127:2 Humanity struggles to provide for its needs, working hard to have enough food (lit “eating the bread of toil,” 80:5; 102:9; Gn 3:17; Is 30:20). The Lord provides rest by blessing the work of the godly.
127:4-5 The psalmist focused specifically on sons, who could continue the family lineage. A full quiver of arrows represented prestige and protection. Like arrows for a warrior, children were useful in the agricultural society. The man who had many children also enjoyed respect in Near Eastern society (on city gate, see note at 87:2).