Chapter XIII

Now when Christian and Faithful were got almost quite out of this wilderness, Faithful chanced %o cast his eye back, and espied one coming after them, and he knew him. Oh ! said Faithful to his brother, who comes yonder? Then Christian looked, and said, It is my good friend Evangelist: Ay, and my good friend too, said Faithful, for it was he that set me the way to the grite. Now was Evangelist come up unto thein, and thus saluted them :—

Evan. Peace be with you, dearly beloved: and peace be to your helpers.

Chr. Welcome, wecome, my giod Evangelist; the sight of thy countenance brings to my remembrance thy ancient kindness and unwearied labours for my eternal good.

Faith. And a thousand times welcome, said good Faithful; thy company, O sweet Evangelist, bow desirable it is to us poor pilgrims!

Evan. Then, said Evangelist, how hath it fared With yon, my friends, since the time of our last parting? What have you met with, and how have you behaved yourselves?

Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things that had happened to them in the way: and how, and with what difficulty they had arrived to that place.

Evan- Right glad am I, said Evangelist, not that you have met with trials, but that you have been victors; and for that you have, notwithstanding many weaknesses, continued in the way to this very day. .

J say, right glad am I of this thing? and that for mine own sake and yours; I hive sowed and you have reaped ; and the day is coming, when both be that sowed, and they that reaped, shall rejoice together ; that is, if you hold out; tor in due time ye shall reap if you faint not. The crown is before yon, and it is an incorruptible one; so run, that yon may obtain it. Some there be that set out for this crown, and after they have gone far for it, another comes in and takes it from them: Hold fast therefore that you have, let no man take your crown: You are not yet out of the gun-shot of the devil: you have not resisted unto blood, striving against sin: Let the kingdom be always before von, and believe steadfastly concerning things that are invisible.: Let nothing t :at is on this side; the othe'r world get within you: And above all, look well to your own hearts, and to the lusts thereof, for they are deceitful above all things, and desperately wicke I; set your faces like a flint; you have all power in heaven and earth on your side (a).

Chr. Then Christian thanked hsm for his exhortation! but told him, withal, that they wouid have him speak farther to them for their help the rest of the way; and the rather, for that they well knew that be was a prophet, and could tell them of things that might happen unto them, and how tney might resist-' and overcome them. To which request Faithful ais J consented. So Kvatmelist beuan as fjllowotn:

Kvan. My sons, you have heard in the words of the ti mli of the gospel, that you must through many tribulations enter into the kingdom of neaven. And again, That in every city, bonds and ..liLctions auide you; and therefore you cauuot expect that yon should go Ioijj on your pil^ri uage without tiiem, iri some sort or other: You have found something of the truth of taese tesimuines upon you already, and more will immediately follow; lor now, as yon soe, you are almost out of this wilut mess, and therefore you

(a) John iv. J6. Gal. vi. 9. 1 Cor. ix. 24—27. Rev Hi. u.

F *

will soon come into a town that you will by-and-by see before you: and in that town you will be hard beset with enemies, who will strain hard but they will kill you ; and be sure that one or both of you must seal the testimony which you hold, with blood; but be you faithful unto death, and the King will give you a crown of life. He that shnll die there, although his death will be unnatural, and his pains perhaps great, he will yet have the better of his fellow; not only becaus.; he will be arrived at the celestial city soonest, but because he will e»cape many miseries that the other will meet with in the rest of his journey- But when you are come to the town, and shall find fulfilled what I have here related, then remember your friend, and quit yourselves Lke men, and commit the keeping of your souls to your God in well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator.

Then I saw in my dream, that when they werej*ot out of the wilderness, they presently saw a town before them, and die name of that town is Vanity ; and at the town there is a fair kept, called Vanity-Fair: It is kept all the year long; it beareth the name of Vamty-Fair, because the town where it is kept, " is ** lighter than vanity;" and also, because all that if there solJ, or that cometh thither, is vanity. As is the saying of the wise," All that cometh is vanity (6)."

This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient standing: I will show you the original of it. Almost five thousand years agone, there were

Eilgrims walking to the ccelestial city, as these two onest persons are, and Beelzebub, Apollyon, and Legion, with their companions, perceiving by the path that the pilgrims made, tliat their way to the city lay through this town of Vanity, they contrived here to set up a fair; a fair wtierein should be sold all sorts of vanity, and that it should last all the year long; therefore, at this fair are all such merchandizes sold, as houses, lands, trades, places,

honours, preferments, titles, countries, kingdoms, Insts, pleasures; and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds, wives, hushands, children, masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious siones, and what not?

And moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be seen jugglings, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and that of every kind.

Here are to be seen too, and that for nothing, thefts, murders, adulteries, false-swearers, and that of a blood-red colour.

And as in other fairs of less moment, there are several rows and streets under their proper names, where such wares are vended ; so here, likewise, you have the proper places, rows, streets, (viz. countries and kingdoms) where the wares of this fair are soonest to be found. Here is the Britain row, the French row, the Italian row, the Spanish row, the German row, where several sorts ot vanities are to be sold. But as in other fairs, some one commodity is as the chief of all the fair, so the ware of Rome and her merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair: only our English union, with some others, have takeu a dislike thereat.

Now, as 1 said, the way to the ccelestial city lies just through the town where this In.stv fair is kept; and lie that will go to the city, and yet nut go through this town, must needs go out of the world (c). The Prince of Princes himself. when here, went through this town to his own country, and that upon a fair-day too : yea, and us I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, that invited him to bu) of bis vanities; yea would have made him lord of the fair, would he but hav\ acne htm revtitence as he went through the town: yea, nec.uise he w.s such a person of honour, Bee:'zeuub hud hiin f,om street to street, and showed liiin ulidje kingdoms of the world in a la tie time, that he ut.ght, if possab.e,

allure that blessed one, to cheapen and buy some of his vanities; but he had no mind to the merchandize, and therefore left the town, without laying out so much as one farthing upon these vanities. This fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long-standing, and a very great fair (d).

Now these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go though this fair. Well, so they did; but behold even as they entered into the fair, all the people in the fair were moved, and the town itself, as it were, in a hubbub about them; and that for several reasons : for,

First, The Pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment, as was diverse fsnm the raiment of any that traded in that fair. The people, therefore, of the fair, made a great gazing upon them; some said they were fools (e) :some they were bedlams; and some they were outlandish men.

Secondly, And as they Wondered at their apparel, so they did likewise at their speech; for few could understand what they said; they naturally spoke the language of Canaan; but they that kept, the fair, were the men of this world: so that from one end of the fair to the other, they seemed barbarians to each other.

Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchandisers was, that these pilgrims set very light by all their wares; they cared not so much as to look upon them: and if they called upon them to buy, they would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, "Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity:" and look upwards, sigmfying, that their trade and traffic was in heaven.

One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriages of the men, to say unto them, What will ye buy? But they looking gravely upon him, said, We buy

(d) Matt. iv. 8. Luke iv. 5,6. (e) 1 Cor. iv. 10.

the truth (/). At that, there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more; some mocking, some taiintinir, some speaking reproachfully, and some calling upon others to smite them. At last things c.ime to a hubbub, and great stir in the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was word presently brought to the great one of the fair, who quickly came down and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take those men into an examination, about whdm the fair was almost overturned. So the men were brought to examination; and they that sat upon them, asked them, Whence they eame, whither they went, and what they did there in such an unusual garb? The men told them, That they were pilgrims, and strangers in the world, and that they were going to their own country, which was the heavenly Jerusalem (g); and that they had given no occasion to the men of the town, nor yet to the nierchandizers, thus to-abuse them, and to stop them in their journey ; except it was for that, when one asked them what mey would buy, they said, tney would buv the trnth. But thev that were appointed to examine them, did not believe them to be any other than bedlams and mad, or else such as came to put all things into a contusion in the fa:r. Therefore they took theiu and beat them, and besmeared them wifi dirt, and then put them into the cage, that they might be made a spectacle to all men of the fair, 'lime, therefore, thev lay for some time, and were made the objects ot any man's spct, or mahce, or reve-ige; the great one of the far laughing still at all tliir b' fel tuem, but, the Hk Ii being patient, and not rendering railrn'r tor ratline, but contrariwise blessing, and giving good words for had, and kindness for injuries done; some men in the fair that were more observing, and less prejudiced tha i the rest, be^au to check and nlame f'e haser sort tortue continual abuses by them to lue

{f) Pjov, ii. 23. ig) lleb xi »."—16.

men : they therefore in angry manner let fty at them again, counting them as bad as the men in the cage, and telling them that they seemed confederates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes. The others replied, that tor aught they could gee, the men were quiet and sober, and intended nobody any harm : and here were many that traded in their fair, that were more worthy to be put into the cage, yea, and pillory too, than were the men that they had abused. Thus, after divers words had passed on both sides, (the men behaving themselves all the while very wisely and soberly before them) they fell to some blows among themselves, and did h»rm one to another. Then were these two poor men brought before their examiners again, and there charged as being guiltv of the late hubbub that had been in the fair. So they beat them pitifully, and hanged iions upon them, and led them in chains up and down the fair, for an example and terror to others, lest any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto them. But Christian aild Faithful behaved themselves yet mote wisely, and received the ignominy and shame that was cast upon them, with so much meekness and patience, that it woo to their side (though but few in comparison of the rest) several of the men in the fair. This put the other party yet mto a greater rage, insomuch that they concluded the ueath of these two men. Wherefore they threatened, that neither cage nor irons should serve their turn, but that they should die for the abuse they had done, and tor ueludmg the men of the fair.

Tlien were'they remanded to tiiecage again, until further orders should be takeu witti them. So they put them in, and made their leet fist in the stocks.

Here therefore they called again to mind what they ha^t beard from their lait':ful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed in t eir ways and sufferings, by what he told them w6ukt uappen to tuen». They also now comforted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even he should have the best on it; therefore each , man secretly wished that he might have that preferment, but committing themselves to the alt-wise disposal of Him that ruleth all things, with much content they abode in the condition in which they were until they should be otiierwise disposed of.

Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth to their trial, in order to their condemnation. Wtian the time was come, they were brought before their enemies, aud arraigned. The judge's name was Lord Hate-good! Their in-, dictment was one and the same in substance, though somewhat varying in form; the contents whereof was this:

"That thev were enemies to, and disturbers of "their trade: That they had made 'commotions and "divisions in the town, and had won a paity to their "own most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the "law of their prince."

Then Faithful began to answer, That he had only set himself against that which had set iiseif against Him that is urghei than the highest. And, said he, as for disturhance, I make none, being myself a man of peace ; the parties that were won to us, were won by beholding our truth and innocence, and they are only tinned ironi the worse to the better. And as to the king you talk of, since lie is lieelzeh ib, the enemy of our Lord, 1 defy turn and his angels.

Then proclamation was made, That they that had , aught to say for tneir lord the king againsi me prisoner at the bar, shoulj forthwith appear, and give in their evidence. So tncrecame in three witnesses^ to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Picktnauk; They were then askeJ, if they kuew the prisoner at too har; and what they had to say for their lord the kiug against him.

Then stood forth Envy, and said to this efTVct: My lord, I have known this nun a lon*r time, and will attest upon my oath betore this honourable bench, That he is—

Judge. Hold—Give him his oath.

So tbev sware him: Then he said, my lord, this man, no! withstanding his plausible name, is one iif the vilest men in our country; he neither regardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can to possess all men with certain of his disloyal notions, which he in the general calls principles 'of faith and holiness. And, in particular, I heaid him once mvself affirm, that Christiamty and the customs of our town, of Vanity, were diametrically opposite, and could not be reconciled. By which saying, my lord, he doth at once, not only condemn all our laudable doings, but us in the doing of them.

Judge. Then did the Judge say to him, Hast thou anv more to sav?

Envy. My lord, I could say much more, only I would not be tedious to the court. Yet, if need be, when the other gentlemen have given in their evidence, rather than any tning shall be wanting that wilidispatch iiim, I wi I enlarge my testimony against him. So lie was bid to stand,by.

Then they called Superstition, and hid him look upon the prisoner: they also asked, what he could say for thtir lord the king against him? Tnen they sware him ; so lie beuan:

Super. My lord, I have no great acquaintance wiui this man, nor do I desire to htive further knowledge of him; however, this I know, That he is a very pendent fellow, from some discourse that the other day [ had witu him, in this town j for then talking with him, l heard him Siy, that our religion was naught, and such, hv whicn a m.hicoillj by no means please God. — Which saying of his, my lord, your lordship very well knows ivlrai necessarily thence will follow, to wit, that we still do worship in rain, are yet in our sins, ami finally shall be damned : and this is that which I luve to say.

Then was Pickthauk sworn, and bid to sxy what he knew in the behalf of their lord the king, against the prisoner at the har.

Pick. My lord, and you gentlemen all; this fellow I have known of along time, and have heard him speak things that ought not to be spoken; for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub, and hath spoken contemptibly of Ais honourable friends, whose names are, the Lord Old Man, ihe Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious, the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir Having Greedy, with all the rest of our nobility: and he hath said moreover, That if all men were of his mind, if possible, there is not one of these noblemen should have any longer a being in this town. Besides, he hath not been afraid to rail on you, my lord, who are now appointed to be his judge, calling you an ungodly villain, with many other suchlike vilifying terms, with which he hath bespattered most of ttie gentry of our town.

"When this Pickthank had told his talr, the judge directed his speech to the prisoner at t ie bar, sayRe, Thou renegade, heretic, and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee i

Faith. May I speak a few words in my own defence?

Judge. Sirrah, sirrah, thou deservest to live no longer, but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that all men may see our gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou hast to say.

Faith.—1. 1 say then, in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken, I never-said ought but this, Tnat what rule or laws, or custom, or people, were against the word of God, are diametrically opposite to Christianity. If I have said amiss in this, convmce me of mk error, and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.

2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge against me, I said only tnis, That in the worship ot God there is required a dirine faith but there can be no divine faith without.a divine revelation of the will of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into the worship oi God, that is not agreeable to d.vine revelation, cannot iie done but by an human faith, which faith will not be profitable to eternal life.

3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, Isay(avoiding terms, as that I am said to rail, and*the like) that the prince of this town, with all their rabblement his attendants, bv this gentieman named, are more lit for bemg in hell than in this town and country; and so the Lord have mercy upon me.

Then the judge called to the jury, (who all this while stood by to hear and observe,) Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man about whom so great an uproar hath been-made m this town: you have also heaid what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against him; also \ou have heard his reply and conlessiou: it lietli now in your breasts to hang him or ^.ive his life ; but yet I think meet to instruct J on into out law.

Tht-ie was an act made in the day.-, of Pharifoh the Great, servant to our Prince, that least those - of a contrary religion should multiply, and grow too strong tt.r him, their males .should be thrown into the ny-e'r. I'.heie was also an a£t made iii the iia) s of Nehuchathuzzar the Great, another of his servants, that whoever would not fall qown and. worship his goldeu image, should be tin own into a fitr* furnace. There was also an act made in the days of Darius, that whoso for some time called any God but him, should be cast into the lion's den. Now the substance of these laws this,rebel hath broken, not only in thought (which is not to be borne), but also in word and deed ; which must therefore needs be intolerable (h).

For that of Ph.iraoh, his laws were made upon a supposition to prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime apparent. For the second and third, you see he disputcth against our religion; and tor the treason he hath confessed, he deservedi to die the de^nh.

Then the jury went out", whose names were Mfi Bliudman, Mr. Nogood, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. L.veloose, Mr. Heady, Mr. Hieih-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in their private verdict against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the iudj-e. And first amon'r themselves, Mr. jDliudman the foreman said, I see clearly-that this man is an heretic. Then said Mr. Nogood, Away with such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I hale the very looks of him. Then, said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I, said Mr. Liveloose, for he wonld always be condemning my ways. 1 Hang him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said Mr. High-mind. My heart riseth against him, said Mr Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. Liar. Hanging is too good tor him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let us dispatch him out of the way, said Mr. Hate-hgnt. Then said Mr. Implacable, Migtit I have all the world given me, I could not be reconciled to him ;therefore let us forthwith bring him in guilty of death. And so they did; therefore ke was presently condemned to be had from the

(h) Exod, i. Dan. iii. Dan. vL.

place where he was-, to the place from whence he came, there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented.

They therefore brought him out, to do with him according to their law ; and first they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they lanced his flesti with knives, alter that they stoned him with stones, then pricked him with their swords, and last of all they burnt him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his end.

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and a couple ot horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had dispatched him) was taken up into it, and jstraighlway was carried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the coelestial gate. But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to prison; so he there remained for a space: but he that over-rules all things, having the power of their rage in his own hand, so brought it about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and weut bis way. And as he went he sang, saying:

Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully profest
Unto thy Lord, with whom thou shall be blest;
When faithless ones with all their vain delights,
Are cr,\ ing out under their hellish plights:
Sing, Faithful, sing, and let th\ name survive,
For though th: y kill'd thee, thou art yet alive.

Explanatory Notqs.

We need not go far to see Vanity Fair. It is all around us, wherever we live: it is, " this present evil -world." I lie scriptures declare, in the most solemn manner, that "all is vanity." Tins every real christian believes, and acts according!} : he is in the world, but is not of it; even as Jesus 'was not of it: he is " crucified to the world" by the cross of Christ, and the " world it crucified" to him.

Our pilgrims had the unexpected pleasure of meeting with their dear friend Evangelist again; for whose former labours, and renewed inquiries and exhortations, they discovered becoming gratitude; and by whose cautions and encouragements they were prepared for a new scene of trials. Those 'who truly profit by the ministers of the gospel, will "esteem them very highly in love, for their work's sake."

Christian and Faithful had but just entered the fair, when they were observed and insulted. Those who, '* will live godly in Christ Jesus," cannot escape observation and persecution. On three accounts, the people of God are despised and rejected of men. First, "Their garment is unfashionable." Believers look for justification only by theRedeemer's righteousness: this is the " white raiment" which Christ has counselled them to buy: this is the " wedding garment" in which they hope to appear at the marriage-supper of the Lamb. But their profession of this, renders them hateful to the world, who generally hope to be. saved by their good works. Hence they are thought "fools and madmen" to expect salvation by the merits of another. Secondly, "Their language is despicable." What they speak of Christ—the. glory and beauty of his person—the love of his heart—the grace of his Spirit—and their experience of communion with him—is unintelligible jargon to those who know him not. Thirdly, " They set light by the world, and all its wares;" for their traffic is in heaven. Nothing irritates carnal men more than the contempt with which lively christians treat the vanities of life; for they love not the world, neither the thing* that are in the world."

In all ages and countries, a consistent, steady, and zealous profession of religion, will excite the spirit of persecution. At times the Lord permits the enmity of the carnal mind to have its full scope: then false accusations, bonds, and death may be expected. The deportment of our pilgrims was exemplary, and their patience conciliated the esteem of many, who became their friends. But even this served to aggravate the rage of their enemies. There was no real crime to lay to their charge; but the old pretext was at hand—" Christians are the enemies of the state." Thus Christ himself was accused as the enemy of Cais-ir ; and his meek and harmless followers have, in most times of persecutLoii, been falsely comdemned as the adversaries of government, and the disturbers of public peace.

If the Lord were to leave us in the hands-of men, we should still find that their tender merchs are cruel. Such a jury as tried Faithful, ni'ght be found in every count) of Britain, Fnv.y is yet alive, and ready to testify, and upon oath too, ^that "the principles of taith and holiness]' arv- contrary to the course of this v.o:ld, and consequently^ condemn its votaries. Superstition would siill rave at the religion of the? Bible, because it reproaches a human faith, and formal deletion. And Pickthank, such a character v,i!| readiiy be found, while opposition to godliness is the road tope! ferment. But how illustrious does grace appear in the fiery trial! 'I lie Lord never forsakes his suffeiing saints ; but «ill certainly bestow a crown of life upon every one who u faithful tq death.