Compare Translations for Deuteronomy 21:1

Deuteronomy 21:1 ASV
If one be found slain in the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath smitten him;
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Deuteronomy 21:1 BBE
If, in the land which the Lord your God is giving you, you come across the dead body of a man in the open country, and you have no idea who has put him to death:
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Deuteronomy 21:1 CEB
If a corpse is found on the ground the LORD your God is giving you to possess, lying in a field, and the identity of the killer is unknown,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 CJB
"If, in the land ADONAI your God is giving you to possess, a murder victim is found lying in the countryside; and the perpetrator of the murder is not known;
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Deuteronomy 21:1 RHE
When there shall be found in the land, which the Lord thy God will give thee, the corpse of a man slain, and it is not known who is guilty of the murder,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 ESV
"If in the land that the LORD your God is giving you to possess someone is found slain, lying in the open country, and it is not known who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 GW
his is what you must do if you find a murder victim lying in a field in the land that the LORD your God is giving you. If no one knows who committed the murder,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 GNT
"Suppose someone is found murdered in a field in the land that the Lord your God is going to give you, and you do not know who killed him.
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Deuteronomy 21:1 HNV
If one be found slain in the land which the LORD your God gives you to possess it, lying in the field, and it isn't known who has struck him;
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Deuteronomy 21:1 CSB
"If a murder victim is found lying in a field in the land the Lord your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 KJV
If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath slain him:
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Deuteronomy 21:1 LEB
"If someone slain is found in the land that Yahweh your God [is] giving to you to take possession of it [and] [is] lying in the field, [and] it is not known who {killed him},
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NAS
"If a slain person is found lying in the open country in the land which the LORD your God gives you to possess, and it is not known who has struck him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NCV
Suppose someone is found murdered, lying in a field in the land the Lord your God is giving you as your own, and no one knows who killed the person.
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NIRV
Suppose you find someone who has been killed. The body is lying in a field in the land the LORD your God is giving you to take as your own. But no one knows who the killer was.
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NIV
If a man is found slain, lying in a field in the land the LORD your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NKJV
"If anyone is found slain, lying in the field in the land which the Lord your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NLT
"Suppose someone is found murdered in a field in the land the LORD your God is giving you, and you don't know who committed the murder.
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Deuteronomy 21:1 NRS
If, in the land that the Lord your God is giving you to possess, a body is found lying in open country, and it is not known who struck the person down,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 RSV
"If in the land which the LORD your God gives you to possess, any one is found slain, lying in the open country, and it is not known who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 DBY
If one be found slain in the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee to possess, lying in the field, [and] it be not known who hath smitten him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 MSG
If a dead body is found on the ground, this ground that God, your God, has given you, lying out in the open, and no one knows who killed him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 WBT
If [one] shall be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, [and] it be not known who hath slain him:
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Deuteronomy 21:1 TMB
"If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath slain him,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 TNIV
If someone is found slain, lying in a field in the land the LORD your God is giving you to possess, and it is not known who the killer was,
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Deuteronomy 21:1 TYN
Yf one be founde slayne in the land whiche the Lorde thy God geueth the to possesse it, and lieth in the feldes, and not knowne who hath slayne him:
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Deuteronomy 21:1 WEB
If one be found slain in the land which Yahweh your God gives you to possess it, lying in the field, and it isn't known who has struck him;
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Deuteronomy 21:1 WYC
When the carrion of a man slain is found in the land which thy Lord God shall give to thee, and he that is guilty of his death is unknown, (When the corpse of a slain man is found in the land which the Lord thy God shall give to thee, and he who is guilty of his death is unknown,)
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Deuteronomy 21:1 YLT
`When one is found slain on the ground which Jehovah thy God is giving to thee to possess it -- fallen in a field -- it is not known who hath smitten him,
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Deuteronomy 21 Commentary - Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible (Concise)

Chapter 21

The expiation of uncertain murder. (1-9) Respecting a captive taken to wife. (10-14) The first-born not to be disinherited for private affection. (15-17) A stubborn son to be stoned. (18-21) Malefactors not to be left hanging all night. (22,23)

Verses 1-9 If a murderer could not be found out, great solemnity is provided for putting away the guilt from the land, as an expression of dread and detesting of that sin. The providence of God has often wonderfully brought to light these hidden works of darkness, and the sin of the guilty has often strangely found them out. The dread of murder should be deeply impressed upon every heart, and all should join in detecting and punishing those who are guilty. The elders were to profess that they had not been any way aiding or abetting the sin. The priests were to pray to God for the country and nation, that God would be merciful. We must empty that measure by our prayers, which others are filling by their sins. All would be taught by this solemnity, to use the utmost care and diligence to prevent, discover, and punish murder. We may all learn from hence to take heed of partaking in other men's sins. And we have fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, if we do not reprove them.

Verses 10-14 By this law a soldier was allowed to marry his captive, if he pleased. This might take place upon some occasions; but the law does not show any approval of it. It also intimates how binding the laws of justice and honour are in marriage; which is a sacred engagement.

Verses 15-17 This law restrains men from disinheriting their eldest sons without just cause. The principle in this case as to children, is still binding to parents; they must give children their right without partiality.

Verses 18-21 Observe how the criminal is here described. He is a stubborn and rebellious son. No child was to fare the worse for weakness of capacity, slowness, or dulness, but for wilfulness and obstinacy. Nothing draws men into all manner of wickedness, and hardens them in it more certainly and fatally, than drunkenness. When men take to drinking, they forget the law of honouring parents. His own father and mother must complain of him to the elders of the city. Children who forget their duty, must thank themselves, and not blame their parents, if they are regarded with less and less affection. He must be publicly stoned to death by the men of his city. Disobedience to a parent's authority must be very evil, when such a punishment was ordered; nor is it less provoking to God now, though it escapes punishment in this world. But when young people early become slaves to sensual appetites, the heart soon grows hard, and the conscience callous; and we can expect nothing but rebellion and destruction.

Verses 22-23 By the law of Moses, the touch of a dead body was defiling, therefore dead bodies must not be left hanging, as that would defile the land. There is one reason here which has reference to Christ; "He that is hanged is accursed of God;" that is, it is the highest degree of disgrace and reproach. Those who see a man thus hanging between heaven and earth, will conclude him abandoned of both, and unworthy of either. Moses, by the Spirit, uses this phrase of being accursed of God, when he means no more than being treated most disgracefully, that it might afterward be applied to the death of Christ, and might show that in it he underwent the curse of the law for us; which proves his love, and encourages to faith in him.

Deuteronomy 21 Commentary - Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

CHAPTER 21

Deuteronomy 21:1-9 . EXPIATION OF UNCERTAIN MURDER.

1-6. If one be found slain . . . lying in the field, and it be not known who hath slain him--The ceremonies here ordained to be observed on the discovery of a slaughtered corpse show the ideas of sanctity which the Mosaic law sought to associate with human blood, the horror which murder inspired, as well as the fears that were felt lest God should avenge it on the country at large, and the pollution which the land was supposed to contract from the effusion of innocent, unexpiated blood. According to Jewish writers, the Sanhedrin, taking charge of such a case, sent a deputation to examine the neighborhood. They reported to the nearest town to the spot where the body was found. An order was then issued by their supreme authority to the elders or magistrates of that town, to provide the heifer at the civic expense and go through the appointed ceremonial. The engagement of the public authorities in the work of expiation, the purchase of the victim heifer, the conducting it to a "rough valley" which might be at a considerable distance, and which, as the original implies, was a wady, a perennial stream, in the waters of which the polluting blood would be wiped away from the land, and a desert withal, incapable of cultivation; the washing of the hands, which was an ancient act symbolical of innocence--the whole of the ceremonial was calculated to make a deep impression on the Jewish, as well as on the Oriental, mind generally; to stimulate the activity of the magistrates in the discharge of their official duties; to lead to the discovery of the criminal, and the repression of crime.

Deuteronomy 21:10-23 . THE TREATMENT OF A CAPTIVE TAKEN TO WIFE.

10-14. When thou goest to war . . . and seest among the captives a beautiful woman . . . that thou wouldest have her to thy wife--According to the war customs of all ancient nations, a female captive became the slave of the victor, who had the sole and unchallengeable control of right to her person. Moses improved this existing usage by special regulations on the subject. He enacted that, in the event that her master was captivated by her beauty and contemplated a marriage with her, a month should be allowed to elapse, during which her perturbed feelings might be calmed, her mind reconciled to her altered condition, and she might bewail the loss of her parents, now to her the same as dead. A month was the usual period of mourning with the Jews, and the circumstances mentioned here were the signs of grief--the shaving of the head, the allowing the nails to grow uncut, the putting off her gorgeous dress in which ladies, on the eve of being captured, arrayed themselves to be the more attractive to their captors. The delay was full of humanity and kindness to the female slave, as well as a prudential measure to try the strength of her master's affections. If his love should afterwards cool and he become indifferent to her person, he was not to lord it over her, neither to sell her in the slave market, nor retain her in a subordinate condition in his house; but she was to be free to go where her inclinations led her.

15-17. If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated--In the original and all other translations, the words are rendered "have had," referring to events that have already taken place; and that the "had" has, by some mistake, been omitted in our version, seems highly probable from the other verbs being in the past tense--"hers that was hated," not "hers that is hated"; evidently intimating that she (the first wife) was dead at the time referred to. Moses, therefore, does not here legislate upon the case of a man who has two wives at the same time, but on that of a man who has married twice in succession, the second wife after the decease of the first; and there was an obvious necessity for legislation in these circumstances; for the first wife, who was hated, was dead, and the second wife, the favorite, was alive; and with the feelings of a stepmother, she would urge her husband to make her own son the heir. This case has no bearing upon polygamy, which there is no evidence that the Mosaic code legalized.

18-21. If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son--A severe law was enacted in this case. But the consent of both parents was required as a prevention of any abuse of it; for it was reasonable to suppose that they would not both agree to a criminal information against their son except from absolute necessity, arising from his inveterate and hopeless wickedness; and, in that view, the law was wise and salutary, as such a person would be a pest and nuisance to society. The punishment was that to which blasphemers were doomed [ Leviticus 24:23 ]; for parents are considered God's representatives and invested with a portion of his authority over their children.

22, 23. if a man have committed a sin . . . and thou hang him on a tree--Hanging was not a Hebrew form of execution (gibbeting is meant), but the body was not to be left to rot or be a prey to ravenous birds; it was to be buried "that day," either because the stench in a hot climate would corrupt the air, or the spectacle of an exposed corpse bring ceremonial defilement on the land.