Exodus 24

The Covenant Confirmed

1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. You are to worship at a distance,
2 but Moses alone is to approach the LORD; the others must not come near. And the people may not come up with him.”
3 When Moses went and told the people all the LORD’s words and laws, they responded with one voice, “Everything the LORD has said we will do.”
4 Moses then wrote down everything the LORD had said. He got up early the next morning and built an altar at the foot of the mountain and set up twelve stone pillars representing the twelve tribes of Israel.
5 Then he sent young Israelite men, and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls as fellowship offerings to the LORD.
6 Moses took half of the blood and put it in bowls, and the other half he splashed against the altar.
7 Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read it to the people. They responded, “We will do everything the LORD has said; we will obey.”
8 Moses then took the blood, sprinkled it on the people and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.”
9 Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel went up
10 and saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was something like a pavement made of lapis lazuli, as bright blue as the sky.
11 But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites; they saw God, and they ate and drank.
12 The LORD said to Moses, “Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you the tablets of stone with the law and commandments I have written for their instruction.”
13 Then Moses set out with Joshua his aide, and Moses went up on the mountain of God.
14 He said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we come back to you. Aaron and Hur are with you, and anyone involved in a dispute can go to them.”
15 When Moses went up on the mountain, the cloud covered it,
16 and the glory of the LORD settled on Mount Sinai. For six days the cloud covered the mountain, and on the seventh day the LORD called to Moses from within the cloud.
17 To the Israelites the glory of the LORD looked like a consuming fire on top of the mountain.
18 Then Moses entered the cloud as he went on up the mountain. And he stayed on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

Exodus 24 Commentary

Chapter 24

Moses is called up into the mountain, The people promise obedience. (1-8) The glory of the Lord appears. (9-11) Moses goes up into the mountain. (12-18)

Verses 1-8 A solemn covenant was made between God and Israel. Very solemn it was, typifying the covenant of grace between God and believers, through Christ. As soon as God separated to himself a peculiar people, he governed them by a written word, as he has done ever since. God's covenants and commands are so just in themselves, and so much for our good, that the more we think of them, and the more plainly and fully they are set before us, the more reason we may see to comply with them. The blood of the sacrifice was sprinkled on the altar, on the book, and on the people. Neither their persons, their moral obedience, nor religious services, would meet with acceptance from a holy God, except through the shedding and sprinkling' of blood. Also the blessings granted unto them were all of mercy; and the Lord would deal with them in kindness. Thus the sinner, by faith in the blood of Christ, renders willing and acceptable obedience.

Verses 9-11 The elders saw the God of Israel; they had some glimpse of his glory, though whatever they saw, it was something of which no image or picture could be made, yet enough to satisfy them that God was with them of a truth. Nothing is described but what was under his feet. The sapphires are the pavement under his feet; let us put all the wealth of this world under our feet, and not in our hearts. Thus the believer sees in the face of Jesus Christ, far clearer discoveries of the glorious justice and holiness of God, than ever he saw under terrifying convictions; and through the Saviour, holds communion with a holy God.

Verses 12-18 A cloud covered the mount six days; a token of God's special presence there. Moses was sure that he who called him up would protect him. Even those glorious attributes of God which are most terrible to the wicked, the saints with humble reverence rejoice in. And through faith in the atoning Sacrifice, we hope for greater honour than Moses ever enjoyed on earth. Now we see through a glass darkly, but when he shall appear, then face to face. This vision of God will continue with equal, if not increasing brightness of joy; not for a few days only, but through eternity.

Cross References 36

  • 1. S Exodus 19:24
  • 2. S Exodus 6:23; Leviticus 10:1-2
  • 3. ver 9; Numbers 11:16
  • 4. Numbers 12:6-8
  • 5. S Exodus 21:1; Galatians 3:19
  • 6. S Exodus 19:8; Joshua 24:24; Deuteronomy 5:27
  • 7. S Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 31:9
  • 8. S Genesis 8:20
  • 9. S Genesis 28:18; S Deuteronomy 27:2
  • 10. Leviticus 1:3
  • 11. S Genesis 31:54
  • 12. Exodus 14:15; Exodus 32:31; Psalms 99:6
  • 13. Hebrews 9:18
  • 14. Leviticus 1:11; Leviticus 3:2,8,13; Leviticus 5:9; Matthew 26:28
  • 15. 2 Kings 23:2,21; Hebrews 9:19
  • 16. Exodus 19:8; Jeremiah 40:3; Jeremiah 42:6,21; Jeremiah 43:2
  • 17. Hebrews 9:19; 1 Peter 1:2
  • 18. Leviticus 26:3; Deuteronomy 5:2-3; Joshua 24:25; 2 Kings 11:17; Jeremiah 11:4,8; Jeremiah 31:32; Jeremiah 34:13; Zechariah 9:11; S Matthew 26:28; S Luke 22:20; Hebrews 9:20*; 1 Peter 1:2
  • 19. S ver 1
  • 20. S Genesis 16:13; Numbers 12:6; Isaiah 6:1; Ezekiel 1:1; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 40:2; Matthew 17:2; S John 1:18; John 6:46
  • 21. Job 28:16; Isaiah 54:11; Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:1
  • 22. Revelation 4:3
  • 23. S ver 10; Genesis 32:30; S Exodus 3:6; S Exodus 19:21
  • 24. Ezekiel 44:3; Matthew 26:29
  • 25. Exodus 31:18; Exodus 32:15-16; Exodus 34:1,28,29; Deuteronomy 4:13; Deuteronomy 5:22; Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 9:9,10,11; Deuteronomy 10:4; 2 Corinthians 3:3
  • 26. S Exodus 17:9
  • 27. S Exodus 3:1
  • 28. S Exodus 17:10
  • 29. Exodus 18:16
  • 30. S Exodus 19:9; Matthew 17:5
  • 31. S Exodus 16:7; Leviticus 9:23; Numbers 14:10; 1 Samuel 4:21,22; Ezekiel 8:4; Ezekiel 11:22; Exodus 16:10
  • 32. S Exodus 19:11
  • 33. Psalms 99:7
  • 34. S Exodus 15:7; S Exodus 19:18; Exodus 3:2; Deuteronomy 4:36; Hebrews 12:18,29
  • 35. 1 Kings 19:8; Deuteronomy 9:9
  • 36. S Genesis 7:4; Matthew 4:2; Exodus 34:28

Chapter Summary


In this chapter we have an account that Moses was ordered to come up to the Lord alone, Ex 24:1,2, but that before he did go up, he related to the people all the above laws delivered to him, which they promised obedience to, and so a covenant was made between God and the people by sacrifice, and by the sprinkling of blood, Ex 24:3-8, upon which he and Aaron, and his two sons and seventy elders of Israel, went up part of the mountain, and had a vision of God, Ex 24:9-11, when Moses with Joshua was called, and went up higher, until at length he entered into the cloud where the Lord was, and continued forty days and forty nights, Ex 24:12-18.

Exodus 24 Commentaries