Lecture XVIII

17. Patience is another attribute of benevolence.

This term is frequently used to express a phenomenon of the sensibility. When thus used, it designates a calm and unruffled state of the sensibility or feelings under circumstances that tend to excite anger or impatience of feeling. The calmness of the sensibility, or patience as a phenomenon of the sensibility, is purely an involuntary state of mind, and although it is a pleasing and amiable manifestation, yet it is not properly virtue. It may be, and often is an effect of patience as a phenomenon of the will, and therefore an effect of virtue. But it is not itself virtue. This amiable temper may, and often does proceed from the constitutional temperament, and from circumstances and habits.

Patience as a virtue must be a voluntary state of mind. It must be an attribute of love or benevolence; for all virtue, as we have seen and as the bible teaches, is resolvable into love or benevolence. The term, upomone so often rendered patience in the New Testament, means perseverance under trials, continuance, bearing up under afflictions or privations, steadfastness of purpose in despite of obstacles. The word may be used in a good or in a bad sense. Thus a selfish man may patiently, that is, perseveringly pursue his end, and may bear up under much opposition to his course.

This is patience as an attribute of selfishness, and patience in a bad sense of the term. Patience in the good sense, or in the sense in which I am considering it, is an attribute of benevolence. It is constancy of intention, a fixedness, a bearing up under trials, afflictions, crosses, persecutions or discouragements. This must be an attribute of benevolence. Whenever patience ceases, when it holds out no longer, when discouragement prevails and the will reliquishes its end, benevolence ceases of course.

Patience as a phenomenon of the will, tends to patience as a phenomenon of the sensibility. That is, fixedness and steadfastness of intention naturally tends to keep down and allay impatience of temper. As however the states of the sensibility are not directly under the control of the will, there may be irritable or impatient feelings when the heart remains steadfast. Facts or falsehoods may be suggested to the mind that may in despite of the will produce a ruffling of the sensibility even when the heart remains patient. The only way in which a temptation, (for it is only a temptation while the will abides firm to its purpose,) I say the only way in which a temptation of this kind can be disposed of, is by diverting the attention from that view of the subject that creates the disturbance in the sensibility. I should have said before, that although the will controls the feelings by a law of necessity, yet, as it does not do so directly but indirectly, it may and does often happen that feelings corresponding to the state of the will do not always exist in the sensibility. Nay, for a time, a state of the sensibility may exist which is the opposite of the state of the will. From this source arise many and indeed most of our temptations. We could never be properly tried or tempted at all if the feelings must always by a law of necessity correspond with the state of the will. Sin consists in willing to gratify our feelings or constitutional impulses in opposition to the law of our reason. But if these desires and impulses could never exist in opposition to the law of the reason, and consequently in opposition to a present holy choice then a holy being could not be tempted. He could have no motive or occasion to sin. If our mother Eve could have had no feelings of desire in opposition to the state of her will, she never could have desired the forbidden fruit, and of course could not have sinned. I wish now, then, to state distinctly what I should have said before, that the state or choice of the will does not necessarily so control the feelings, desires or emotions, but that these are sometimes strongly excited by Satan or by circumstances in opposition to the will, and thus become powerful temptations to seek their gratification instead of seeking the highest good of being. Feelings the gratification of which would be opposed to every attribute of benevolence, may at times co-exist with benevolence, and be a temptation to selfishness; but opposing acts of will can not co-exist with benevolence. All that can be truly said is, that as the will has an indirect control of the feelings, desires, appetites, passions, &c., it can suppress any class of feelings when they arise by diverting the attention from their causes, or by taking into consideration such views and facts as will calm or change the state of the sensibility. Irritable feelings, or what is commonly called impatience, may be directly caused by ill health, irritable nerves, and by many things over which the will has no control. But this is not impatience in the sense of sin. If these feelings are not suffered to influence the will; if the will abides in patience; if such feelings are not cherished and are not suffered to shake the integrity of the will; they are not sin. That is, there can be no sin in themselves. They are only temptations. If they are allowed to control the will, to break forth in words and actions, then there is sin; but the sin does not/consist in the feelings, but in the consent of the will, in the will's consent to gratify them. Thus, the apostle says "Be angry and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath." That is, if anger arise in the feelings and sensibility, do not sin by suffering it to control your will. Do not cherish the feeling, and let the sun go down upon it. For this cherishing it is sin. When it is cherished, the will consents and broods over the cause of it; this is sin. But if it be not cherished, it is not sin.

That the outward actions will correspond with the states and actions of the will, provided the integrity of the nerves of voluntary motion be preserved, and provided also that no opposing force of greater power than that of my volitions be opposed to them, is a universal truth. But that feelings and desires can not exist contrary to the states or decisions of my will is not true. If this were a universal truth, temptation, as I have said, could not exist. The outward actions will be as the will is always; the feelings generally. Feelings corresponding to the choice of the will, will be the rule, and opposing feelings the exception. But these exceptions may and do exist in perfectly holy beings. They existed in Eve before she consented to sin, and had she resisted them, she had not sinned. They doubtless existed in Christ or he could not have been tempted in all points like as we are. If there be no desires or impulses of the sensibility contrary to the state of the will, there is not properly any temptation. The desire or impulse must appear on the field of consciousness before it is a motive to action, and of course before it is a temptation to self-indulgence. Just as certainly then as a holy being may be tempted and not sin, just so certain it is that emotions of any kind or of any strength may exist in the sensibility without sin. If they are not indulged, if the will does not consent to them and to their indulgence or gratification, the soul is not the less but all the more virtuous for their presence. Patience as a phenomenon of the will must strengthen and gird itself under such circumstances, so that patience of will may be, and if it exist at all, must be, in exact proportion to the im

patience of the sensibility. The more impatience of sensibility there is, the more patience of will there must be, or virtue will cease altogether. So that it is not always true that virtue is the strongest when the sensibility is the most calm, placid and

Eatient. When Christ passed through his greatest conflicts, is virtue as a man was undoubtedly most intense. When in his agony in the garden so great was the agony of his sensibility, that he sweat as it were great drops of blood. This, he says, was the hour of the Prince of Darkness. This was his great trial. But did he sin' No, indeed. But why? Was he calm and placid as a summer's evening? As far from it as possible.

Patience then as an attribute of benevolence consists, not in placid feeling, but in perseverance under trials and states of the sensibility that tend to selfishness. This is only benevolence viewed in a certain aspect. It is benevolence under circumstances of discouragement, of trial or temptation. "This is the patience of the saints."

Before I dismiss the subject of patience as an emotion, I would observe that the steadfastness of the heart tends so strongly to secure it, that if an opposite state of the sensibility is more than of momentary duration, there is strong presumption that the heart is not steadfast in love. The first risings of it will produce an immediate effort to suppress it. If it continues, this is evidence that the attention is allowed to dwell upon the cause of it. This shows that the will is in some sense indulging it.

If it so far influence the will as to manifest itself in impatient words and actions there must be a yielding of the will. Patience as an attribute of benevolence is overcome. If the sensibility were perfectly and directly under the control of the will, the least degree of impatience would imply sin. But as it is not directly but indirectly under the control of the will, momentary impatience of feeling where it does not at all influence the will, and when it is not at all indulged, is not sure evidence of a sinful state of the will. It should always be borne in mind that neither patience nor impatience in the form of mere feeling existing for any length of time and in any degree is in itself either holy on the one hand or sinful on the other. All that can be said of these states of the sensibility is, that they indicate as a general thing the attitude of the will. When the will is for a long time steadfast in its patience, the result is great equanimity of temper and great patience of feeling. This comes to be a law of the sensibility

insomuch that very advanced saints may and doubtless do experience the most entire patience of feeling for many years together. This does not constitute their holiness, but is a sweet fruit of it. It is to be regarded rather in the light of a reward of holiness than of holiness itself.

18. Another attribute of this benevolence is Meekness.

Meekness considered as a virtue is a phenomenon of the will. This term also expresses a state of the sensibility. When used to designate a phenomenon of the sensibility it is nearly synonymous with patience. It designates a sweet and forbearing temper under provocation. As a phenomenon of the will and as an attribute of benevolence, it represents a state of will which is the opposite of resistance to injury or retaliation. It is properly and strictly forbearance under injurious treatment. This certainly is an attribute of God, as ourexistence and our being out of hell plainly demonstrate. Christ said of himself that he was "meek and lowly in heart;" and surely this was no vain boast. How admirably and how incessantly did this attribute of his love manifest itself! The fifty-third chapter of Isaiah is a prophecy exhibiting this attribute in a most affecting light . Indeed scarcely any feature of the character of God and of Christ is more strikingly exhibited than this. This must be an attribute of benevolence. Benevolence is good will to all beings. We are naturally forbearing toward those whose good we honestly and diligently seek. If our hearts are set upon doing them good we shall naturally exercise great forbearance toward them. God has greatly commended his forbearance to us in that while we were yet His enemies, He forbore to punish us, and gave His son to die for us. Forbearance is a sweet and amiable attribute. How affectingly it displayed itself in the hall of Pilate, and on the cross. "As a lamb for the slaughter and as a sheep before its shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth."

This attribute has in this world abundant opportunity to develop and display itself in the person of the saints. There are daily occasions for the exercise of this form of virtue. Indeed all the attributes of benevolence are called into frequent exercise in this school of discipline. This is indeed a noble world in which to train God's children, to develop and strengthen every modification of holiness. This attribute must always appear where benevolence exists, wherever there is an occasion for its exercise.

It is delightful to contemplate the perfection and glory of

that love that constitutes obedience to the law of God. As occasions arise, we behold it developing one attribute after another, and there may be many of its attributes and modifications of which we have as yet no idea whatever. Circumstances will call them into exercise. It is probable, if not certain, that the attributes of benevolence were very imperfectly known in heaven previous to the existence of sin in the universe, and that but for sin many of these attributes would never have been manifested in exercise. But the existence of sin, great as the evil is, has afforded an opportunity for benevolence to manifest its beautiful phases and to develope its sweet attributes in a most enchanting manner. Thus the Divine economy of benevolence brings good out of so great an evil.

A hasty and unforbearing spirit is always demonstrative evidence of a want of benevolence or true religion. Meekness is and must be a peculiar characteristic of the saints in this world where there is so much provocation. Christ frequently and strongly enforced the obligation to forbearance. "But I say unto you that ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man will sue thee at the law and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain." How beautiful! 19. Long-suffering is another attribute of benevolence. This attribute is hardly distinguishable from meekness or forbearance. It seems to be an intense form of forbearance; or it is forbearance exercised long and under great suffering from persecution and unreasonable opposition. God's forbearance is lengthened out to long suffering. Christ's forbearance also, was and is often put to the severest trial, and is lengthend out to most affecting long-suffering. This is an intense state or form of benevolence, when it is most sorely tried, and as it were put upon the rack. The Prophets, and Christ, and the Apostles, the martyrs and primitive saints, and many in different ages of the church have given forth a glorious specimen and illustration of this sweet attribute of love. But for the existence of sin, however, it is probable and perhaps certain that no being but God could have had an idea of its existence. The 9ame no doubt may be said of many of the attributes of Divine love. God has no doubt intended to strongly exhibit this attribute in himself and in all his saints and angels. The introduction of sin, excuselcss and abominable, has given occasion for a most thorough development and a most affecting manifestation of this attribute of love. It is a sweet, a heavenly attribute. It is the most opposite to the spirit and maxims of this world. It is the very contrast of the law and the spirit of honor as it appears in this world. The law of honor says, If you receive an injury or an insult, resent it and retaliate. This gentle spirit says, If you receive many insults and injuries, do not resent them nor retaliate, but bear and forbear even, to long suffering.

20. Humility, is another modification or attribute of love.

This term seems often to be used to express a sense of unworthiness, of guilt, of ignorance, and of nothingness, to express a feeling of ill-desert. It seems to be used in common parlance to express sometimes a state of the intelligence, when it seems to indicate a clear perception of our guilt. When used to designate a state of the sensibility, it represents those feelings of shame and unworthiness, of ignorance and of nothingness of which those are so conscious who have been enlightened by the Holy Spirit in respect to their true character.

But as a phenomenon of the will, and as an attribute of love, it consists in a willingness to be known and appreciated according to our real character. Humility as a phenomenon either of the sensibility or of the intelligence may co-exist with great pride of heart. Pride is a disposition to exalt self, to get above others, to hide our defects and to pass for more than we are. Deep conviction of sin and deep feelings of shame, of ignorance, and of desert of hell, may co-exist with a great unwillingness to confess and be known just as we are, and to be appreciated just according to what our real character has been and is. There is no virtue in such humility. But humility, considered as a virtue, consists in the consent of the will to be known, to confess, and to take our proper place in the scale of being. It is that peculiarity of love that wills the good of being so disinterestedly as to will to pass for no other than we really are. This is an honest, a sweet and amiable feature of love. It must, perhaps, be peculiar to those who have sinned. It is only love acting under or in a certain relation or set of circumstances. It would under the same circumstances develop and manifest itself in all truly benevolent minds. This attribute will render confession of sin to God and man natural, and even make it a luxury. It is easy to see that but for this attribute the saints could not be happy in heaven. God has promised to bring into judgment every work and every secret thing whether it be good or whether it

be evil. Now while pride exists, it would greatly pain the soul to have all the character known. So that unless this attribute really belongs to the saints, they would be ashamed at the judgment and filled with confusion even in heaven itself. But this sweet attribute will secure them against that shame and confusion of face that would otherwise render heaven itself a hell to them. They will be perfectly willing and happy to be known and estimated according to their characters. This attribute will secure in all the saints on earth that confession of faults one to another which is so often enjoined in the bible. By this it is not intended that Christians always think it wise and necessary to make confession of all their secret sins to man. But it is intended that they will confess to those whom they have injured and to all to whom benevolence demands that they should confess. This attribute secures its possessor against spiritual pride, against ambition to get above others. It is a modest and unassuming state of mind.