1 Peter 2:8

And (kai). Peter now quotes Isaiah 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed "a stone of stumbling (liqo proskommato) and rock of offence (petra skandalou)," quoted also by Paul in Romans 9:32 , which see for discussion. Proskomma (from proskoptw, to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while skandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between liqo (a loose stone in the path) and petra (a ledge rising out of the ground). For they (oi). Causal use of the relative pronoun. Stumble at the word, being disobedient (proskoptousin twi logwi apeiqounte). Present active indicative of proskoptw with dative case, logwi, and present active participle of apeiqew (cf. apistousin in Romans 2:7 ) as in Romans 3:1 . Twi logwi can be construed with apeiqounte (stumble, being disobedient to the word). Whereunto also they were appointed (ei o kai eteqhsan). First aorist passive indicative of tiqhmi. See this idiom in 1 Timothy 2:7 . "Their disobedience is not ordained, the penalty of their disobedience is" (Bigg). They rebelled against God and paid the penalty.