Luke 20

The Authority of Jesus Is Questioned

1 One day Jesus was teaching the people in the temple courtyard. He was preaching the good news to them. The chief priests and the teachers of the law came up to him. The elders came with them.
2 "Tell us by what authority you are doing these things," they all said. "Who gave you this authority?"
3 Jesus replied, "I will also ask you a question. Tell me,
4 was John's baptism from heaven? Or did it come from men?"
5 They talked to each other about it. They said, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will ask, 'Why didn't you believe him?'
6 But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will throw stones at us and kill us. They believe that John was a prophet."
7 So they answered Jesus, "We don't know where John's baptism came from."
8 Jesus said, "Then I won't tell you by what authority I am doing these things either."

The Story of the Renters

9 Jesus went on to tell the people a story. "A man planted a vineyard," he said. "He rented it out to some farmers. Then he went away for a long time.
10 "At harvest time he sent a servant to the renters. They were supposed to give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the renters beat the servant. Then they sent him away with nothing.
11 So the man sent another servant. They beat that one and treated him badly. They also sent him away with nothing.
12 The man sent a third servant. The renters wounded him and threw him out.
13 "Then the owner of the vineyard said, 'What should I do? I have a son, and I love him. I will send him. Maybe they will respect him.'
14 "But when the renters saw the son, they talked the matter over. 'This is the one who will receive all the owner's property someday,' they said. 'Let's kill him. Then everything will be ours.'
15 So they threw him out of the vineyard. And they killed him. "What will the owner of the vineyard do to the renters?
16 He will come and kill them. He will give the vineyard to others." When the people heard this, they said, "We hope this never happens!"
17 Jesus looked right at them and said, "Here is something I want you to explain the meaning of. It is written, " 'The stone the builders didn't accept has become the most important stone of all.' (Psalm 118:22)
18 Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces. But the stone will crush anyone it falls on."
19 The teachers of the law and the chief priests looked for a way to arrest Jesus at once. They knew he had told that story against them. But they were afraid of the people.

Is It Right to Pay Taxes to Caesar?

20 The religious leaders sent spies to keep a close watch on Jesus. The spies pretended to be honest. They hoped they could trap Jesus with something he would say. Then they could hand him over to the power and authority of the governor.
21 So the spies questioned Jesus. "Teacher," they said, "we know that you speak and teach what is right. We know you don't favor one person over another. You teach the way of God truthfully.
22 Is it right for us to pay taxes to Caesar or not?"
23 Jesus saw they were trying to trick him. So he said to them,
24 "Show me a silver coin. Whose picture and words are on it?"
25 "Caesar's," they replied. He said to them, "Then give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar. And give to God what belongs to God."
26 They were not able to trap him with what he had said there in front of all the people. Amazed by his answer, they became silent.

Marriage When the Dead Rise

27 The Sadducees do not believe that people rise from the dead. Some of them came to Jesus with a question.
28 "Teacher," they said, "Moses wrote for us about a man's brother who dies. Suppose the brother leaves a wife but has no children. Then the man must get married to the widow. He must have children to carry on his dead brother's name.
29 "There were seven brothers. The first one got married to a woman. He died without leaving any children.
30 The second one got married to her.
31 And then the third one got married to her. One after another, the seven brothers got married to her. They all died. None left any children.
32 Finally, the woman died too.
33 Now then, when the dead rise, whose wife will she be? All seven brothers were married to her."
34 Jesus replied, "People in this world get married. And their parents give them to get married.
35 But it will not be like that when the dead rise. Those who are considered worthy to take part in what happens at that time won't get married. And their parents won't give them to be married.
36 They can't die anymore. They are like the angels. They are God's children. They will be given a new form of life when the dead rise.
37 "Remember the story of Moses and the bush. Even Moses showed that the dead rise. The Lord said to him, 'I am the God of Abraham. I am the God of Isaac. And I am the God of Jacob.'(Exodus 3:6)
38 He is not the God of the dead. He is the God of the living. In his eyes, everyone is alive."
39 Some of the teachers of the law replied, "You have spoken well, teacher!"
40 And no one dared to ask him any more questions.

Whose Son Is the Christ?

41 Jesus said to them, "Why do people say that the Christ is the Son of David?
42 David himself says in the Book of Psalms, " 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand
43 until I put your enemies under your control." ' (Psalm 110:1)
44 David calls him 'Lord.' So how can he be David's son?"
45 All the people were listening. Jesus said to his disciples,
46 "Watch out for the teachers of the law. They like to walk around in long robes. They love to be greeted in the market places. They love to have the most important seats in the synagogues. They also love to have the places of honor at dinners.
47 They take over the houses of widows. They say long prayers to show off. God will punish those men very much."

Luke 20 Commentary

Chapter 20

The priests and scribes question Christ's authority. (1-8) The parable of the vineyard and husbandmen. (9-19) Of giving tribute. (20-26) Concerning the resurrection. (27-38) The scribes silenced. (39-47)

Verses 1-8 Men often pretend to examine the evidences of revelation, and the truth of the gospel, when only seeking excuses for their own unbelief and disobedience. Christ answered these priests and scribes with a plain question about the baptism of John, which the common people could answer. They all knew it was from heaven, nothing in it had an earthly tendency. Those that bury the knowledge they have, are justly denied further knowledge. It was just with Christ to refuse to give account of his authority, to those who knew the baptism of John to be from heaven, yet would not believe in him, nor own their knowledge.

Verses 9-19 Christ spake this parable against those who resolved not to own his authority, though the evidence of it was so full. How many resemble the Jews who murdered the prophets and crucified Christ, in their enmity to God, and aversion to his service, desiring to live according to their lusts, without control! Let all who are favoured with God's word, look to it that they make proper use of their advantages. Awful will be the doom, both of those who reject the Son, and of those who profess to reverence Him, yet render not the fruits in due season. Though they could not but own that for such a sin, such a punishment was just, yet they could not bear to hear of it. It is the folly of sinners, that they persevere in sinful ways, though they dread the destruction at the end of those ways.

Verses 20-26 Those who are most crafty in their designs against Christ and his gospel, cannot hide them. He did not give a direct answer, but reproved them for offering to impose upon him; and they could not fasten upon any thing wherewith to stir up either the governor or the people against him. The wisdom which is from above, will direct all who teach the way of God truly, to avoid the snares laid for them by wicked men; and will teach our duty to God, to our rulers, and to all men, so clearly, that opposers will have no evil to say of us.

Verses 27-38 It is common for those who design to undermine any truth of God, to load it with difficulties. But we wrong ourselves, and wrong the truth of Christ, when we form our notions of the world of spirits by this world of sense. There are more worlds than one; a present visible world, and a future unseen world; and let every one compare this world and that world, and give the preference in his thoughts and cares to that which deserves them. Believers shall obtain the resurrection from the dead, that is the blessed resurrection. What shall be the happy state of the inhabitants of that world, we cannot express or conceive, ( 1 Corinthians. 2:9 ) are entirely taken up therewith; when there is perfection of holiness there will be no occasion for preservatives from sin. And when God called himself the God of these patriarchs, he meant that he was a God all-sufficient to them, ( Genesis 17:1 ) , their exceeding great Reward, ( Genesis 15:1 ) . He never did that for them in this world, which answered the full extent of his undertaking; therefore there must be another life, in which he will do that for them, which will completely fulfil the promise.

Verses 39-47 The scribes commended the reply Christ made to the Sadducees about the resurrection, but they were silenced by a question concerning the Messiah. Christ, as God, was David's Lord; but Christ, as man, was David's son. The scribes would receive the severest judgement for defrauding the poor widows, and for their abuse of religion, particularly of prayer, which they used as a pretence for carrying on worldly and wicked plans. Dissembled piety is double sin. Then let us beg of God to keep us from pride, ambition, covetousness, and every evil thing; and to teach us to seek that honour which comes from him alone.

Luke 20 Commentaries