Hosea 12

1 Ephraim feeds on the wind; he pursues the east wind all day and multiplies lies and violence. He makes a treaty with Assyria and sends olive oil to Egypt.
2 The LORD has a charge to bring against Judah; he will punish Jacob[a] according to his ways and repay him according to his deeds.
3 In the womb he grasped his brother’s heel; as a man he struggled with God.
4 He struggled with the angel and overcame him; he wept and begged for his favor. He found him at Bethel and talked with him there—
5 the LORD God Almighty, the LORD is his name!
6 But you must return to your God; maintain love and justice, and wait for your God always.
7 The merchant uses dishonest scales and loves to defraud.
8 Ephraim boasts, “I am very rich; I have become wealthy. With all my wealth they will not find in me any iniquity or sin.”
9 “I have been the LORD your God ever since you came out of Egypt; I will make you live in tents again, as in the days of your appointed festivals.
10 I spoke to the prophets, gave them many visions and told parables through them.”
11 Is Gilead wicked? Its people are worthless! Do they sacrifice bulls in Gilgal? Their altars will be like piles of stones on a plowed field.
12 Jacob fled to the country of Aram[b] ; Israel served to get a wife, and to pay for her he tended sheep.
13 The LORD used a prophet to bring Israel up from Egypt, by a prophet he cared for him.
14 But Ephraim has aroused his bitter anger; his Lord will leave on him the guilt of his bloodshed and will repay him for his contempt.

Hosea 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

Judah and Israel reminded of the Divine favours. (1-6) The provocations of Israel. (7-14)

Verses 1-6 Ephraim feeds himself with vain hopes of help from man, when he is at enmity with God. The Jews vainly thought to secure the Egyptians by a present of the produce of their country. Judah is contended with also. God sees the sin of his own people, and will reckon with them for it. They are put in mind of what Jacob did, and what God did for him. When his faith upon the Divine promise prevailed above his fears, then by his strength he had power with God. He is Jehovah, the same that was, and is, and is to come. What was a revelation of God to one, is his memorial to many, to all generations. Then let those who have gone from God, be turned to him. Turn thou to the Lord, by repentance and faith, as thy God. Let those that are converted to him, walk with him in all holy conversation and godliness. Let us wrestle with Him for promised blessings, determined not to give over till we prevail; and let us seek Him in his ordinances.

Verses 7-14 Ephraim became a merchant: the word also signifies a Canaanite. They carried on trade upon Canaanitish principles, covetously and with fraud and deceit. Thus they became rich, and falsely supposed that Providence favoured them. But shameful sins shall have shameful punishments. Let them remember, not only what a mighty prince Jacob was with God, but what a servant he was to Laban. The benefits we have had from the word of God, make our sin and folly the worse, if we put any slight upon that word. We had better follow the hardest labour in poverty, than grow rich by sin. We may form a judgment of our own conduct, by comparing it with that of ancient believers in the like circumstances. Whoever despises the message of God, will perish. May we all hear his word with humble, obedient faith.

Cross References 32

  • 1. S Psalms 78:67
  • 2. S Genesis 41:6; S Ezekiel 17:10
  • 3. S Hosea 4:19; S Hosea 7:1
  • 4. Hosea 5:13; S Hosea 7:11
  • 5. S 2 Kings 17:4
  • 6. S Job 10:2; Micah 6:2
  • 7. Amos 2:4
  • 8. S Exodus 32:34
  • 9. S Hosea 4:9; S Hosea 9:15
  • 10. Genesis 25:26
  • 11. Genesis 32:24-29
  • 12. S Genesis 12:8; Genesis 28:12-15; S Genesis 35:15
  • 13. S Exodus 3:15
  • 14. S Isaiah 19:22; Jeremiah 4:1; Joel 2:12
  • 15. S Psalms 106:3; S Jeremiah 22:3; Micah 6:8
  • 16. S Ezekiel 18:30; Hosea 6:1-3; Hosea 10:12; Micah 7:7
  • 17. S Leviticus 19:36; Amos 8:5
  • 18. S Ezekiel 28:5
  • 19. Psalms 62:10; Revelation 3:17
  • 20. Leviticus 23:43; S Hosea 2:15; S Hosea 11:1
  • 21. S Nehemiah 8:17
  • 22. S Judges 14:12; S Ezekiel 20:49
  • 23. 2 Kings 17:13; Jeremiah 7:25
  • 24. S Hosea 6:8
  • 25. S Hosea 4:15
  • 26. S Hosea 8:11
  • 27. Genesis 28:5
  • 28. S Genesis 29:18
  • 29. S Hosea 11:1
  • 30. Exodus 13:3; Exodus 14:19-22; Isaiah 63:11-14
  • 31. S Ezekiel 18:13
  • 32. Daniel 11:18

Footnotes 2

  • [a]. "Jacob" means "he grasps the heel" , a Hebrew idiom for "he takes advantage of" or "he deceives" .
  • [b]. That is, Northwest Mesopotamia

Chapter Summary


This chapter contains complaints and charges both against Israel and Judah, and threatens them with punishment in case they repent not, which they are exhorted to: and first Ephraim is charged with idolatry, vain confidence in, and alliances with, foreign nations, Ho 12:1; and then the Lord declares he has a controversy with Judah, and will punish the inhabitants of it for their sins, Ho 12:2; which are aggravated by their being the descendants of so great a man as Jacob, who got the advantage of his elder brother, had much power with God, and received favours from him, and they also, Ho 12:3-5; and therefore are exhorted to turn to God, wait on him, and do that which is right and good, Ho 12:6. Ephraim is again in his turn charged with fraudulent dealing in trade, and with oppression, and the love of it; and yet pretended he got riches by his own labour, without wronging any, Ho 12:7,8; nevertheless, the Lord promises them public ordinances of worship, and joy in them, and the ministry of his prophets, Ho 12:9,10; though for the present they were guilty of gross idolatry, Ho 12:11; which is aggravated by the raising of Jacob their progenitor from a low estate, and the wonderful preservation of him, and the bringing of them out of Egypt, Ho 12:12,13; and the chapter is closed with observing Ephraim's bitter provocation of God, for which his reproach should return unto him, and his blood be left upon him, Ho 12:14.

Hosea 12 Commentaries

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