And I am very sore displeased with the heathen [that are]
The Chaldeans and Persians, and other nations, enemies of the Jews, who were now free from war, and enjoyed great prosperity, when the state and condition of the Jews was very low and discouraging: for I was but a little displeased:
that is, with his people the Jews, for their ingratitude, idolatry, and immorality; and which displeasure he showed by suffering them to be carried into captivity; see ( Isaiah 54:8 ) : and they helped forward the affliction;
that is, the heathens, among whom the Jews were carried captive; they added to their affliction; they oppressed them more than they ought to have done, and more than was agreeable to the will of God and right in his sight; and they insulted them in their misery, and rejoiced over them. The word (rze) , in the Arabic language, signifies to "abound" F21; and the meaning is, that they abounded in bringing evil upon the people of the Jews; they multiplied their afflictions and distresses.