This summary of the book of Micah provides information about the title, author(s), date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Book of Micah.
Little is known about the prophet Micah beyond what can be learned from the book itself and from Jer 26:18. Micah was from the town of Moresheth (1:1), probably Moresheth Gath (1:14) in southern Judah. The prophecy attests to Micah's deep sensitivity to the social ills of his day, especially as they affected the small towns and villages of his homeland.
Micah prophesied sometime between 750 and 686 b.c. during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah (1:1; Jer 26:18). He was therefore a contemporary of Isaiah (see Isa 1:1) and Hosea (see Hos 1:1). Micah predicted the fall of Samaria (1:6), which took place in 722-721. This would place his early ministry in the reigns of Jotham (750-732) and Ahaz (735-715). (The reigns of Jotham and Ahaz overlapped.) Micah's message reflects social conditions prior to the religious reforms under Hezekiah (715-686). Micah's ministry most likely fell within the period 735-700.
If Micah himself wrote out his messages, the date for the earliest written form of his work would be c. 700. If one of his disciples arranged his messages in their present form, the date would be the early seventh century b.c. If a later editor collected and arranged his messages, the date would still need to be early enough in the seventh century to allow time for his prophecy of Jerusalem's fall (3:12) to become familiar enough to be quoted in Jer 26:18 c. 608.
The background of the book is the same as that found in the earlier portions of Isaiah, though Micah does not exhibit the same knowledge of Jerusalem's political life as Isaiah does. Perhaps this is because he, like Amos, was from a village in Judah. The relevant Biblical texts covering this period (see Date above) are 2Ki 15:32 -- 20:21; 2Ch 27-32; Isa 7; 20; 36-39.
Israel was in an apostate condition. Micah predicted the fall of her capital, Samaria (1:5-7), and also foretold the inevitable desolation of Judah (1:9-16).
Several significant historical events occurred during this period:
As the Outline shows, Micah's message alternates between oracles of doom and oracles of hope -- in terms of Ro 11:22, between God's "sternness" and his "kindness." The theme is divine judgment and deliverance. Micah also stresses that God hates idolatry, injustice, rebellion and empty ritualism (see 3:8 and note), but delights in pardoning the penitent (7:18-19;s). Finally, the prophet declares that Zion will have greater glory in the future than ever before (see, e.g., 4:1-2 and note on 4:1-5). The Davidic kingdom, though it will seem to come to an end, will reach greater heights through the coming Messianic deliverer (5:1-4). Key passages include 1:2; 3:8-12; 5:1-4; 6:2,6-8; 7:18-20.
From the NIV Study Bible, Introductions to the Books of the Bible, Micah
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