Lukas 20

1 0 And it came about on one of the yamim Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was saying shiurim to HaAm (the People) in the Beis Hamikdash and was preaching the Besuras HaGeulah, the Rashei Hakohanim and the Sofrim with the Ziknei HaAm stood by;
2 They spoke, saying to him, Tell us by what shlita (authority) you do these things, or who is the one having given to you this shlita?
3 In reply, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them, I will also confront you will a she’elah, and you tell me:
4 The tevilah of teshuva of Yochanan—was it from Shomayim or from Bnei Adam?
5 And they reasoned to themselves saying, If we say, from Shomayim, he will say, why did you not believe him?
6 But if we say, from Bnei Adam, HaAm (the People) all will subject us to sequilah (stoning), for HaAm Yisroel are all convinced that Yochanan is a navi.
7 And they answered that they did not have daas of the origin of the tevilah of teshuva of Yochanan.
8 And Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach said to them, Neither am I telling you by what shlita (authority) I do these things.
9 And he began to tell this mashal to HaAm Yisroel. A certain ish planted a kerem and leased it to koremim (vine keepers) and he went away for a long time. [YESHAYAH 5:1-7]
10 And in season he sent to the koremim (vine keepers) an eved (servant) that from the pri of the kerem they will give to him. But the koremim (vine keepers) sent the eved away empty, having beaten him.
11 And he proceeded to send another eved. But him also, when they had beaten and dishonored him, they sent him away empty.
12 And he proceeded to send an eved shlishi (a third servant). And also this one, having wounded, they threw out.
13 And the Adon of the kerem, said, What should I do? I will send Beni Ahuvi. Perhaps this one they will respect.
14 But having seen him, the koremim (vine keepers) were reasoning with one another saying, This one is the Bechor, the heir. Let us kill him, that the bechorah may become ours.
15 And having driven him outside the kerem, they killed him. What then will the Baal HaKerem do to them?
16 He will come and will destroy these koremim (vine keepers) and will give the kerem to others. And having heard this, HaAm Yisroel said, Chas vShalom!
17 But having looked at them, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said, What then is this which has been written: EVEN MAASU HAYTAH LEROSH PINAH (The Stone they rejected became the capstone)? [TEHILLIM 118:22]
18 Everyone having fallen upon that even (stone) will be DAKU (broken into pieces, DANIEL 2:34), and upon whomever it falls, it will crush him [YESHAYAH 8:14,15; DANIEL 2:34f].
19 And the Sofrim and the Rashei Hakohenim sought to lay their hands upon him in the same hour, but they were afraid of HaAm Yisroel, for they knew that he spoke this mashal (parable) against them.
20 And having watched carefully, they sent spies pretending themselves to be tzaddikim, that they might catch him in his dvar, so as to deliver him to the rulers and the manhigim under the Moshel (Governor).
21 And they set a she’elah (question) before him, saying, Rabbi, we have daas that you speak beemes in the shiurim you say and you show no deference toward anyone, but on the basis of HaEmes you give torah about HaDerech Hashem.
22 Is it mutar for us to pay tax to Caesar or not?
23 But having noticed the ORMAH (cunning, craftiness, BERESHIS 3:1) in their manner, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them,
24 Show me a denarius. Whose demut (likeness) has it? And whose inscription? And they said, Caesar’s.
25 And he said to them, Then give the things of Caesar to Caesar and the things of Hashem to Hashem.
26 And they were not able to catch him in his dvar before the people and, having been mishpoyel (marveled) at his teshuva (answer), they were silent.
27 And some of the Tzedukim—the Tzedukim are the ones speaking against the Techiyas HaMesim, who say there is none—approached Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach. They set a she’elah (question) before him,
28 Saying, Rabbi, Moshe Rabbenu laid it down in writing to us, if someone’s ach dies and has an isha, and UVEN EIN LO (and there is no son to him), that he should take the almanah of his ach and he should raise up a zera (seed) to his ach. [Dt 25:5]
29 Now there were shiva achim. And the first took an isha, and died UVEN EIN LO (and there is no son to him).
30 And the second took her to be his isha, and he died childless.
31 And the third took her; and likewise also the seventh did not leave behind a ben and they all died.
32 And lemaskana (finally) the isha died.
33 The isha, then, in the Techiyas HaMesim, of which of them does she become the wife? For shiva had her as isha (wife).
34 And Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach said to them, The banim of the Olam Hazeh marry and are given in marriage:
35 But the ones having been considered worthy to attain to the Olam HaBah and the Techiyas HaMesim neither marry nor are given in marriage.
36 For neither is it possible any longer for them to die, for they are like malachim and they are bnei haElohim, being bnei haTechiyas HaMesim.
37 But that the Mesim are made to stand up alive, even Moshe revealed at the burning bush, as he calls Adonoi ELOHEI AVRAHAM ELOHEI YITZCHAK VELOHEI YAAKOV. [SHEMOT 3:6]
38 But Hashem is not the G-d of Mesim but is Elohei HaChayyim, for to Hashem all are alive.
39 And, in reply, some of the Sofrim said, Rabbi, you spoke well.
40 For no longer were they daring to set a she’elah (question) before him regarding anything.
41 And he said to them, How do they say that the Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach is to be [merely] Dovid’s ben?
42 For Dovid himself says in the book of Tehillim, NEUM HASHEM LADONI: SHEV LIMINI,
44 Therefore, if Dovid calls him Adon, how is he [merely] ben Dovid?
45 In the hearing of all the people, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to his talmidim,
46 Beware of the Sofrim (Rabbonim), the ones wanting to strut around in long kaftans and loving [obsequious] Birkat Shalom greetings in the marketplaces and the rashei hamoshavot (chief seats) in the shuls and the places of kavod at seudos tishen,
47 Which devour the batim (houses) of the almanot (widows) and for the sake of appearance daven lengthy tefillos (prayers): the same shall receive greater damnation.

Lukas 20 Commentary

Chapter 20

The priests and scribes question Christ's authority. (1-8) The parable of the vineyard and husbandmen. (9-19) Of giving tribute. (20-26) Concerning the resurrection. (27-38) The scribes silenced. (39-47)

Verses 1-8 Men often pretend to examine the evidences of revelation, and the truth of the gospel, when only seeking excuses for their own unbelief and disobedience. Christ answered these priests and scribes with a plain question about the baptism of John, which the common people could answer. They all knew it was from heaven, nothing in it had an earthly tendency. Those that bury the knowledge they have, are justly denied further knowledge. It was just with Christ to refuse to give account of his authority, to those who knew the baptism of John to be from heaven, yet would not believe in him, nor own their knowledge.

Verses 9-19 Christ spake this parable against those who resolved not to own his authority, though the evidence of it was so full. How many resemble the Jews who murdered the prophets and crucified Christ, in their enmity to God, and aversion to his service, desiring to live according to their lusts, without control! Let all who are favoured with God's word, look to it that they make proper use of their advantages. Awful will be the doom, both of those who reject the Son, and of those who profess to reverence Him, yet render not the fruits in due season. Though they could not but own that for such a sin, such a punishment was just, yet they could not bear to hear of it. It is the folly of sinners, that they persevere in sinful ways, though they dread the destruction at the end of those ways.

Verses 20-26 Those who are most crafty in their designs against Christ and his gospel, cannot hide them. He did not give a direct answer, but reproved them for offering to impose upon him; and they could not fasten upon any thing wherewith to stir up either the governor or the people against him. The wisdom which is from above, will direct all who teach the way of God truly, to avoid the snares laid for them by wicked men; and will teach our duty to God, to our rulers, and to all men, so clearly, that opposers will have no evil to say of us.

Verses 27-38 It is common for those who design to undermine any truth of God, to load it with difficulties. But we wrong ourselves, and wrong the truth of Christ, when we form our notions of the world of spirits by this world of sense. There are more worlds than one; a present visible world, and a future unseen world; and let every one compare this world and that world, and give the preference in his thoughts and cares to that which deserves them. Believers shall obtain the resurrection from the dead, that is the blessed resurrection. What shall be the happy state of the inhabitants of that world, we cannot express or conceive, ( 1 Corinthians. 2:9 ) are entirely taken up therewith; when there is perfection of holiness there will be no occasion for preservatives from sin. And when God called himself the God of these patriarchs, he meant that he was a God all-sufficient to them, ( Genesis 17:1 ) , their exceeding great Reward, ( Genesis 15:1 ) . He never did that for them in this world, which answered the full extent of his undertaking; therefore there must be another life, in which he will do that for them, which will completely fulfil the promise.

Verses 39-47 The scribes commended the reply Christ made to the Sadducees about the resurrection, but they were silenced by a question concerning the Messiah. Christ, as God, was David's Lord; but Christ, as man, was David's son. The scribes would receive the severest judgement for defrauding the poor widows, and for their abuse of religion, particularly of prayer, which they used as a pretence for carrying on worldly and wicked plans. Dissembled piety is double sin. Then let us beg of God to keep us from pride, ambition, covetousness, and every evil thing; and to teach us to seek that honour which comes from him alone.

Lukas 20 Commentaries

The Orthodox Jewish Bible fourth edition, OJB. Copyright 2002,2003,2008,2010, 2011 by Artists for Israel International. All rights reserved.