Standing afar off (apo makroqen esthkote). Perfect active (intransitive) participle of isthmi. Vivid picture of the terrible scene, fascinated by the lurid blaze (cf. Nero's delight in the burning of Rome in A.D. 64), and yet afraid to draw near. On apo makroqen see Mark 5:6 . There is a weird charm in a burning city. They feared the same fate (cf. verse Revelation 18:7 for basanismou, torment). Woe, woe, the great city (ouai, ouai, h poli h megalh). Only example in the Apocalypse of the nominative with ouai except verses Rev 16, though in Luke 6:25 and common in LXX ( Isaiah 5:7Isaiah 5:11 , etc.). For the dative see Revelation 8:13 , once so "strong" (h iscura)! In one hour (miai wrai). Repeated in verses Revelation 18:16Revelation 18:19 , and like miai hmerai (in one day) in verse Revelation 8 . Some MSS. have here mian wran, like poian wran (accusative of extent of time) in Revelation 3:3 . See verse Revelation 18:8 (o krina) for h krisi sou (thy judgment). This is the dirge of the kings.