John 3

The New Birth

1 Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named 1Nicodemus, a 2ruler of the Jews;
2 this man came to Jesus by night and said to Him, "3Rabbi, we know that You have come from God as a teacher; for no one can do these 4signs that You do unless * 5God is with him."
3 Jesus answered and said to him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless * one 6is born again he cannot * see 7the kingdom of God."
4 Nicodemus said to Him, "How can a man be born when he is old? He cannot * enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born, can he?"
5 Jesus answered, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless * one is born of 8water and the Spirit he cannot * enter into 9the kingdom of God.
6 "10That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
7 "Do not be amazed that I said to you, 'You must be born again.'
8 "11The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit."
9 Nicodemus said to Him, "How can these things be?"
10 Jesus answered and said to him, "Are you 12the teacher of Israel and do not understand these things?
11 "Truly, truly, I say to you, 13we speak of what we know and 14testify of what we have seen, and 15you do not accept our testimony.
12 "If I told you earthly things and you do not believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things?
13 "16No one has ascended into heaven, but 17He who descended from heaven: 18the Son of Man.
14 "As 19Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must 20the Son of Man 21be lifted up;
15 so that whoever believes will 22in Him have eternal life.
16 "For God so 23loved the world, that He 24gave His 25only begotten Son, that whoever 26believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.
17 "For God 27did not send the Son into the world 28to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him.
18 "29He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of 30the only begotten Son of God.
19 "This is the judgment, that 31the Light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for 32their deeds were evil.
20 "33For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does not come to the Light for fear * that his deeds will be exposed.
21 "But he who 34practices the truth comes to the Light, so that his deeds may be manifested as having been wrought in God."

John's Last Testimony

22 After these things Jesus and His 35disciples came into the land of Judea, and there He was spending time with them and 36baptizing.
23 John also was baptizing in Aenon near Salim, because there was much water there; and people were coming and were being baptized -
24 for 37John had not yet been thrown into prison.
25 Therefore there arose a discussion on the part of John's disciples with a Jew about 38purification.
26 And they came to John and said to him, "39Rabbi, He who was with you 40beyond the Jordan, to whom you 41have testified, behold, He is baptizing and all are coming to Him."
27 John answered and said, "42A man can receive nothing * unless * it 43has been given him from heaven.
28 "You yourselves are my witnesses that I said, '44I am not the Christ,' but, 'I have been sent ahead of Him.'
29 "He who has the bride is 45the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. So this 46joy of mine has been made full.
30 "He must increase, but I must decrease.
31 "47He who comes from above is above all, 48he who is of the earth is from the earth and speaks of the earth. 49He who comes from heaven is above all.
32 "What He has seen and heard, of that He 50testifies; and 51no one receives His testimony.
33 "He who has received His testimony 52has set his seal to this, that God is true.
34 "For He whom God has 53sent speaks the words of God; 54for He gives the Spirit without * measure.
35 "55The Father loves the Son and 56has given all things into His hand.
36 "He who 57believes in the Son has eternal life; but he who 58does not obey the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him."

Images for John 3

John 3 Commentary

Chapter 3

Christ's discourse with Nicodemus. (1-21) The baptism of John of Christ John's testimony. (22-36)

Verses 1-8 Nicodemus was afraid, or ashamed to be seen with Christ, therefore came in the night. When religion is out of fashion, there are many Nicodemites. But though he came by night, Jesus bid him welcome, and hereby taught us to encourage good beginnings, although weak. And though now he came by night, yet afterward he owned Christ publicly. He did not talk with Christ about state affairs, though he was a ruler, but about the concerns of his own soul and its salvation, and went at once to them. Our Saviour spoke of the necessity and nature of regeneration or the new birth, and at once directed Nicodemus to the source of holiness of the heart. Birth is the beginning of life; to be born again, is to begin to live anew, as those who have lived much amiss, or to little purpose. We must have a new nature, new principles, new affections, new aims. By our first birth we were corrupt, shapen in sin; therefore we must be made new creatures. No stronger expression could have been chosen to signify a great and most remarkable change of state and character. We must be entirely different from what we were before, as that which begins to be at any time, is not, and cannot be the same with that which was before. This new birth is from heaven, ch. 1:13 , and its tendency is to heaven. It is a great change made in the heart of a sinner, by the power of the Holy Spirit. It means that something is done in us, and for us, which we cannot do for ourselves. Something is wrong, whereby such a life begins as shall last for ever. We cannot otherwise expect any benefit by Christ; it is necessary to our happiness here and hereafter. What Christ speak, Nicodemus misunderstood, as if there had been no other way of regenerating and new-moulding an immortal soul, than by new-framing the body. But he acknowledged his ignorance, which shows a desire to be better informed. It is then further explained by the Lord Jesus. He shows the Author of this blessed change. It is not wrought by any wisdom or power of our own, but by the power of the blessed Spirit. We are shapen in iniquity, which makes it necessary that our nature be changed. We are not to marvel at this; for, when we consider the holiness of God, the depravity of our nature, and the happiness set before us, we shall not think it strange that so much stress is laid upon this. The regenerating work of the Holy Spirit is compared to water. It is also probable that Christ had reference to the ordinance of baptism. Not that all those, and those only, that are baptized, are saved; but without that new birth which is wrought by the Spirit, and signified by baptism, none shall be subjects of the kingdom of heaven. The same word signifies both the wind and the Spirit. The wind bloweth where it listeth for us; God directs it. The Spirit sends his influences where, and when, on whom, and in what measure and degree, he pleases. Though the causes are hidden, the effects are plain, when the soul is brought to mourn for sin, and to breathe after Christ. Christ's stating of the doctrine and the necessity of regeneration, it should seem, made it not clearer to Nicodemus. Thus the things of the Spirit of God are foolishness to the natural man. Many think that cannot be proved, which they cannot believe. Christ's discourse of gospel truths, ver. ( 11-13 ) , shows the folly of those who make these things strange unto them; and it recommends us to search them out. Jesus Christ is every way able to reveal the will of God to us; for he came down from heaven, and yet is in heaven. We have here a notice of Christ's two distinct natures in one person, so that while he is the Son of man, yet he is in heaven. God is the "HE THAT IS," and heaven is the dwelling-place of his holiness. The knowledge of this must be from above, and can be received by faith alone. Jesus Christ came to save us by healing us, as the children of Israel, stung with fiery serpents, were cured and lived by looking up to the brazen serpent, ( Numbers 21:6-9 ). In this observe the deadly and destructive nature of sin. Ask awakened consciences, ask damned sinners, they will tell you, that how charming soever the allurements of sin may be, at the last it bites like a serpent. See the powerful remedy against this fatal malady. Christ is plainly set forth to us in the gospel. He whom we offended is our Peace, and the way of applying for a cure is by believing. If any so far slight either their disease by sin, or the method of cure by Christ, as not to receive Christ upon his own terms, their ruin is upon their own heads. He has said, Look and be saved, look and live; lift up the eyes of your faith to Christ crucified. And until we have grace to do this, we shall not be cured, but still are wounded with the stings of Satan, and in a dying state. Jesus Christ came to save us by pardoning us, that we might not die by the sentence of the law. Here is gospel, good news indeed. Here is God's love in giving his Son for the world. God so loved the world; so really, so richly. Behold and wonder, that the great God should love such a worthless world! Here, also, is the great gospel duty, to believe in Jesus Christ. God having given him to be our Prophet, Priest, and King, we must give up ourselves to be ruled, and taught, and saved by him. And here is the great gospel benefit, that whoever believes in Christ, shall not perish, but shall have everlasting life. God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, and so saving it. It could not be saved, but through him; there is no salvation in any other. From all this is shown the happiness of true believers; he that believeth in Christ is not condemned. Though he has been a great sinner, yet he is not dealt with according to what his sins deserve. How great is the sin of unbelievers! God sent One to save us, that was dearest to himself; and shall he not be dearest to us? How great is the misery of unbelievers! they are condemned already; which speaks a certain condemnation; a present condemnation. The wrath of God now fastens upon them; and their own hearts condemn them. There is also a condemnation grounded on their former guilt; they are open to the law for all their sins; because they are not by faith interested in the gospel pardon. Unbelief is a sin against the remedy. It springs from the enmity of the heart of man to God, from love of sin in some form. Read also the doom of those that would not know Christ. Sinful works are works of darkness. The wicked world keep as far from this light as they can, lest their deeds should be reproved. Christ is hated, because sin is loved. If they had not hated saving knowledge, they would not sit down contentedly in condemning ignorance. On the other hand, renewed hearts bid this light welcome. A good man acts truly and sincerely in all he does. He desires to know what the will of God is, and to do it, though against his own worldly interest. A change in his whole character and conduct has taken place. The love of God is shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost, and is become the commanding principle of his actions. So long as he continues under a load of unforgiven guilt, there can be little else than slavish fear of God; but when his doubts are done away, when he sees the righteous ground whereon this forgiveness is built, he rests on it as his own, and is united to God by unfeigned love. Our works are good when the will of God is the rule of them, and the glory of God the end of them; when they are done in his strength, and for his sake; to him, and not to men. Regeneration, or the new birth, is a subject to which the world is very averse; it is, however, the grand concern, in comparison with which every thing else is but trifling. What does it signify though we have food to eat in plenty, and variety of raiment to put on, if we are not born again? if after a few mornings and evenings spent in unthinking mirth, carnal pleasure, and riot, we die in our sins, and lie down in sorrow? What does it signify though we are well able to act our parts in life, in every other respect, if at last we hear from the Supreme Judge, "Depart from me, I know you not, ye workers of iniquity?"

Verses 22-36 John was fully satisfied with the place and work assigned him; but Jesus came on a more important work. He also knew that Jesus would increase in honour and influence, for of his government and peace there would be no end, while he himself would be less followed. John knew that Jesus came from heaven as the Son of God, while he was a sinful, mortal man, who could only speak about the more plain subjects of religion. The words of Jesus were the words of God; he had the Spirit, not by measure, as the prophets, but in all fulness. Everlasting life could only be had by faith in Him, and might be thus obtained; whereas all those, who believe not in the Son of God, cannot partake of salvation, but the wrath of God for ever rests upon them.

Cross References 58

  • 1. John 7:50; John 19:39
  • 2. Luke 23:13; John 7:26, 48
  • 3. Matthew 23:7; John 3:26
  • 4. John 2:11
  • 5. John 9:33; Acts 10:38">Acts 10:38; John 14:10; Acts 2:22; Acts 10:38">Acts 10:38
  • 6. 2 Corinthians 5:17; 1 Peter 1:23
  • 7. Matthew 19:24; Matthew 21:31; Mark 9:47; Mark 10:14; John 3:5
  • 8. Ezekiel 36:25-27; Ephesians 5:26; Titus 3:5
  • 9. Matthew 19:24; Matthew 21:31; Mark 9:47; Mark 10:14; John 3:3
  • 10. John 1:13; 1 Corinthians 15:50
  • 11. Psalms 135:7; Ecclesiastes 11:5; Ezekiel 37:9
  • 12. Luke 2:46; Luke 5:17; Acts 5:34
  • 13. John 1:18; John 7:16; John 8:26, 28; John 12:49; John 14:24
  • 14. John 3:32
  • 15. John 3:32
  • 16. Deuteronomy 30:12; Proverbs 30:4; Acts 2:34; Romans 10:6; Ephesians 4:9
  • 17. John 3:31; John 6:38, 42
  • 18. Matthew 8:20
  • 19. Numbers 21:9
  • 20. Matthew 8:20
  • 21. John 8:28; John 12:34
  • 22. John 20:31; 1 John 5:11-13
  • 23. Romans 5:8; Ephesians 2:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:16; 1 John 4:10; Revelation 1:5
  • 24. Romans 8:32; 1 John 4:9
  • 25. John 1:18; John 3:18; 1 John 4:9
  • 26. John 3:36; John 6:40; John 11:25
  • 27. John 3:34; John 5:36, 38; John 6:29, 38, 57; John 7:29; John 8:42; John 10:36; John 11:42; John 17:3, 8, 18, 21, 23, 25; John 20:21
  • 28. Luke 19:10; John 8:15; John 12:47; 1 John 4:14
  • 29. Mark 16:16; John 5:24
  • 30. John 1:18; 1 John 4:9
  • 31. John 1:4; John 8:12; John 9:5; John 12:46
  • 32. John 7:7
  • 33. John 3:20, 21; Ephesians 5:11, 13
  • 34. 1 John 1:6
  • 35. John 2:2
  • 36. John 4:1, 2
  • 37. Matthew 4:12; Matthew 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:20
  • 38. John 2:6
  • 39. Matthew 23:7; John 3:2
  • 40. John 1:28
  • 41. John 1:7
  • 42. 1 Corinthians 4:7; Hebrews 5:4
  • 43. James 1:17
  • 44. John 1:20, 23
  • 45. Matthew 9:15; Matthew 25:1
  • 46. John 15:11; John 16:24; John 17:13; Philippians 2:2; 1 John 1:4; 2 John 12
  • 47. Matthew 28:18; John 3:13; John 8:23
  • 48. 1 Corinthians 15:47; 1 John 4:5
  • 49. Matthew 28:18; John 3:13; John 8:23
  • 50. John 3:11
  • 51. John 3:11
  • 52. John 6:27; Romans 4:11; Romans 15:28; 1 Corinthians 9:2; 2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30; 2 Timothy 2:19; Revelation 7:3-8
  • 53. John 3:17
  • 54. Matthew 12:18; Luke 4:18; Acts 1:2; Acts 10:38
  • 55. Matthew 28:18; John 5:20; John 17:2
  • 56. Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22
  • 57. John 3:16
  • 58. Acts 14:2; Hebrews 3:18

Footnotes 10

  • [a]. Or "attesting miracles"
  • [b]. Or "from above"
  • [c]. Or "from above"
  • [d]. Or "believes in Him will have eternal life"
  • [e]. Or "unique," only one of His kind
  • [f]. Or "unique", only one of His kind
  • [g]. Lit "testify for me"
  • [h]. I.e. Messiah
  • [i]. Lit "because He does not give the Spirit by measure"
  • [j]. Or "believe"

Chapter Summary


In this chapter the apostle exhorts to a holy life and conversation in general, and to the exercise of brotherly love in particular. The former of these is urged from the consideration of the great blessing of adoption, which springs from the free love and favour of God, is unknown to the men of the world, and indeed, in the present state of things, does not appear to the saints themselves in all its fulness and advantages, as it will do in the future state, when the children of God will be like to Christ, and see him as he is; the hope of which should engage them to purity of life and conversation, 1Jo 3:1-3, and this is further enforced from the nature of sin, which is a transgression of the law, 1Jo 3:4, from the end of Christ's manifestation in the flesh, which was to take away sin, and who was without it, 1Jo 3:5, from communion with Christ, expressed by abiding in him, seeing and knowing him, which such must be strangers to that live a sinful course of life, 1Jo 3:6, from this, that only such that do righteousness are righteous persons, and these are righteous as Christ is, 1Jo 3:7, and from a man's being of the devil, that is, of a vicious conversation, who was a sinner from the beginning, and whose works Christ was manifested in the flesh to destroy, 1Jo 3:8, and from the nature of the new man, or that which is born of God, which is not to sin, nor can it, 1Jo 3:9, and from the distinction there is between the children of God and the children of the devil, those not being of God who do not righteousness, nor love their brethren, 1Jo 3:10, from hence the apostle passes to brotherly love, and excites and engages to that, from its being a message which had been heard from the beginning, 1Jo 3:11, which is illustrated by its contrary in the instance of Cain, who by the instigation of Satan slew his brother, because his works were righteous, and his own were evil, 1Jo 3:12, wherefore, it is no wonder that good men should be hated by the world, who, as Cain, are of the same wicked one, 1Jo 3:13, brotherly love is further urged unto, from its being an evidence of passing from death to life, or of regeneration; whereas he that hates his brother openly continues in a state of death, is a murderer, and so has not eternal life abiding in him, 1Jo 3:14,15, and from the great instance of Christ's love, in laying down his life for his people, the saints are incited to lay down their lives for one another; to such a pitch does the apostle carry brotherly love, 1Jo 3:16, wherefore, he that is rich, and is uncompassionate to his brother in distress, cannot be thought to have the love of God dwelling in him, 1Jo 3:17, hence he presses the exhortation to brotherly love, that it be not in profession only, but true, real, and cordial, 1Jo 3:18, and that by observing the advantages of it, as that hereby men know they are of the truth, and can assure their hearts before God; and which is illustrated by the contrary, the condemnation of the heart, 1Jo 3:19,20, the advantages of non-condemnation of the heart are confidence before God, and receiving whatsoever we ask of him; the reason of which is, because his commandments are kept, and things done which are pleasing to him, 1Jo 3:21,22, the commandments are explained of faith in Christ, and love to one another, 1Jo 3:23, and the happiness of them that do them is, that Christ dwells in them, and they in him, the evidence of which is, the Spirit that is given unto them, 1Jo 3:24.

John 3 Commentaries

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