1 Timothy 2


8. I will--The active wish, or desire, is meant.
that men--rather as Greek, "that the men," as distinguished from "the women," to whom he has something different to say from what he said to the men ( 1 Timothy 2:9-12 , 1 Corinthians 11:14 1 Corinthians 11:15 , 1 Corinthians 14:34 1 Corinthians 14:35 ). The emphasis, however, is not on this, but on the precept of praying, resumed from 1 Timothy 2:1 .
everywhere--Greek, "in every place," namely, of public prayer. Fulfilling Malachi 1:11 , "In every place . . . from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same . . . incense shall be offered unto My name"; and Jesus' words, Matthew 18:20 , John 4:21 John 4:23 .
lifting up holy hands--The early Christians turned up their palms towards heaven, as those craving help do. So also Solomon ( 1 Kings 8:22 , Psalms 141:2 ). The Jews washed their hands before prayer ( Psalms 26:6 ). Paul figuratively (compare Job 17:9 , 4:8 ) uses language alluding to this custom here: so Isaiah 1:15 Isaiah 1:16 . The Greek for "holy" means hands which have committed no impiety, and observed every sacred duty. This (or at least the contrite desire to be so) is a needful qualification for effectual prayer ( Psalms 24:3 Psalms 24:4 ).
without wrath--putting it away ( Matthew 5:23 Matthew 5:24 , 6:15 ).
doubting--rather, "disputing," as the Greek is translated in Philippians 2:14 . Such things hinder prayer ( Luke 9:46 , Romans 14:1 , 1 Peter 3:7 ). BENGEL supports English Version (compare an instance, 2 Kings 7:2 , Matthew 14:31 , 11:22-24 , 1:6 ).

9, 10. The context requires that we understand these directions as to women, in relation to their deportment in public worship, though the rules will hold good on other occasions also.
in modest apparel--"in seemly guise" [ELLICOTT]. The adjective means properly. orderly, decorous, becoming; the noun in secular writings means conduct, bearing. But here "apparel." Women are apt to love fine dress; and at Ephesus the riches of some ( 1 Timothy 6:17 ) would lead them to dress luxuriously. The Greek in Titus 2:3 is a more general term meaning "deportment."
shamefacedness--TRENCH spells this word according to its true derivation, "shamefastness" (that which is made fast by an honorable shame); as "steadfastness" (compare 1 Timothy 2:11 1 Timothy 2:12 ).
sobriety--"self-restraint" [ALFORD]. Habitual inner self-government [TRENCH]. I prefer ELLICOTT'S translation, "sober-mindedness": the well-balanced state of mind arising from habitual self-restraint.
with--Greek, "in."
braided hair--literally, "plaits," that is, plaited hair: probably with the "gold and pearls" intertwined ( 1 Peter 3:3 ). Such gaud is characteristic of the spiritual harlot ( Revelation 17:4 ).

10. professing--Greek, "promising": engaging to follow.
with good works--The Greek preposition is not the same as in 1 Timothy 2:9 ; "by means of," or "through good works." Their adorning is to be effected by means of good works: not that they are to be clothed in, or with, them ( Ephesians 2:10 ). Works, not words in public, is their province ( 1 Timothy 2:8 1 Timothy 2:11 1 Timothy 2:12 , 1 Peter 3:1 ). Works are often mentioned in the Pastoral Epistles in order to oppose the loose living, combined with the loose doctrine, of the false teachers. The discharge of everyday duties is honored with the designation, "good works."

11. learn--not "teach" ( 1 Timothy 2:12 , 1 Corinthians 14:34 ). She should not even put questions in the public assembly ( 1 Corinthians 14:35 ).
with all subjection--not "usurping authority" ( 1 Timothy 2:12 ). She might teach, but not in public ( Acts 18:26 ). Paul probably wrote this Epistle from Corinth, where the precept ( 1 Corinthians 14:34 ) was in force.

12. usurp authority--"to lord it over the man" [ALFORD], literally, "to be an autocrat."

13. For--reason of the precept; the original order of creation.
Adam . . . first--before Eve, who was created for him ( 1 Corinthians 11:8 1 Corinthians 11:9 ).

14. Adam was not deceived--as Eve was deceived by the serpent; but was persuaded by his wife. Genesis 3:17 , "hearkened unto . . . voice of . . . wife." But in Genesis 3:13 , Eve says, "The serpent beguiled me." Being more easily deceived, she more easily deceives [BENGEL], ( 2 Corinthians 11:3 ). Last in being, she was first in sin--indeed, she alone was deceived. The subtle serpent knew that she was "the weaker vessel" ( 1 Peter 3:7 ). He therefore tempted her, not Adam. She yielded to the temptations of sense and the deceits of Satan; he, to conjugal love. Hence, in the order of God's judicial sentence, the serpent, the prime offender, stands first; the woman, who was deceived, next; and the man, persuaded by his wife, last ( Genesis 3:14-19 ). In Romans 5:12 , Adam is represented as the first transgressor; but there no reference is made to Eve, and Adam is regarded as the head of the sinning race. Hence, as here, 1 Timothy 2:11 , in Genesis 3:16 , woman's "subjection" is represented as the consequence of her being deceived.
being deceived--The oldest manuscripts read the compound Greek verb for the simple, "Having been seduced by deceit": implying how completely Satan succeeded in deceiving her.
was in the transgression--Greek, "came to be in the transgression": became involved in the existing state of transgression, literally, "the going beyond a command"; breach of a positive precept ( Romans 4:15 ).

15. be saved in childbearing--Greek, "in (literally, 'through') (her, literally, 'the') child-bearing." Through, or by, is often so used to express not the means of her salvation, but the circumstances AMIDST which it has place. Thus 1 Corinthians 3:15 , "He . . . shall be saved: yet so as by (literally, 'through,' that is, amidst) fire": in spite of the fiery ordeal which he has necessarily to pass through, he shall be saved. So here, "In spite of the trial of childbearing which she passes through (as her portion of the curse, Genesis 3:16 , 'in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children'), she shall be saved." Moreover, I think it is implied indirectly that the very curse will be turned into a condition favorable to her salvation, by her faithfully performing her part in doing and suffering what God has assigned to her, namely, child-bearing and home duties, her sphere, as distinguished from public teaching, which is not hers, but man's ( 1 Timothy 2:11 1 Timothy 2:12 ). In this home sphere, not ordinarily in one of active duty for advancing the kingdom of God, which contradicts the position assigned to her by God, she will be saved on the same terms as all others, namely, by living faith. Some think that there is a reference to the Incarnation "through THE child-bearing" (Greek), the bearing of the child Jesus. Doubtless this is the ground of women's child-bearing in general becoming to them a blessing, instead of a curse; just as in the original prophecy ( Genesis 3:15 Genesis 3:16 ) the promise of "the Seed of the woman" (the Saviour) stands in closest connection with the woman's being doomed to "sorrow" in "bringing forth children," her very child-bearing, though in sorrow, being the function assigned to her by God whereby the Saviour was born. This may be an ulterior reference of the Holy Spirit in this verse; but the primary reference required by the context is the one above given. "She shall be saved ([though] with childbearing)," that is, though suffering her part of the primeval curse in childbearing; just as a man shall be saved, though having to bear his part, namely, the sweat of the brow.
if they, &c.--"if the women (plural, taken out of 'the woman,' 1 Timothy 2:14 , which is put for the whole sex) continue," or more literally, "shall (be found at the judgment to) have continued."
faith and charity--the essential way to salvation ( 1 Timothy 1:5 ). Faith is in relation to God. Charity, to our fellow man. Sobriety, to one's self.
sobriety--"sober-mindedness" with the unseemly forwardness reproved in 1 Timothy 2:11 ). Mental receptivity and activity in family life were recognized in Christianity as the destiny of woman. One reason alleged here by Paul, is the greater danger of self-deception in the weaker sex, and the spread of errors arising from it, especially in a class of addresses in which sober reflectiveness is least in exercise [NEANDER]. The case ( Acts 21:9 ) was doubtless in private, not in public.

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