Exodus 12:29

29 At midnight the Lord struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.

Exodus 12:29 Meaning and Commentary

Exodus 12:29

And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the
firstborn in the land of Egypt
The midnight of the fifteenth of Nisan, as the Targum of Jonathan, when fast asleep, and thoughtless of any danger; and it being at such a time must strike with a greater horror and terror, when sensible of the blow, which might be attended with a great noise, that might awaken the rest: from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne;
the heir to his crown, who was to have sat upon his throne, or already did, being taken a partner with him in it: unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon;
or prison, that was grinding at the mill there, ( Exodus 11:5 ) which was the work and business the prisoners were often put to, as appears from the case of Samson, ( Judges 16:21 ) , and all the firstborn of cattle;
which were left of the other plagues, which had consumed great numbers of them.

Exodus 12:29 In-Context

27 you shall say, "It is the passover sacrifice to the Lord, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck down the Egyptians but spared our houses.' " And the people bowed down and worshiped.
28 The Israelites went and did just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.
29 At midnight the Lord struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.
30 Pharaoh arose in the night, he and all his officials and all the Egyptians; and there was a loud cry in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.
31 Then he summoned Moses and Aaron in the night, and said, "Rise up, go away from my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, worship the Lord, as you said.