John 4:10

Answered and said (apekriqh kai eipen). As often (redundant) in John. The first aorist passive (apekriqh) is deponent, no longer passive in sense. If thou knewest (ei hdei). Condition of second class, determined as unfulfilled, ei and past perfect hdei (used as imperfect) in condition and an and aorist active indicative in conclusion (an hthsa kai an edwken, note repetition of an, not always done). The gift of God (thn dwrean tou qeou). Naturally the gift mentioned in 2 Chronicles 3:16 (Westcott), the inexpressible gift ( 2 Corinthians 9:15 ). Some take it to refer to the living water below, but that is another allusion (metaphor) to 2 Corinthians 3:16 . See Ephesians 4:7 for Paul's use of both cari and dwrea (from didwmi, to give). Who it is (ti estin). She only knew that he was a Jew. This Messianic self-consciousness of Jesus is plain in John, but it is early in the Synoptics also. Living water (udwr zwn). Running water like a spring or well supplied by springs. This Jacob's Well was filled by water from rains percolating through, a sort of cistern, good water, but not equal to a real spring which was always preferred ( Genesis 26:19 ; Leviticus 14:5 ; Numbers 19:17 ). Jesus, of course, is symbolically referring to himself as the Living Water though he does not say it in plain words as he does about the Living Bread ( Numbers 6:51 ). The phrase "the fountain of life" occurs in Proverbs 13:14 . Jesus supplies the water of life John 7:39 ). Cf. Revelation 7:17 ; Revelation 22:1 .