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Luke 3:22

Descended (katabhnai). Same construction as the preceding infinitive. The Holy Ghost (to pneuma to agion). The Holy Spirit. Mark 1:10 has merely the Spirit (to pneuma) while Matthew 3:16 has the Spirit of God (pneuma qeou). In a bodily form (swmatikwi eidei). Alone in Luke who has also "as a dove" (w peristeran) like Matthew and Mark. This probably means that the Baptist saw the vision that looked like a dove. Nothing is gained by denying the fact or possibility of the vision that looked like a dove. God manifests his power as he will. The symbolism of the dove for the Holy Spirit is intelligible. We are not to understand that this was the beginning of the Incarnation of Christ as the Cerinthian Gnostics held. But this fresh influx of the Holy Spirit may have deepened the Messianic consciousness of Jesus and certainly revealed him to the Baptist as God's Son. And a voice came out of heaven (kai pwnhn ex ouranou genesqai). Same construction of infinitive with accusative of general reference. The voice of the Father to the Son is given here as in Mark 1:11 , which see, and Matthew 3:17 for discussion of the variation there. The Trinity here manifest themselves at the baptism of Jesus which constitutes the formal entrance of Jesus upon his Messianic ministry. He enters upon it with the Father's blessing and approval and with the power of the Holy Spirit upon him. The deity of Christ here appears in plain form in the Synoptic Gospels. The consciousness of Christ is as clear on this point here as in the Gospel of John where the Baptist describes him after his baptism as the Son of God ( John 1:34 ).

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