Hebrews 12:23

To the general assembly (panhgurei). Old word (from pa and aguri, ageirw). Here only in N.T. Panhgurizw occurs in Isaiah 66:10 for keeping a festal holiday. Possibly to be connected with aggelwn, though not certain. Church of the firstborn (ekklhsiai prwtotokwn). Probably an additional item besides the angelic host as the people of Israel are called firstborn ( Exodus 4:22 ). The word ekklhsia here has the general sense of all the redeemed, as in Matthew 16:18 ; Colossians 1:18 ; Ephesians 5:24-32 , and equivalent to the kingdom of God. Who are enrolled in heaven (apogegrammenwn en ouranoi). Perfect passive participle of apograpw, old verb to write off, to copy, to enroll as in Luke 2:1 Luke 2:3 Luke 2:5 (only N.T. examples). Enrolled as citizens of heaven even while on earth ( Luke 10:20 ; Philippians 1:27 ; Philippians 3:20 ; Philippians 4:3 ; Revelation 13:8 , etc.). To God the Judge of all (krith qewi pantwn). All these chief substantives in the dative case. People should not forget that God is the Judge of all men. Made perfect (teteleiwmenwn). Perfect passive participle of teleiow, perfected at last ( Revelation 11:40 ).