The Jews (oi Ioudaioi). Certainly not the proselytes of verse Hebrews 43 . Probably many of the Jews that were then favourably disposed to Paul's message had reacted against him under the influence of the rabbis during the week and evidently on this Sabbath very many Gentiles ("almost the whole city," "the multitudes" tou oclou) had gathered, to the disgust of the stricter Jews. Nothing is specifically stated here about the rabbis, but they were beyond doubt the instigators of, and the ringleaders in, the opposition as in Thessalonica ( Hebrews 17:5 ). No such crowds (oclou) came to the synagogue when they were the speakers. With jealousy (zhlou). Genitive case of zhlo (from zew, to boil) after eplhsqhsan (effective first aorist passive indicative of pimplhmi). Envy and jealousy arise between people of the same calling (doctors towards doctors, lawyers towards lawyers, preachers towards preachers). So these rabbis boiled with jealousy when they saw the crowds gathered to hear Paul and Barnabas. Contradicted (antelegon). Imperfect active of antilegw, old verb to speak against, to say a word in opposition to (anti, face to face). It was interruption of the service and open opposition in the public meeting. Paul and Barnabas were guests by courtesy and, of course, could not proceed further, when denied that privilege. Blasphemed (blasphmounte). Blaspheming. So the correct text without the addition antilegonte (repeated from antelegon above). Common verb in the Gospels for saying injurious and harmful things. Doubtless these rabbis indulged in unkind personalities and made it plain that Paul and Barnabas were going beyond the limitations of pure Judaism in their contacts with Gentiles.