Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth alone; for there was one wno^e name was Hopeful,(being so made by the beholding of Christian and Faithful in their words and behaviour in their sufferings at the fair) who joined himself unto him, and entering into a brotherly covenant, told him, that he would be his companion. Thus one died to bear testimony to the truth, and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with Christian in his pilgrimage. This Hopeful also told Christian, that there were many more of the men '\\ ti:e fair, that would take their time, and follow after.
So I saw that quickly alter they were got out of the fair, they overtook one that was gomg before them, wli. se name was By-ends ; »u uiey ;-a.:d to him, What countryman, S;r? and how far go you tiiis way? He told them, that he came from tne town ol Fair-Speech,and he was going to the cceiesiial city, bu' 'U t.icm not ids name.
From Fair-speech! s id Christian; is tliere any good that lives there ('t)?
By-ends. Yes, said By-ends, I hope.
Chi: Pray, Sir, what may I call you?
By-ends. I am a stranger to you, and you to me: If vou he going this way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, 1 must be content.
Chr This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard of, and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place.
By-ends. Yes, I will assure you, that it is; and I have very many rich kindred there.
Chr. Pray, who ate your kindred there, if a man may be so hold?
By-ends. Almost the whole town; and in particular my Lord Turn- tbout, my Lor! Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech (from whose ancestors that town first took its name), also Mr. Smooth-man, Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing ; and tiie parson of our parish. Mr. Two-tongue*, was my mother's brother by the frttner's side: and, to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality; yet my great grandfather was but a waterman, looking one way and rowing another; and I got most of my estate by the same ocenpatiou.
Chr- Are you a married man
By-ends. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous .womin; the daughter of a virtuous woman ; she was my Lady Feigmng's daughter, therefore she came of a very honourable family, and is arrived to such a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all, even to prince and peasant. 'Tis true, we somewhat ddfer in religion from those of the stricter sort; out yet in t'vo small points: First, We never strive against wind and tide. Secondly, We are always most zealous when religion goes in his silver slippers; we love much to walk with him in the streets, if the sun shines, and the people applaud him.
Then Christian stept a little aside to his fellow Hopeful, saying, it runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Faii'-speech; and, if it he he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwelleth in all these parts. Then said Hopeful, ask him ; methinks he should not be ashamed of his name. So Christian came up with him again, and said, Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the world doth; and, if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess of you: Is not your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech?
By-ends. This is not my name* but indeed it is a nick-name that is, given me by some that cannot ahide me, and I must be content to bear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me.
Chr. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this name?
By-ends. Never ! nevt r ! The worst that I ever did to give them an occasion to give me this name, was, that I had always the luck to jump in my judgment with the present way of the times, whatever it was, and my chance was to get thereby ; but if things are thus cast upon me, let me count them a blessing; but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach.
Chr. I thought indeed that you were the man that I heard of; ana to tell you what I think, 1 fear this name belongs to you more properly than you are willing we should think it doth.
By-emh. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it: you will find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit one your associate.
Chr. If you will go with us, you must go against wind and tide; the which,! perceive, is against your opinion ; you must also own religion in his rags, as well as when in his silver slippers ; and stand by him too when bound in irons, as well as when he walketh the streetswith applause.
By-ends. You must not impose, nor lord it over my faith; leave me to my liberty, and let me go with you.
Chr. Not a step farther, unless you will do in what I propound as we.
Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old principles, since they are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I must do as I did before you overtook me, even go by myself, until some overtake me that will be gltd of my company.
Then I saw in my dream, That Christian and Hopeful forsook him, and kept their distance before him; but one of them looking back, saw three men following Mr. By-ends ; and behold as they came up with him, he made them a very low congee; and they also gave him a compliment. The men's names were Mr. Hold-the-world, Mr. Money-love, and Mr. Save-all; men that Mr. By-ends had formerly been acquainted with; for in their minority they were school-follows, and taught by one Mr. Gripeman, a school-master in Lovegain, which is a market-town in the county of Coveting, in the north. This schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence, cozenage, flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise of religion : and these four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their. master, so that they could each of them have kept such a school them selves.
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr. Money-love said to Mr. By-ends, Who are they upon the road before us? (for Christian and Hopeful were yet within view.)
By-ends. They are a couple of far countrymen, that after their mode are going on pilgi image.
Money-love. Alas! why did they not stay, that we mio-ht have had their good company; for they , and we, and you, hir, I hope, are going on pil
WiJ^5ds. We are so, indeed; but the men before
us are so rigid, and love so much their own notions, and do also lightly esteem the opinion of others, that let a man be never so godly, yet if he jumps not with them in all things, tiiey thrust him quite out of their company.
Save-all. That's bad; but we read of some that are righteous over-much, and such men's rigidness prevails, with them to judge and condemn all but themselves: but I pray what, and how many were the things wherein you differed?
By-ends. Why they, after their headstrong manner, conclude that it is their duty to rush on their journey all weathers, and J am for waiting for wind, and tide. They are for hazarding all for God at a clap, and I am for taking all advantages to secure my life and estate. They are for holding their notions, though all other men be against them ; but I am for religion in what, and so far as the times and my safety will bear it. They are for n ligion when in rags and contempt, but I am for him when be walks in his golden slippers, in the sun-shine, and with applause.
Hold-1 he-world. Ay, and hold you there still, good Mr. By-ends; for, for my part, I can count him but a fool, that having the liberty to keep what he has, shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as serpents ; it is best to make hay when the sun shines; you see bow the bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs her only when she can have profit with pleasure. Cod sends sometimes rain, and soiretimes sun-shine; if they be such fools to go through the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather alo.ig with us. For my part, I like that re'igion best, that will stand with the security of God's good blessings unto us; for who can imagine, that is ruled by his reason, since God has bestowed upon us the good things of this life, but that he would have us to keep them for his sake. Abraham and Solomon grew rich in religion. And Job says, that a good man "shall lay. up gold as dust." But lie must not be such as the
men before us, if they bs as you have described them.
Save-all. I think that we are all agreed in this matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it.
Money-hie. No, there needs no more words about this matter indeed: for he that believes neither scripture nor reason (and you see we have both on our side), neither knows liis own liberty, nor seeks his own safety.
By-ends. My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pilgrimage, and for our better diversion from things that are had, give me leave to propound unto you this question:
Suppose a man, a minister or a tradesman, &c. should have an advantage lie before him, to get the good blessings of this life, yet so as that he can by no means come by them, except in appearance, at Jeast, he becomes extraordinary zealous in some points of religion that he meddled not with before: may he not use this means to attain his end, and yet be a right honest man?
Money-love. I see the bottom of your question? and with these gentleman's good leave, I will endeavour to shape you an answer : and lirst, to speak to your question as it concerns a minister himself. Suppose.a minister, a worthy man, possessed but of a very small benefice, and has in his eye a greater, more fat and plump by far ; he has also now an opportunity of getting it, yet so as by being more studious, by preaching more frequently and zealously, and, because the temper of the people requires it, by altering some of his principles; for my part, I see no reason but a man might do this (provided he has a call); ay, and a great deal more besides, and yet be an honest man. For why?
1. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this
cannot be contradicted), since it. is set before him by Providence ; so then lie may get it if he can, making' no question tor conscience s.:ke.
'2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious, a more zealous preacher, &c. and so makes him a better man, yea, makes him better improve his parts, which is according to the mind of God.
3. Now as for his complying with the temper of his people, by deserting, to serve them, some of his principles, this argueth, 1. Tiiat he is of a selfdenying temper. 2. Of a sweet and winning deportment. 3. And so more lit for the ministerial function.
4. I conclude then, that a minister that changes a small for a great, should not, for so doing, he judged, us covetous; but rather, since he is improved in his parts and industry hereby, be counted as one that pursues his call, and the opportunity put into his hand to do good.
And now to the second part of the question, which concerns the tradesman you mentioned: Suppose such a one to have but a poor employ in the world, but, by becommg religious, he may mend his market, perhaps get a rich wife, or more and far better customers to his shop. For my part, I see no reasou but this may be lawfully done. For why?
1. To become religious is a virtue, by w hat means soever a man becomes so.
2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to my shop.
3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, gets that which is good of^them that are good, by becoming good himself; so then here is a £riod wife, and good customers, and good gain, and these by becoming religious, which is good ; therefore, to become religious to get all these, is a good and profitable design.
This answer, thus made by this Mr. Money-lovt, to Mr. By-ends' question, was highly applauded by them all; therefore they concluded upon the whole, that it was most wholesome and advantageous. And because, as they thought, no man was able to contradict it, and because Christian and Hopcful were yet within call, they jointly agreed to assault them with the question as soon as they overtook them; and the rather because they had opposed Mr. Byends before. So they called after them, and they stopt and stood still till they came up to them ; but they concluded, as they went, that not Mr. By-ends, but old Mr. Hold-the-world should propound the question to them; because, as they supposed, their answer to him woiild be without the remainder of that heat that was kindled between Mr. By-ends and them, at their parting a little before.
So they came up to each other, and after a short salutation, Mr. Hold-the-world propounded the question to Christian and his fellow, and bid them to answer it it they could.
Chr. Then said Christian, even a habe in religion, may answer ten thousand such questions. For, if it be unlawful to follow Christ for loaves, as it is, John vi. how much more abominable is it to make of him and religion a stalking-horse, to get and enjoy the world ? Nor do we fmd,any other than heathens, hypocrites, devils, and witches, that are of this opinion.
1. Heathens; for when Hamor and Shechem had a mind to the daughter and cattle of Jacob, and saw that there was no way for them to come at them, but by becoming circumcised, they said to their companioris, if every male of us be circumcised, as they are circumcised, shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every bea>t of theirs be ours? Their daughters and their cattle were that which tkey sought to obtain, and their religion the stalkinghorse they made use of to come at them. Read the whole story (b).
2. The hypocritical pharisees were also of this religion : long prayers were their pretence: but to get widows'houses was their intent, and greater damnation was from God their judgment (c).
3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was religious for the hag, that he might be possessed of what was therein ; but he was lost, cast away, and the very son of perdition.
4. Simon the witch was of this religion too ; for he would have had the Holy Ghost, that he might have got money therewith, and his sentence from Peter's mouth was according (d).
5. Neither will it go out of my mind, but that that man who takes up religion for the world, will throw away religion for the world; for so sure as Judas designed the world in becoming religious, so surely did he also sell religion and his master for the same. To answer the question therefore affirmatively, as I perceive you have done; and to accept of, as authentic, such answer, is both heathenish, hypocritical, and devilish; and your reward will be according to your works. Then they stood staring one upon another, but had not wherewith to answer Christian. Hopeful also approved of the soundness of Christian's answer; so there was a great silence among them. Mr. By-ends and his company also staggered and kept behind, that Christian and Hopeful might outgo
them. Then said Christian to his fellow: If these men cannot stand before the sentence of men, what will they do with the sentence of God? And if they are mute when dwelt with by vessels of clay, what will they do when they shall be rebuked by the flames of a devouring fire?
Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again, and went till they came to a delicate plain, called Ease, where they went with much content; but that plain was but narrow, so they were quickly got over it. Now at the farther side of that plan was a little hill, called Lucre, and in that hill a silver mine, which some of them that had formerly gone that way, because of the rarity of it, had turned aside to sec; but going too near the brink of the pit, the ground being deceitful under them, broke, and they were slain: some also had been maimed there, and could not, to tiieir d\ ing dav, be their own men again.
Then I saw in my dream, that a little oil iiie road, ovv:r-against the silver-mine, stood Demas (gentlemanlike), to call passengers to come and see; who said to Christian and his fellow, Ho! turn aside hither, and I will show you a thing.
C/tr. What thing is so deserving as to turn us" out of the way.
Demas. Here is a silver-mine, and some*digging in it tor treasure; it' you will come, with u little puns, you may richly provide for yourselves.
Hope Then said Hopeful, Let us go see.
dir. Not 1, said Cnristian, I have heard of this place'before now, and how many have there been slain ; and besides, that treasure is a snare ro those that seek it for ithindereth ttietntn their pilgrimage.
Then Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not the place dangerous? Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage (e)?
Demas. Not very dangerous, except to those that are careless: But withal, he blushed as he spake.
Chr. Then said Christianto Hopeful, Let us notstir a step,, but still keep on our way.
Hope. I will warrant you, when By-ends comes up, it' lie hath the same invitation as we, he will turn in thither to see.
Chr. No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him that way, and a hundred to one but he dies there.
Demos. Then Demas called again, saying: But will you not come over and see?
Chr. Then Ch: i^tian, roundly answering Dertias, Slid, thou art an enemy to the right ways or the Lord of this way, and hast been already condemned for thine own turning aside, by one of Ins Majesty's Judges : And why seekest thou to bring us into the Jtko condemnation? Besides, if we at a'l turn aside, our Lord the King will certainly hear thetvof, and wi'l there put us to sh.ime, where we would stand with boldness before him (f),
Demas cried again, That he, also, was one of their fraternity; and that if they would tarry a little, healso himself would walk with them.
Chr. Then said Christian, What is thy name r* Is it not the same by which I have called thee?
Demas. Yes, my name is Demas, I am the son of Abraham.
Chr. I know you; Gehazi was your great grandfather, and Judas your father, and you have trod in their steps; it is but a devilish prank that thou uses!: thy father was hanged for a traitor, and thou deservest no better reward. Assure thyself, that when we come to the King, we wdl teil him of this thy behaviour. Thus they went tbeir way (g).
By this time By-ends and his companions were come again within sight, and they at the first beck went over to Demas. Now, whether they fell into the pit by lookiugover the brink thereof, or whether
(02 Tim, iv. 10. (g) 2 Kings v. 20. Matt. xxiv. 14, 15.
xxvii. .3—5. %
they went down to dig, or whether they were smothered in the bottom, hy the damps that commonly arise; of these things I am not certain: but this I observed, that they never were seen, again in the way. Then sang Christian:
By-ends and silver Demas both agree;
One calls, the other runs, that he may be
A sharer in his lucre; so these do
Take up in this world, and no farther go.
Now I saw, that just on the other side of this plain, the pilgrims came to a place where stood an old monument, hard by the highway side; at the sight of which they were both concerned, beamsc cf- the strangent!?s of the form thereof; for it seemed to them as if it bad been a woman transformed into the shape of a p ilar : here therefore they stood looking, and lockmg upon it. but could not for a time tell' what they should make thereof: at last Hopefulespied written upon tiie head thereof, a writing in an unusual hand; but he, being no r-cholar, called to Christian (for he "was learned) to sec if he could pick out the meaning: so he came, and after a Hi tie laying of the letters together, bo found the same to be this, " Remember Lot's wife." So he read it to his fellowafter which they both concluded, that that was the pdiar of sslt into which Lot's wife was turned, tor looking back with a covetous heart, when she was going from SoJom lor safety (A). Which sudden and amazmg sight gave tiiuhs occasion of this discourse.
Chr. Ah, my brother, this is a seasonable sight: it came opportunely to us after the invitation which Demas gave us to come over to view the hill Lucre; and had we gone over i:s he desired us, and as thou wast mclined to do (my brother), we had, for ought
(It) Gen. xix. 26.
I know, been made like this woman, a spectacle for those that shall come after, to behold.
Hope. I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am made to wonder that I am not now as Lot's wife; for wherein was the difference between her sin and mine? She only looked back, and I had a desire to go see: let grace be adored, and let me be ashamed, that ever such a thing should be in mine hear t.
Chr. Let us take notice of what we see here, for our help for time to come : This woman escaped one judgment, for she fell not bv the destruction of Sodom: yet she was destroyed by another ; as we see, she is turned into a pillar of salt.
Hope. True, and she may be to us both caution mid example; c union, that wc should shun her sin; vr a sign of what judgment will overtake such as shall not be presented by this caution: so Korah, .D^than, and Ahiram, with the two hundred and fifty men that perished in their sin, did also become a sign or example to beware ((). 'But, above all, I muse at one thing, to wit, how Demas and his fellows can stand so confidently yonder to look for that treasure, which this woman, but for looking behind ier afier, (for we read not that she stcpt one foot out of the way) was turned into a pillar of salt; especially since the judgment which overtook her, did make her an example within sight of where they are: for they cannot choose but see see her, did they but lift up their ej*es.
Chr. It is a thing to be wondered at, and it arguetli that their hearts are grown desperate in the case; and I cannot tell who to compare them to so fitly, as to them that pick pockets in the presence of the judge, or that will cut purses under the gallons. It is said of the men of Sodom, "that they were "sinners exceedingly," because they were sinners "before the Lord (/');" that is, in bis eye-sight; and notwithstanding the kindness that he had
(i) Numb. xxvi. 9, 10. (k) Gen, xiii. 17.
showed them, for the laud of Sodom was now like "the garden of Eden heretofore (/)." This therefore provoked him the more to jealousy, and made their plague as hot as the fire of the Lord out of heaven could make it. And it is most ration illy to be concluded, that such, even such as t'ne.e are, that shall sin in the sight, yea, and that too in despite of such examples, that are set continually before them to caution them to the contrary, must be partakers of the severest judgments.
Hope. Doubtless, thou hast said the truth; but what a mercy is it, that neither thou, but especially I, am not made myself this example? This ministreth occasion to us to thank God,-to fear before him, and always to remember Lot's wife.
HOW true is that old observation, "The blood of the "Martyrs in the seed of the church !" Persecution has geueFally this blessed effect; for the patience and fortitude of suffering saints, afford stronger testimony to the truth of the gospel, than all the arguments in the world. By this means Christian was favoured with a new and excellent companion, whose character answers his name, Hopeful. So kind is the Lord to' pilgrims, that if-he removes a faithful triend by death, he usually raises up another in his stead.
Several new characters are introduced in this chapter, in whose specious conversation, and fallacious arguments, tire love of the world, and the deieitfulness of worldly hearts in pleading for it, are finely exposed. J he maxim, by which the whole conduct of By-ends was directed, uas tliis, " to "be zealous only when religion walked in silver slippers," or so far, as it may be professed without the loss of reputation. But this maxim exactly contradicts the declaration ol sciipture, that " all who will live godly in Christ Jesu^, shall suffer persecution," 2 Tim. iii. 12.
By-ends, and his co.h] anions, used many arguments in defer ce of their carnal practices, and men as might deceive unwary and worldly minds: but, as Christian observed, " a "babe in Christ may answer ten thousand of tbem." The love of Ciod shed abroad in I he heart, will make the plainest Christian an able casuist, and enable him to defeat the most subtile sophistry of hell.
Christian and Hopeful passed over a delicate plain, called Ease; but it was Tery narrow; intimating, that "pilgrims "have but little ease in this life :" even that little ease is attended with danger, for, at the farther side of the plain, 'was a silver mine, where some had been maimed, anil others killed. Even good Hopeful had an inclination to go and see it, but was happily prevented by a word in season from his faithful companion. Most of the Lord's people are poor., and bv poverty are exempted from many snares. Others are rich, and a happy few of them are kept humble, watchful, and useful, in the midst of temptation: But the greater part of them suff'tr much loss, and are as poor in spirituals, as rich in temporals. So true it is, that "the love of money "is the root of all evil; which, while some have coveted aftef, "they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves "through with many sorrows," 1 Tim. vi. 10. So necessary is our Saviour's caution, "Take heed, and beware of covet"ousness."
Header, remember this caution—remember Demas—remember Lot's wife.