Israel's Rejection of Christ

1 I speak the truth in Christ-I am not lying; my conscience is testifying to me with the Holy Spirita-

References for Romans 9:1

    • a 9:1 - Or testifying with me by the Holy Spirit
      2 that I have intense sorrow and continual anguish in my heart.
      3 For I could wish that I myself were cursed and cut offb from the Messiah for the benefit of my brothers, my countrymen by physical descent.c

      References for Romans 9:3

        • b 9:3 - Lit were anathema
        • c 9:3 - Lit countrymen according to the flesh
          4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the temple service, and the promises.
          5 The forefathers are theirs, and from them, by physical descent,d came the Messiah, who is God over all, blessed forever.e Amen.

          References for Romans 9:5

            • d 9:5 - Lit them, according to the flesh
            • e 9:5 - Or the Messiah, the One who is over all, the God who is blessed forever, or Messiah. God, who is over all, be blessed forever

              God's Gracious Election of Israel

              6 But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.

              References for Romans 9:6

                  7 Neither are they all children because they are Abraham's descendants.f On the contrary, in Isaac your seed will be called. g

                  References for Romans 9:7

                    • f 9:7 - Lit seed
                    • g 9:7 - Gn 21:12
                      8 That is, it is not the children by physical descenth who are God's children, but the children of the promise are considered seed.

                      References for Romans 9:8

                        • h 9:8 - Lit children of the flesh
                          9 For this is the statement of the promise: At this time I will come, and Sarah will have a son. i

                          References for Romans 9:9

                            • i 9:9 - Gn 18:10,14
                              10 And not only that, but also when Rebekah became pregnantj by Isaac our forefather

                              References for Romans 9:10

                                • j 9:10 - Or Rebekah conceived by the one act of sexual intercourse
                                  11 (for though they had not been born yet or done anything good or bad, so that God's purpose according to election might stand,
                                  12 not from works but from the One who calls) she was told: The older will serve the younger. k

                                  References for Romans 9:12

                                      13 As it is written: Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated. l

                                      References for Romans 9:13

                                        • l 9:13 - Mal 1:2-3

                                          God's Selection Is Just

                                          14 What should we say then? Is there injustice with God? Absolutely not!

                                          References for Romans 9:14

                                              15 For He tells Moses: I will show mercy to whom I show mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion. m

                                              References for Romans 9:15

                                                  16 So then it does not depend on human will or effort,n but on God who shows mercy.

                                                  References for Romans 9:16

                                                    • n 9:16 - Lit on the one willing, or on the one running
                                                      17 For the Scripture tells Pharaoh: For this reason I raised you up: so that I may display My power in you, and that My name may be proclaimed in all the earth. o

                                                      References for Romans 9:17

                                                          18 So then, He shows mercy to whom He wills, and He hardens whom He wills.
                                                          19 You will say to me, therefore, "Why then does He still find fault? For who can resist His will?"
                                                          20 But who are you-anyonep who talks back to God? Will what is formed say to the one who formed it, "Why did you make me like this?"

                                                          References for Romans 9:20

                                                            • p 9:20 - Lit you, O man
                                                              21 Or has the potter no right over His clay,q to make from the same lump one piece of pottery for honor and another for dishonor?

                                                              References for Romans 9:21

                                                                • q 9:21 - Isaiah 64:8; Jr 18:6
                                                                  22 And what if God, desiring to display His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience objects of wrath ready for destruction?
                                                                  23 And [what if] He did this to make known the riches of His glory on objects of mercy that He prepared beforehand for glory-
                                                                  24 on us whom He also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?
                                                                  25 As He also says in Hosea: I will call "Not-My-People," "My-People," and she who is "Unloved," "Beloved." r

                                                                  References for Romans 9:25

                                                                      26 And it will be in the place where they were told, you are not My people, there they will be called sons of the living God. s

                                                                      References for Romans 9:26

                                                                          27 But Isaiah cries out concerning Israel: Though the number of Israel's sons is like the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved;
                                                                          28 for the Lord will execute His sentence completely and decisively on the earth. t u

                                                                          References for Romans 9:28

                                                                            • t 9:28 - Or land
                                                                            • u 9:28 - Isaiah 10:22-23; 28:22; Hs 1:10
                                                                              29 And just as Isaiah predicted: If the Lord of Hosts v had not left us a seed, we would have become like Sodom, and we would have been made like Gomorrah. w

                                                                              References for Romans 9:29

                                                                                • v 9:29 - Gk Sabaoth; this word is a transliteration of the Hb word for Hosts, or Armies.
                                                                                • w 9:29 - Isaiah 1:9

                                                                                  Israel's Present State

                                                                                  30 What should we say then? Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained righteousness-namely the righteousness that comes from faith.

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                                                                                      31 But Israel, pursuing the law for righteousness, has not achieved the law.x

                                                                                      References for Romans 9:31

                                                                                        • x 9:31 - Other mss read the law for righteousness
                                                                                          32 Why is that? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were by works.y They stumbled over the stumbling stone.

                                                                                          References for Romans 9:32

                                                                                            • y 9:32 - Other mss add of the law
                                                                                              33 As it is written: Look! I am putting a stone in Zion to stumble over, and a rock to trip over, yet the one who believes on Him will not be put to shame. z

                                                                                              References for Romans 9:33

                                                                                                • z 9:33 - Isaiah 8:14; 28:16