Acts 27:40

Casting off (perielonte). Second aorist active of periairew. Literally, "Having taken away from around," that is all four anchors from around the stern. Cf. the other verbs with agkura in verse Luke 29 30 . They left them in the sea (eiwn ei thn qalassan). Imperfect active of eaw, either descriptive or inchoative. They let the anchors go and the ropes fell down into the sea. At the same time loosing the bands of the rudders (ama anente ta zeukthria twn phdaliwn). On the use of ama with the participle, old Greek idiom see Robertson, Grammar, p. 1139. The second aorist active participle of anihmi, to relax, loosen up. Old verb, in N.T. Acts 16:26 ; Acts 27:40 ; Ephesians 6:9 ; Hebrews 13:5 . Thayer notes that zeukthria (bands) occurs nowhere else, but several papyri use it of yokes and waterwheels (Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary). The word for rudders (phdalion) is an old one (from phdon, the blade of an oar), but in the N.T. only here and James 3:4 . Page notes that the ancient ships had a pair of paddle rudders like those of the early northmen, one on each quarter. The paddle rudders had been fastened while the ship was anchored. Hoisting up the foresail to the wind (eparante ton artemwna th pneoush). Supply aurai (breeze) after pneoush (blowing). It is not clear what "sail" is meant by "artemwna." No other example in Greek is known, though the scholiast to Juvenal XII. 68 explains velo prora suo by artemone solo. Hence "foresail" is probably correct. They made for the beach (kateicon ei ton aigialon). Imperfect active of katecw, to hold down, perhaps inchoative. "They began to hold the ship steadily for the beach."