we had brought any news,—and if there were any individuals of rank on board.

Sitting on deck, and feeling joy and gratitude at being thus far Drought on our way, we remembered that this island once sent up its hymn of thanksgiving, when Paul, and Luke, and Aristarchus stood on its shore and praised their Deliverer. Perhaps they sang Psalm cvii. 23—30. Whether or not the spot pointed out on the other side of the island be the real place of Paul's shipwreck, it is difficult to say; but certainly many spots, and the harbour of Valetta among the rest, correspond to the brief description given, Acts XXVii. 39, "ri>m» ii ma Kartnxm Ixfivra

«iy.oXo»" (a certain creek with a shore).

Early on the Tuesday morning (May 7), we disembarked amid tumult and confusion that baffles description, arising from the greedy anxiety of porters and miserable-looking beggars, all striving to the utmost to obtain a pittance by seizing on the luggage of strangers. Valetta is certainly a singularly-built town. Several of the streets are little else than so many flights of steps, steep and slippery; yet up these the mule can climb with ease, a feat that no horse in our country could accomplish. The heat was very great, so that we were quite oppressed by walking under a burning sun. Strangers from every country under heaven seem to meet here;—the Greek gracefully attired, and the turbaned Turk;—the dismal priest, and the monk with shaven crown;—English sailors next, and then an English officer;—the Maltese peasant with ornamented vest, and girdle round the waist; and then the Maltese lady wearing the onella (perhaps a remnant of the eastern veil), a black silk

The state of morals is fearfully corrupt all over the island. The natives are proverbially deceitful and avaricious. They possess lively passions, and are tenacious in their love and in their hatred. Popery is their curse; churches and priests abound; and our government has hitherto done too much to countenance the Man of Sin in Malta. Queen Adelaide's Protestant church had not yet risen above its foundation.

In Malta there are very few Jews, and those few move from place to place: not many have wealth, and most of them are wretchedly poor. There is one convert employed in the printing establishment of the Church of England Society's Mission.

We called on Mr. Schlienz, of the Church of England Missionary Society, from whom we received useful information; and at the quarantine station we conversed with the Rev. Mr. Freemantle, a minister of the Church of England, who, with his wife, had just returned from Palestine. They had travelled by way of Cairo to Mount Sinai, and

SAIL FOR ALEXANDRA. 37

thence to Jerusalem. He told us that we would find far fewer Jews in the Holy Land than is generally reported; and all of them poor and wretched. He stated that the fearful corruptions of the professedly Christian churches in those countries are the most effectual stumblingblocks to the Jew, and that the exhibition of a pure and holy faith would probably be one of the chief advantages of building an English Protestant Church upon Mount Zion.

Riding out in the evening to St. Julian, a village some few miles distant from Valetta, to visit Dr. Clarke, who once laboured among the Jews, we had an opportunity of seeing a little of the scenery of the island and the manners of its people. The conducteur of our vehicle, instead of riding, ran all the way by the side of the mule, urging it on by his voice, and setting an example by his own indefatigable speed. No road could be more irregular, and it is impossible that it should be otherwise, for the shore is indented every few miles with inlets of the sea, round which you must wind your way. Often it became steep and narrow; and often it was made of solid rock. We noticed the beautiful appearance of the western sky at sunset for which the island is remarkable. The rocks and buildings appeared to be tinged with a yellowish pearly lustre, which added a singular beauty to every object in the scene.

We required to be ready to sail early next morning in the French steamer "Eurotas" for Alexandria; and though the tardiness and greediness of porters and boatmen very nearly disappointed us of our passage, we at length succeeded in getting off. It was a bright and beautiful morning when we sailed from the quarantine harbour. Occasionally the reflection of the sun's rays from the smooth surface of a bending wave was like the gleam from a mirror; and the playful glance of the beams on this splendid sea, brought to our mind the expression,

"m,vr(uv rt mpamv

(The countless playful smiles
Of ocean's waves,)

which jEschylus* used in regard to those very waters as they laved the shores of Greece. A few small white clouds appeared in the horizon, but not a speck in the sky above us. Malta was out of sight in a few hours,

• Prom. Vinct . 89.