Had received (elaben). Second aorist active indicative of lambanw. Jesus took the vinegar (a stimulant), though he had refused the drugged vinegar. It is finished (tetelestai). Same for as in verse Matthew 28 . A cry of victory in the hour of defeat like nenikhka in Matthew 16:33 . Jesus knew the relation of his death to redemption for us ( Mark 10:45 ; Matthew 20:28 ; Matthew 26:28 ). Bowed his head (klina thn kepalhn). First aorist active participle of klinw. This vivid detail only in John. Gave up his spirit (paredwken to pneuma). With the quotation of Psalms 31:5 according to Luke 23:46 , "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit" (the last of the seven sayings of Jesus on the Cross that are preserved for us). Jesus died with the words of this Psalm upon his lips. The apostle John had come back to the Cross.