Fiimus, a merchant, converted from Manicheism by Augustine, ii 455; becomes a presbyter, 4,56.
Fisher, Bp. of Rochester, his cruel treatment of a Lollard, iv. 200 ; concise account of him, ib. note.
Fizraf, Abp. of Armagh, opposes the Mendicants, iv. 75; summooed before the Pope, ib.; appears and defends his cause, ib.; suffers persecution, 76 ; his death and character, ib.
Flaccilla, the wife of Theodosius the Great, her character, ii. 208.
Flagellants, iv. 64.
Flavin, Domitilla, banished, i. 101.
Flavian, Bp. of Antioch, his zeal, ii. 83; composes the famous vor.. v. T T
doxology, Gloria Patri, Ate. ib.; intercedes at court for the
people of Antioch, 281; bis success, 282.
Flaritis, Clemens, the consul, put to death by Domitiun, i. 101 ;
his character, 102.
Fleury, his credulity as an historian, i. 472.
Fluentius, Bp. of Florence, reprimanded by the Pope for teaching
that Antichrist was eome, iii. 422.
Fortunatus, a presbyter of Carthage, made bishop by a faction in
opposition to Cyprian, i. 370 ; sinks into insignificance, 376.
— Bp. of Assarae, lapses, i. 436.
— his life of Hilary condemned, ii. a6i.
Francis I. King of France, persecutes the Waldcnses, iii. 500;
surprised into the measure, 507; revokes the edict, ib.;
his repentance, ib.; becomes candidate for the empire, i v. 504;
his rivalry with Charles the Fifth, ib.; persecutes the
Lutherans, v. 153, 544; taken prisoner, 434 ; his treaty with
the Pope, 435 ; his treaty to recover his liberty, ib.; his in-
consistent conduct respecting the Reformation, 544; ab-
solved from his oath by the Pope, 547.
— of Assisiuin, founder of the Minor Friars, disinherited for
enthusiasm, iv. 22 ; his character, ib.; his pretended mira-
culous wounds, ib.; his great fame, ib.
Franciscans, their character, iv. 3 ; enlist men for the crusades,
11; intrude into parishes, 19; assume arbitary p<>wer in
the Sorbonne, ib.
Franks, short account of them, ii. 513 ; receive Christianity, 515.
Frederic, of Devonshire, made bishop of Utrecht, iii. 230 ; rebukes
Lewis the Meek, 231 ; assassinated, ib.
— the Wise, Elector of Saxony, promotes literature, iv. 319;
patronizes Luther, ib. 326, 367; his character, 329, 349,
361, 367, 382, note ; 485, 503, 573, 609; 43, 74, 97,
125, 205; interposes in favour of Luther, iv. 361 ; his extra-
ordinary firmness and discretion in the case of Luther, 364,
367, 384, 434, 460, 480, 486, note ; 525, 543, 563, 609;
his letter to Erasmus, 388 ; receives the golden rose, 389;
his improvement in religion, 425, 480; v. 243 ; his in-
structions to bis agent at Rome, iv. 460; his interview with
Aleander, 481 ; seeks an interview with Erasmus, 485;
endeavours to repress Luther's acrimony, 495, note ; 610;
refuses the empire, 503 ; his conduct at the diet of Worms,
53*, 540, 661 ; extracts from his letters, 541; his admira-
tion of Luther's speech, 553, conceals Luther in the castle
of Warburg, 563 ; his opinions and orders respecting pri«
vate masses, v. 34, 373 ; his perplexities on account uf
disturbances at YVittemberg, 41 ; sends a communication to
Luther on the subject, ib.; his conduct respecting the fanatics,
45 ; his great conscientiousness, ib.; sends a confidential
agentto Luther,54; his replies to the remonstrances of Duke
George, 81, 82 ; receives two papal brieves complaining of
his conduct, 113, 571; Iiis answers thereto, 114, 115;
enters his protest against fettering the use of the Scriptures,
116 ; his critical situation at one period, 123 ; consults the
reformed ministers on lawfulness of defending his subjects by
force, 126; his prudent conduct at Nuremburg, 163; his
remonstrance to the diet, 167,168; his answer to an intem-
perate letter from the Emperor, 169; exerts his authority
against Carolstadt, 193, 194 ; his death, 199, note ; 241, &
seq.; his observations respecting the Rustic war, 224 ; re-
view of his politics, 245; his answer to Luther concerning
his resignation of the monkish habit, 247 ; his answer to a
complaint of Henry VIII. against Luther, 356 ; how far he
supported the reformers, 368; vindicated from charge of
Frederic, Duke of Holstein, succeeds to the throne of Denmark,
v. 130 ; promotes the Reformation, ib.; his edict of tolera-
Friars, see Dominicans, Franciscans, and Mendicants.
Frumentiut, carried, when a boy, into Abysssinia, ii. 103 ; escapes
being murdered, and is promoted at court, 103 ; projects
the conversion of the country, ib.; consecrated Bishop of
the Indians, ib.; his success, ib,; unsuccessful attempt of
Constantius to depose him, 104.
Fulgentius, Bp. of Ruspa:, his birth and education, iii. 2 ; his
early austerities, ib.; enters the monastery of Faustus, ib.;
suffers severe persecution from the Arians, ib.; his humility
and sincerity, 3 ; declines an opportunity of revenge, ib.; his
reflection on the splendourof Theodoric, ib.; banished, ib.; sent
for by Thrasamond, 4; excites his admiration, ib.; remanded
to exile, ib.; restored, ib.; his death and theology, ib.; his
epistles, 6; his humble surrender of precedency, 7, note.
Gabriel, a reformer, accused by Duke George, v. 81 ; brief sketch
of his history, 569.
Gal, a missionary, his character and labours, iii. 112 ; erects a
Galatia, church of, i. 56; Paul's epistle to it, ib.; its just views
of the Gospel, 57 ; changes for the worse, 58 ; reproved by
the apostle, 59; probability of its improvement. 61.
Galdinus, Bp. of Milan, opposes the Cathari, iii. 387 ; his death
occasioned by his vehemence in opposing them, 388.
Galen, the physician, his testimony to the patience of the
Christians, i. 536.
Galerius, Maximus, made proconsul of Carthage, i. 451 ; con-
demns Cyprian, 452, 453.
— one of the Caesars under Dioclesian, instigates that emperor
against the Christians, ii. 2 ; his artifices, 4 ; succeeds Dio-
clesian in the eastern part of the empire, 19 ; smitten with
an incurable disease, 32 ; his dreadful sufferings, ib.; takes
off the persecution, and entreats the prayers of the Christians,
ib.; exceeded all the emperors in hostility to Christianity,
ib.; his death, 33.
Galilee, church of, i. 36.
Galle, Peter, defends the papal dogmas against Olaus Petri,
v. 134; engaged in a second disputation, 140.
Gallienus, emperor, befriends the Christians, i. 479; his cha-
racter, 480 ; death, 489.
Galiiu, the proconsul, his indifference to the progress of Chris-
tianity, i. 74.
Gallus, the emperor, succeeds Uecius, i. 377, 412 ; allows
peace to the church, 377 ; persecutes the church, 412 ; bis
Gamaliel, his advice respecting the apostles, i. 14.
Gausbtrt, a missionary, made a bishop in Sweden, iii. 238;
is banished, 239.
Gatasius, Bp. of Rome, his decretals, ii.512 ; his character, ib.;
his treatise against the Lupercalia, ib.; writes against Pela-
Genseric, King of the Vandals, desolates Africa, ii. 459; sur-
prises Carthage, 489; his cruelty, 489,491, 494; professes
Arianism, 489; persecutes the church in Sicily, 49a;
pillages Rome, 493; his Arian intolerance, 495; his
Gentiles, their partial mixture with Jews, i. 44; put on an equal
footing with Jews, 46.
George, an Arian bishop, cruelly persecutes the Trinitarians,
— Bp. of Alexandria, murdered by Pagans, ii. 131; exalted by
monkish ignorance into St. George of England, ib. note.
— Duke of Saxony, his opinion of Luther's doctrine, iv. 332 ;
Kpposes the Reformation, ib.; promotes a disputation be-
tween F.ckius and Carolstadt, 400 ; bis remark respecting
the Pope's supremacy, 411 ; accuses Luther to the elector,
433 ; his attachment to the papacy, 502 ; his honourable
declaration respecting Luther's safe conduct, 561; his cha-
racter, 567; v. 260, 391,488; persecutes the Lutherans,
51, note ; 83, 146; excites the popish bishops, 74; re-
monstutes with Duke John for tolerating the reformers, So ;
procures edict of Nuremberg, 81 ; remonstrates with Fre-
deric for supporting the Lutherans, ib.; his proclamation
against Luther's version, 85; his hypocritical conduct at
Nuremberg, 124; solicits Erasmus to oppose Luther, 259;
his answer to Henry the Eighth, 356; his answer to Lu-
ther's concessions, 361 ; his answers to the Landgrave of
Hesse, 376, 428 ; conducts a secret treaty against the elector
and landgrave, 439; presses the landgrave against the
Ref iriuatiou, 450; his acknowledgements in favour of
Luther, 488 ; mortally offended with Luther, 490 ; his ac-
count of the Anabaptists, 496.
— Marquis of Brandenburg, favours the Reformation, v. 143.
Gerard, Bp. of Toul, his labours, iii. 255.
Bp. of Cambray and Arras, holds a council to condemn the
disciples of Gundulphus, iii. 287; obtains a confession from them agreeable to his views, 288.
Bp. of Choriad, his labours, and success, iii. 292 ; persecuted,
ib.; murdered, 293.
a German, suffers severe persecution in England, iii. 433.
— Catelin, a Waldensian martyr, his constancy, iii. 498.
Gerbelius, a Lutheran, his letter to Luther upon the disappearance of the reformer, v. 1.
Germanicvs, his patience and courage, i. 213.
Germanius, an Arian, elected Bishop of Sirmium, ii. 85. Germanus, his skill and authority in opposing Pelagianism, ii. 387 ; his character, 483; elected bishop of Auxerre, ib.; visits Britain to oppose Pelagianism, 484; his zealous preaching, ib.; success, ib.; commands an army of Britons and gains a victory, 485; returns to the continent, ib.; again called to Britain, 492 ; his death, 493. — Bp. of Constantinople, supports image worship, iii. 155; deposed, 157.
Gerson,John, Chancellor of the university of Paris, his celebrity, iv. 225; maintains right of council of Constance to depose the Pope, ib.; his acrimony towards Huss and Jerom of Prague, 228; preaches concerning reform in the church, 254; his treatise on the trial of spirits, 255; his unjust conduct towards Jerom, 258; his treatise against communion in both kinds, 273; Cajetan's declaration respecting him, 319.
Geysa, chief prince of Hungary, converted, iii. 252; dissuaded from apostacy by Adalbert, 253.
Ghost, Holy, first effusion of at Jerusalem, i. 3; manner thereof, 5; termination thereof, 498; ii. 298 ; second effusion of, ib.; its solid effects, 370; no regular history of, 454; arguments for divinity of, iii. 5; controversy touching procession of, 311; effusion of in England, 109; effusion of among the Paulicians, 203.
Gibbon, Mr. the historian, strictures on his work, i. 472, 499.
ii. 9, 428, note; iii. 202, note; iv. 16. Giltias the Wise, preaches in Scotland and Ireland, iii. 27 ;
builds a monastery, ib.; his discourses on the ruin of Great
Giles, a Spanish cardinal, his expostulation with the Pope, iv. 52.
GiUebert de la Porree, Bp. of Poictiere, his controversy with Bernard, iii. 372; condemned by council of Rheinis, and recants, 373.
Gingis Kan, his conquests, iv. 30.
Gilbert, extract from his writings, iii. 278.
Gisla, Queen of Hungary, her piety and zeal, iii. 291.
Gistcbert, a monk, is instrumental in reviving learning at Cambridge, iii. 420.
Glapio, confessor of Charles the Fifth, attempts to compose is
religious differences at Worms, iv. 525, 625.
Gnostics, see Docetx.
Godeschalcus, Duke of the Vandals, revives Christianity amoc;
his subjects, iii. 293; his zeal and personal labours, lb.
Gondeband, King of the Burgundians, dismisses his captives;
the request of Epiphanius, ii. 511.
Gontamond, succeeds Huneric, ii. 509; stops the persecntioe a
■ the orthodox, ib.; increases his kindness to them, 515; b
Gooze, John, a Lollard, his martyrdom, iv. 197, 198.
Gordiun, Emperor, reigns six years and is murdered, i. 321.
Gormo III. King of Denmark, labours to extirpate the Gospel
iii. 256; compelled to desist, ib.
Gotebald, an English missionary, made bishop in Norway,iii.255.
Goths, drawn over to Arianisra, ii. 168, 241 ; their kincte
destroyed, iii. 143.
Gotteschaleus, a German monk, his partiality for Augustiw-
writings, iii. 221 ; his opinions, 222 ; offers to undergo tkt
ordeal of fire, ib.; spreads Augustine's doctrines in DaJniiffi
and Pannonia, ib.; holds a conference with Notingus re-
specting predestination, ib.; his opinions calumniated by
Kabanus, ib.-, defends himself, 223 ; condemned in a synod,
ib.; degraded, beaten, and imprisoned, ib.; reduced byte
sufferings, and burns his own book, 224; dies in prison, ib.;
denied Christian burial, ib.; his character, ib.; vindicated
by a council, 225.
Government, Church, what, in first century, i. 160; necessityoi.
513; forms of, different in early ages, ib.; still a general
outline prevalent, 514; three distinct orders demonstrated
by epistles of Ignatius, 515.
Gratian, Emperor, succeeds Valentinian, ii. 178; chooses ThW"
dosius as his colleague, ib.; his distinguished godliness, ib.;
his pious letter to Ambrose, 179; his death and charac-
— a monk, his collection of his canon laws, iii. 419.
Gravamina Centum, what, v. ill.
Gregory, Thaumaturgus, attends Origen's lectures during
father's exile, i. 320 ; attends council held on Paul of *
mosata, 488 ; was a great luminary, 490 ; accounts of
miracles not to be altogether rejected, 502; his birth and
idolatrous education, ib.; studies religion under Origen,5°3|
gives himself to prayer and retirement, ib.; ordained, Id-'
his creed, 504; his successful preaching, 505; probability
of his miracles, ib.; his flight from persecution, and return,
506; his canonical epistle, ib.; his death and cbartf-
— a Cappadocian, appointed Bishop of Alexandria upon the *|
position of Athanasius, ii. 78; his violent proceedings, 7P<
his death, 83.
Gregory, of Nazianzum, the elder, his conversion, ii. 99, 272; becomes bishop of that place, 100, 272; his piety and labours, 100; communicates with the Arians, 273; recovered from their snares by his son, ib.; dies at an advanced age, 274.
— of Nazianzum, remonstrates with his brother for practising physic at the court of Julian, ii. 127 ; apt to overstate matters, 130, note; exhorts Christians to meekness upon Julian's death, 147; appointed to see of Constantinople, 182,274; resigns in disgust, 184, 275; his intimacy with Basil, 265, 273; embraces a retired life, 267; joined with Basil in forming rules of monastic discipline, ib.; born about time of Nicene council, 271; his great learning, 272; his conversion, 273; his acquaintance with Julian, ib.; penetrates into bis character, ib.; recovers his father from Arian snares, ib.; offended at the offer of an obscure-bishopric, 274; assists his father in his pastoral labours, ib.; holds a conventicle, ib.; why unfit for bishopric of Constantinople, ib.; his great virtues, ib.; and eloquence, 275 ; his death and character, ib.; his sermons, 276; poems, 277. Bp. of Elvira, a Luciferian, his character, ii. 201. JS'yssen, persecuted under Valens, ii. 250; his writings, ib.;
visits Jerusalem, 251 ; his piety, ib. I. Bp. of Rome, his birth, iii. 31; assumes the monastic habit, ib.; his piety, ib.; his previous life, ib. note; sent on ecclesiastical affairs to Constantinople, 33; his intimacy with Leander of Seville, ib.; begins his commentary on Job, ib.; quashes the absurd fancies of Eutychius, ib.; his bodily afflictions, 34, 56, 57 ; chosen Bishop of Rome, 34 ; endeavours to avoid the appointment, ib.; his sermon on the plague, 35; appoints a litany, 36; conceals himself to avoid the bishopric, ib.; compelled to enter upou it, 37 ; his conduct in his see, 38; his notion of its supremacy, 38,54; review of his letters, 38, &seq.; his intimacy with Anastasius, 41; his success in drawing over the Lombards to orthodoxy, 42 ; his regular distribution of alms, 43; remedies the desolation of the churches, ib.; corrects abuses in Sicily, ib.; prevents the persecution of the Jews, 45, 46; orders a severe punishment to a person for deflowering a virgin, 49; his jealousy of the see of Constantinople, 54, 64; his notions of justification, 54; his expectation of the day of judgment, 55, 61, 81; his imprudent decision respecting images, 55,153 ; his conduct to the Emperors Mauritius and Phocas, ,59; his prejudices against Mauritius, 60; makes peace with Aigilulph, 61 ; censured by Mauritius, 62; bis answer, ib.; his causes of complaint against the emperor, 64 & seq.; receives the image of Phocas with respect, 67 ; congratulates him on his elevation, ib.; writes a second letter to Phocas, 68; his superstition, 65, 68,70; his conduct to Phocas vindicated, 69; his conduct regarding Britain, ib.; sends a mission thith«r, 71;
his care of the infant church there, 79; his conduct regard-
ing Britain vindicated, 83; his death and character, 85;
his works, 87, & seq.
Gregory, of Tours, his writings, iii. 95.
— II. the first Pope, why so called, iii. 156 ; his rebellions con-
duct towards the emperor, 158 ; exacts from Boniface as
oath of subjection, 175.
— III. Pope, his insolent letter to the Emperor, iii. 159; excom-
municates all who speak against images, 160; supports
a rebellious duke against the King of the Lombards, ib.; bit
proposals to Charles Martel, ib.; his death, ib.
•— Bp. of Utrecht, his labours and character, iii. 186.
— VI. Pope, deposed for simony, iii. 285, note.
■— VII. Pope, see Hildebrand.
— IX. Pope, his attempt to revive crusades, iv. 8; his anti-
christian bull, ib.
— XI. Pope, his bull to excommunicate Militzius, iv. 77-
— XII. Pope, or rather a claimant, iv. 213; pressed to resign,
223; deposed, 226; his character, ib.
— a Hussite, founder of the unity of the Hussites, iv. 280; his
endeavours to promote vital godliness, ib.; distinguished in
the Hussite persecution, 284; undergoes the rack, ib.
Grosseleste, Robert, Bp. of Lincoln, his birth and education,
iv. 41 ; suspected of magic on account of his learning, ib.;
associates with the Mendicant orders, 42; his indistinct
views of religion, ib. 46, 60, 62 ; elected bishop, 46; com-
mences a reform, ib.; favours the Mendicants, ib.; his
translations, 43,46; quarrels with convents, 44; excom-
municated by convent of Canterbury, ib.: treats the sentence
with contempt, ib.; prosecutes his attempts at reform, ib,;
his devotion to the Pope, 45 ; sees into the true character of
the friars, ib.; deceived by a pretended miracle, 46; obtains
letters for reform of the religious orders, ib.; appealed
against and obliged to go to Rome, 47 ; defeated there, ib.;
remonstrates with the Pope, ib.; inveighs against practices
of Home, ib.; his conduct in his diocese, 48 ; refuses obedi-
ence to the Pope, 49; suspended, ib.; his success in esta-
blishing vicarages, ib.; refuses to prefer the Pope's nephew,
50; his epistle on the occasion, ib.; excommunicated by
the Pope, 53 ; disregards the sentence, ib.; blames the
Mendicants on his death-bed, ib.; his character, ib. 56; his
dying conversation, 54; death, 55 ; his idea of the pastoral
office, 57; his sermons, 58; humility, 61; his notion of
divine grace, ib.
Guilhelmus, Bp. of Paris, his writings, iv. 40.
Gvndulphus, disciples of, condemned by council of Arras, iii. 287;
their doctrine, ib.; their confession, 288.
Guthebalt, a missionary, his eminence, iii. 260.
Gylas, an Hungarian chief, baptized, and encourages Christianity,
Waco, King of Norway, persecutes Christians, iii. 259; driven from his throne, ib.; becomes a patron of Christianity, ib.; his zeal, ib.
Hagen, King of Norway, supports Christianity, iii. 259. Hager, Conrade, opposes doctrine of the mass, iv. 74; condemned as a heretic, ib.
Halam, Robert, Bp. of Salisbury, distinguished at council of Constance, iv. 275.
Harold, King of Denmark, baptised, iii. 258 ; supports Chris* tianity, ib.; murdered, ib.; instructs Haco, and restores him to bis dominions, 259,
Harmonius, a noted heretic, composes heretical hymns, ii. 252 ; opposed by Ephraim the Syrian, ib.
Harold, King of Denmark, expelled from his dominions, iii. 235; receives baptism, ib.; is assigned a district in Friezeland, ib.
Hartmurth, a military knight, defends the Reformation, v. g8,
571 ; his character, ib. Havsman Nicholas, Luther's eulogium on him, v. 23 ; opposes
Haymo, a morik, made Bishop of Halberstadt, iii. 231 ; his preaching and writings, ib.; assists at condemnation of Gotteschaleus, ib.; his evangelical doctrines, 232; his superstition, 233.
Heathens, virtuous, question as to their salvation, iv. 525, 532.
Hedio, Caspar, a reformer, his celebrity, v. g6.
Heinricvs, Bp. of Mentz, his character, iii. 433 ; unjustly de-
Helena, mother of Constantine, her munificent support of
Christianity, ii. 45 ; her death, ibHeliogabalus, Emperor, his follies and vices not accompanied by
hostility to Christians, i. 316; his death, ib. Helvetic denomination, what, v. 154.
llenckell, John, chaplain to the Queen of Hungary, his character,
v. 462 ; favours Lutheranism, ib. Henry, (the fowler) Emperor, leads an army into Denmark,
and supports Christianity there, iii. 256.
— 111. Emperor, holds a general council at Sutri, iii. 285, note.
— II. Emperor, patronizes Unwan in bis endeavours to destroy
idolatry, iii. 293.
— III. of England, pretended miracles at his tomb, iii. 332.
— a heretic, iii. 375; his character, ib.; his heresy question
— II. of England, his ineffectual resistance to the Pope, iii.423;
his character, ib.; instance of his barbarity, ib.; holds the Pope's bridle, 480; persecutes the Albigenses, 482.
— Bp. of Upsal, his labours in Finland, iii. 430.
Henri/, of Gaunt, archdeacon of Tournay, called the famous
teacher, his ecclesiastical principles, iv. 18.
— IV. of England, usurps the crown, iv. 167; persecutes the
Lollards, ib. 169.
— V. of England, his conduct at the martyrdom of Badley,
iv. 168 ; persecutes the Lollards, 169 ; his conduct towards
LordCobham, 172,173,184,191; his character, 184, 196;
his jealousy of the Lollards, 186; attacks them in person,
187 ; his unjust war with France, 195; bis death, 196.
—- Duke of Brunswick, opposes Lutheranism, iv. 349 ; v. 87,427;
suspected of calumniating them, 438.
— VIII. of England, his character, iv. 504; v. 391 ; favours
the Reformation, iv. 504; answers Luther, v. 26 ; receives
title of Defender of the Faith, 27; solicits Erasmus to op-
pose Luther, 260 ; his theological pretensions, 263 ; com-
plains to the Saxon princes of Luther, 355; his answers to
Luther's concessions, 358; his treaties with the Pope, 434.
— Duke of Saxony, inclines to reformed doctrines, v. 23 ; com-
pelled to persecute the reformers, 146.
— of Zutphen, a disciple of Luther's, cast into prison, v. 187 ;
escapes and preaches at Bremen, ib.; murdered, 18S; his
trials and martyrdom, 578.
— a monk, sutlers martyrdom for marrying, v. 546.
Heradius, succeeds to the empire, iii. 117 ; sues for peace with
Chosroes, 119; rejects the conditions proposed, 120 ; van-
quishes him, ib.; adopts Menothelite heresy, 121 ; his inces-
tuous marriage, 122 ; his death and character, 124.
Heresy, in first century, i. 133; of Doceta? and Ebionites, 134;
of Cerinthus, 135; of Marcion, 211; respecting person of
Christ, quotation from Eusebius respecting it, 256 ; of Theo-
dosion, 258 ; of Montanus, 260; Irenxus's book of heresies,
271 ; of Praxeas, 281; Sabellian, 281, 482,487 ; of Noctus,
319; of Beryllus, 321 ; of 1'aul of Samosata, 488, 493 ; of
Manes, 497; Arian, ii. 51, 52; Macedonian, 156; Apolli-
narian, 164, 248 ; Macedonian, gives occasion to an explicit
representation of the Holy Ghost in council of Constanti-
nople, 184; of Priscillianists, 187; first attempt to punish
it with death, 188 ; Pelagian, 369,374, 376; insidiousnessof
heresy in general, 394; Nestorian, 525; iii. 120; Eutychian,
ii. 526; iii. 120; Monothelite, iii. 120; of Felix of Urgel,
192; of Rosaelin, 309; of Abelard, 340; of Gillebert de
la Porree, 372 ; of Tanchelin, Peter de Bruys, aud Henrv,
Heretics, controversy respecting their re-baptism, i. 443 ; then-
invariable wickedness, 546; their assemblies forbidden by
an edict, ii. 100.
Hcrigarius, governor of Birca, receives baptism, iii. 238; erects
a church, ib.; supports the Gospel in Sweden, 239.
Hennas, character of his epistle, i. 122.
Hermcnegildus, son of Levigildus, converted by his wife, iii. 30;
rebels against his father, ib.; takes refuge in a church, ib.; surrenders, ib.; banished, ib.; loaded with irons, ib.; his constancy, ib.; murdered, ib. 1Jesse, John, a friend of Luther's, preaches the reformed doctrines at Breslau, v. 145,575; holds a disputation against the papal errrors, 145; his character, 575.
JrJierocles, his virulence against the Gospel, ii. 17; promoted to the government of Alexandria, ib.; his affectation of candour, il).; his brutal persecution of the Christians, 20.
Hierutheus, a bishop, labours among the Hungarians, iii. 252.
JJilary, a deacon, scourged at council of Milan, ii. 86.
—— Bp. 6f Poictiers, opposes Arianism, ii. 169,170; his birth and education, 261; his conversion, ib.; his sentiments respecting the Trinity, 262; his addresses to the emperors, 264; though married, recommends celibacy, ib.; suffers persecution, ib.; his great service to the church, ib.; his death, reputation, and monument, 265; opposes Semi-Pelagianism, 388,411.
— Bp. of Aries, a Semi-Pelagian, ii. 541 ; happily inconsistent, ib.; his life of Honoratus, ib.; his piety and zeal, 542.
Hildebrand, Pope, his scheme to deprive the emperors of the power of choosing the Pope, iii. 285 ; his pious and friendly letter to Cyriacus, 286; his unchristian character, ib.
Hilderic, succeeds Thrasamond, and favours the orthodox, iii. 4; deposed, 22.
Hinckmar, Abp. of Rheims, his unfaithful representations of Gotteschalcus, iii. 223 ; his cruel treatment of him, ib.; his great secular influence, 225 ; his character, 226.
Hoffman, rector of Leipsic university, refuses to decide on the disputation of Eckius and Luther, iv. 411.
Hogostratus, a Dominican inquisitor, his virulent opposition of
Luther, iv. 360.
Holy Days, their number complained of in diet of Spires, v. 446.
Holy Land, how divided, i. 36; its populousness, 37.
Honurattts, Bp. of Aries, his character, ii. 541, 542.
— Bp. of Marseilles, famous as an extempore preacher, ii. 546. Honoring, Emperor, reigns in the West, ii. 279; banishes Pelagius,
383; his character and policy, 483.
— Bp. of Rome, drawn over to Monothelite heresy, iii. 122;
condemned by a council, 128.
Hormisdas, Bp. of Rome, his character, iii. 94.
Hosiusof Corduba, his faith and piety, ii. 56 ; endeavours to make up the breach caused by Arius, ib.; appointed by Nicene council to draw up creed, 60 ; presides at council of Sardica, 82 ; his great celebrity, 87 ; his spirited answer to Constantius, ib.; persecuted by that emperor, 88 ; is overcome by his sufferings, and signs Arian creed,gi ; retracts the extorted signature, 92; his death, ib.
Hotphian, Rodolph, his misrepresentation of Luther, v. 229; his prejudices against the Swiss divines, 419, note.
Hubmcier, Balthazar, an eloquent reformed preacher, Y. 498;
corrupted by Munzer, ib.; ibises disturbances, ib.; sutlers
martyrdom, ib.; calumniates Luther, ib.
Huglin, John, a reformer, his martyrdom, v. 467.
Hugo, the Burgundian, cardinal, his writings, iv. 39; invented
Hume, strictures on his History of England, iii. 298, 300, 310;
iv. 28, 142, 188, 467, 468, note; v. 31.
Huneric, son and successor of Genseric, tolerates the orthodox,
ii. 498 ; turns persecutor, ib.; his cruelty, ib. & seq.; his
edict, 501 ; his horrible death, 509.
IIuss, John, condemned as a heretic at Home, iv. 211, 214 ; sum-
moned to council of Constance, 211 ; attends under a safe
conduct, ib.; his talents and character, ib. 253; v.461;
sketch of his previous life, iv. 211; Luther's opinion of him,
212 ; his doctrinal knowledge defective, 213, 214, 217, 238,
271; preaches against the abuses of the church of Rome,
213; and against vices of the clergy, ib.; becomes obnoxious
to the archbishop of Prague, ib.; appeals from excommuni-
cation of the Pope, 214; forbidden to preach, 215; his
conduct on preparing to attend the council, ib.; his sermons
and opinions, 216; imprisoned, 219; suffers various vexations,
220, 237 ; writes tracts during his confinement, ib.; pressed,
but refuses to retract, 225 ; lodged in castle of Gottleben,
226; approves of administering communion in both kinds,
236; examined before the council, 238, & seq.; his con-
stancy, 239, & seq.; also 246, & seq.; his peculiar opinions,
242 ; his letter to his flock, 244; resolution of the council
in case he should retract, 246; his books burned, 248;
brought again before the council, 249; meets with most un-
just treatment, ib.; his admirable conduct under it, ib. 250;
his martyrdom, 251, 252; his condemnation protested
against by principal persons of Bohemia, 255; motives of
the council in his condemnation, 597.
Hussites, their origin, iii. 508; their agreement with the Wal-
denses, ib.; their expostulation with the Waldenses, ib.;
oppose the hierarchy by arms, iv. 269 ; their leading prin-
ciples, 270 ; their religious war, 279 ; form a church, 281;
character of their church, ib. 28t>; lenounce carnal weapons,
281; persecuted, 282, & seq.; their remarkable letter to
Rokysan, 282 ; receive the Waldenses into their communion,
JIutten, Ulric, an intemperate Lutheran, his controversy with
Erasmus, v. 267. ,
Hi/ptraspistes, a work of Erasmus, v. 306.
Hi/ppnlitus, a Novatian, called to martyrdom, i. 412; returns in
his last moments to the church, 413.
I & J.
Jacobel, a pastor of Prague, maintains right of laity to communion in both kinds, iv. 236; was the principal reviver of that doctrine, ib.; his character, ib.
Jacobins, iv. 4, note.
James, the son of Zebedee, an apostle, slain by Herod Agrippa, i. 23 ; remarkable occurrence at his martyrdom, 103.
— the Less, an apostle, the standing pastor at Jerusalem, i. 27;
his opinion at the council, ib.; persecuted, 33; his epistle, 34.; martyrdom, 103 ; why called The Just, 104.
— Dr. his apology for Wickliff, iv. 132, & seq.
— Bp. of Saltza, a Reformer, his character, v. 380.
: Jaremar, Prince of Rugen, receives the Gospel, iii. 429; instructs his people, ib.
Idolatry, spread of, among professors of the Gospel, iii. 144; supported by the papacy, 146 ; propensity to, accounted for, ib. —See also, Image worship. Jeffery, a Waldensian martyr, his constancy, iii. 500; its effect, ib. Jerom, his want of candour, ii. 371; writes against Pelagius, 373, 413; his controversy with Augustine, 444; his vain-glorious turn, 445; his quarrel with Ruffinus, 446; his birth and education, 470; the most learned of the Roman Fathers, 471; determines on profession of a monk, ib.; made a Presbyter, ib.; refuses farther elevation, ib.; his indefatigable application to study, ib.; his commentary on Obadiah, ib.; I , becomes intimate with illustrious ladies, ib.; induces them to adopt a monastic life, 472 ; his choleric temper, ib.; retires to Bethlehem, ib.; his death and character, ib.; his controversy with Ruffinus, 473; his writings superstitious, ib.;■ brief review of them, ib. & seq.; compared with Augustine, 476; his intemperate opposition to Jovinian, ib.; his weakness in argument, 479; opposes Vigilantius, 480 ; his love of allegory condemned, v. 383; apt to torture Scripture in controversy, 385.
— of Prague, sketch of his history, iv. 227 ; his talents, ib. 257, 258,265 ; adheres to John Huss, ib.; attempts to assist him at Constance, ib.; led in chains thither, 228; his examination before the council, ib.; suffers cruel persecution, 230; his constancy, 254 ; persuaded to retract, 257 ; remanded to prison, ib.; tried a second time, 258; his humiliation for retracting, 259 ; his speech to the council, ib.; his second examination on his second trial, 260 ; his eloquent speech, ib.; brought again before the council, 263; answers the sermon of the Bishop of Lodi, ib.; his martyrdom, 264 ; remarkable testimony to his behaviour before the council, 265 ; his knowledge of doctrine defective, 267, 271..
Jeron, an English missionary, preaches in Holland, iii. 243 ; suffers martyrdom, ib.
Jerusalem, first Christian church at, i. t; first council of, 25; account of church there, 180; its extinction, 181 ; called £Ha, but recovers its antient name, ii. 101 ; venenrrr
shown to it, ib.; taken by the Persians, iii. ngjrbvii* ■ Saracens, 123; by the Crusaders, 417. Jews, their spiritual condition at the introduction of the Gospt
i. 1.; excluded from Jerusalem, 180; their bigotry, 47.
join in persecuting the Christians in Persia, ii. 207. Ignatius, his character, i. 152 ; appears before Trajan, ib.; s
tenced to be destroyed by wild beasts, 153; his epahrr
155 ; his humility, 156 ; his thrist for martyrdom, 165; L<
martyrdom, 173. — founder of the Jesuits, his miracles pretended, iii. 332. Image worship, not insisted on in the way of adoration, in aix:
century, iii. 220; antient testimonies against it, iv. i59;iun
crease, 153; question of, divides the Christian world, it..
condemned by a council, 162 ; gains an ascendency in ifc
east, 165, 169; condemned by second council of Nice, 16;;
opposed by British and other churches, ib.; small resutue
to it accounted for, 197. Images, danger of them in churches, v. 384. Impanation, see Consubstantiation.
Independents, no solid foundation for their plan in Scripture M
antiquity, 1.518. Indulgences, sale of, iii. 418 ; doctrine of, iv. 307 ; contrcKW
respecting, 312, & seq.; style of, 316 ; farmed out, 317.
cargo of, taken by privateers, 318. Ingonda, the wife of Hermenegildus, brings over her husband to
the orthodox faith, iii. 30. Innocent, Bp. of Rome, expostulates with John of Jerusalem for
conniving at Pelagian outrages, ii. 379; condemns Peh
gianism, 380; his reply to African council, 406; his
— III. Pope, his blasphemous bulls, iii. 426, 490; confirms
doctrine of transubstantiation in its grossest sense, ib.; hs influence in England, ib.; institutes the inquisition, 48,5; persecutes the Waldenses, 486, 487.
— IV. Pope, author of the non obstante clause, iv. 5; his
provisional bull to Henry III- of England, 12 ; his veuality, 47; intrudes foreigners on English benefices, 48, 49; disappointed in attempt to force his nephew into a canonry, ib. ; his rage and haughtiness on the occasion, 52 ; excommunicates Grossetsste, 53; his exultation on the death of that prelate, 55. Inquisition, instituted, iii. 485.
Investiture, of bishopricks, contest respecting, iii. 311. Joachim, abbot of Calabria, his learning and piety, iii. 425; his interview with Richard the First, ib.
— Elector of Brandenburg, enters into a confederacy against the
Lutherans, v. 427 ; his brutal persecution of his wife, 543Joannites, who, ii. 291; suffer persecution, ib. 39s ; termination of their schism, 293.
ti, the Apostle, imprisoned, i. 11 ; dismissed from prison, il>.! sent to Samaria, 40; returns to Jerusalem, 41 ; his ministry> 117; his horror of C-erintbus, ib.; his miraculous deliverance from a cauldron of boiling oil, 120 ; banished to Patmos, and favoured with tbe Apocalypse, ib.; his treatment of an apostate robber, ib.; bis constant sermon in the Christian assemblies, 121; his great age, ib.; his gospel directed against the Cerinthians and Ebionites, 138.
a Melelian bishop, contrives a plot to ruin Athanasius, ii. 70; confesses the fraud, ib.
Bp. of Jerusalem, one of the principal bishops at council of Diospolis, ii. 378; his prejudices, ib.; defends Peiagius, ib.
Bp. of Constantinople, assumes title of Universal Bishop, iii. 53. 63.
Hp. of Rome, writes against Palagianism, iii. 105.
Bp. of Alexandria, the almoner, his liberality, iii. 117 ; his
character, 118; reforms the people from inattention to
preaching, 119; his death, ib. of Damascus, his great learning, iii. 190 ; one of the first to
mix the peripatetic philosophy with Christianity, ib.; his
great fame, ib.; supports Arminian notion of free will, ib.;
a great supporter of error, ib.; advocates prayers for the
dead and image worship, 191; compared with Bede, ib. King of England, his character, iv. 6; attainted and deprived
of his French provinces, 29 ; was a felon and a murderer, ib. heir to the Greek empire, his crown usurped by Michael
Palaeologus, 15 ; his eyes put out, ib. King of France, taken prisoner by Edward the Black Prince,
iv. 65; his crusade, ib.
XXIII. Pope, attends council of Constance, iv. 210-; opposed to the emperor Sigismund, ib; his character, ib. 226; his policy at the council, ib.; his conduct towards Huss, 216, 220, 223; alarmed at the council, 223; flies, 224; imprisoned, 226; deposed, ib.
Bp. of Misnia, opposes indulgences, iv. 347.
Duke of Saxony, the Constant, his reply to George Duke of Saxony, respecting the toleration of Lutberanism, v. 80; recals Carolstadt, 199; openly supports the Reformation, 368 &seq.; succeeds to the electorate, 369; his character, ib.; forms an association of several German states, 429; orders a written defence of the Reformation, 430; endangered l.y a secret treaty, 439, 440 ; engages in the treaty of Magdeburg, 441 ; his policy and conduct at the diet of Spires, 442 & seq.; his prudence, 453; consults Luther respecting lawfulness of resistance, ib.; institutes a theological lecture at VVittemberg, 465; causes a visitation of the churches, 490; agrees with the Landgrave of Hesse upon warlike measures, 493 ; procures a modification of this treaty, in compliance with Luther's arguments, 495 ; protests against the decree of the diet of Spires, 554; his scruples as to
resistance, 557 ; his preparations for the diet of Augsbc»
John, Frederic, son of the preceding, supports the ReformatT.
v. 370 ; his character, ib.; his remarks on the characteM
Duke George, 376; his extraordinary prudence instance
Jonas, Bp. of Orleans, writes against Claudius of Turin, iu. sic.
— Justus, a reformer, his fame, iv. 543 ; accompanies Luther:
Worms, ib.; his character, 627; appointed president of 01
college of Wittemberg, v. 8 ; assists Luther in translating^
Scriptures, 73 ; deeply affected by Luther's marriage, Sjs
his opinion of Erasmus, 352 ; his account of Luther's lenr-
tation, 480 ; attends the conferences at Marpurg, 521.
Jortin, his religious sentiments, v. 335 ; mistakes Luther's cha-
Josep/ius, hi3 History, shows the prevalence of wickedness at 'if
coming of Christ, i. 2; his testimony to the character *'
St. James, 105 ; and of Jesus, ib. note.
Jovian, succeeds Julian in the empire, ii. 143 ; superior to all tie
former emperors in religion, 144; his character, ib. 154;
concludes a disadvantageous peace with Sapor, 145; h»
fidelity to the engagement, 146 ; replaces the standard of the
cross, and restores the churches and their privileges to tie
Christians, 150; his letter to Athanasius, 151, 152; las
answers to the Arians, 153 ; tortures them for attempting It
corrupt the eunuchs of his court, 154; his death, ib.
Jovinian, a monk, opposes growing superstitions, ii. 476 ; opposed
by .Terom and others, ib.; condemned by a council tod
banished, ib. note ; his opinions, 477 ; his four propositions,
Ireland, receives Christianity, ii. 487 ; church of, its evangelical
purity, Hi. 107; reduced to the Romish communion, ib.;
filled with saints in seventh century, 109; its schools re-
nowned, ib.; the prime seat of learning in the age of Charle-
magne, 144, note; called Scotia, ib.
Iretucus, succeeds Potbinus in see of Lyons, i. 240; rebukes
Victor Bishop of Rome, 259; some account of his life, 269;
difficulties of his situation as bishop, ib.; his distinguished
qualities, ib.; his martyrdom, 270; his book of heresies,
271 ; his theological views, ib.; his epistle to Florinus, 275.
Irene, wife of the Emperor Leo IV. assumes the government and
supports idolatry, iii. 165 ; her correspondence with Adrian
on image worship, 166 ; holds a council at Nice, 167; de-
thrones and puts out her son's eyes, 169, note; deposed and
Irish, excel in divinity, iii. 169.
Isdegerdes, King of Persia, favours the Christians, ii. 520; be-
comes a persecutor, ib.
Isidore, ofPelusium, lives a monastic life, ii. 532: character of
his life and writings, 533.
tsidort, Bp. of Seville, his writings, iii. 130.
— of Madrid, a labourer, is canonized, iii. 435 ; his character,
Ithacius, Bp. of Sossuba, opposes the Priscillianists, ii. 188.
Judx, Leo, his work, v. 238, 239.
Judas, his repentance, wherein deficient, iii. 8.
Judea, churches of, i. 36.
Julian, the apostate, escapes from the massacre of the relations of
Constantine, ii. 75 ; placed among the clergy, ib.; his cha-
racter and talents, 113; origin of his apostacy, 114; affects
a zeal for Christianity, ib.; his profound dissimulation, ib.;
succeeds to the empire, 115 ; patronizes Paganism, ib.; his
political measures to suppress Christianity, ib. & seq.;
encourages the Jews, 121 ; proposes re-building of the tem-
ple, ib.; disappointment of his scheme, ib.; his letter to
Photinus the heretic, 126; protects the Donatists, ib.;
persecutes in various ways, 128 & seq.; his address to the
senate of Antioch for neglecting to provide pagan sacrifices,
130 ; banishes Athanasius, 135 ; his letters to the people of
Alexandria, ib.; his expensive sacrifices, 137; makes a
progress in cruelty, 138; his death, 139.
— a Pelagian writer, challenges Augustine, ii. 384.
Julius, Bp. of Rome, protects Athanasius in his exile, ii. 80;
justifies him in a council, 81; his public letter, ib.
— II. Pope, remarkable for military ferocity, iv. 304.
— rfe Medicis, see Cl'.ment VII.
Justification, doctrine of, its importance and fruits in the Jewish
church, i. 32; asserted by Clement of Rome, 130; by
Origen, 467 ; commonly confounded with sanctification by
the fathers of the fourth century, ii. 238 ; Augustine's views
of it, 462 ; its important influence on practice, iii. 166; its
importance in the Reformation, iv. 7, 372; asserted by
Luther, 510 ; v. 386 & aliter.
Justin, Martyr, his first apology, i. 181, 190 ; his birth, learning,
and conversion, 187; his confutation of heretics, 189; his
dialogue with Trypho the Jew, 191; his contests with Cres-
cens the philosopher, ib.; his second apology, ib.; impri-
soned, 193; his conduct before the Roman prefect, 194;
beheaded, 195 ; his character, ib.; his theological views, 197.
— the Emperor, agreeable aspect of Christianity under him,
— succeeds his uncle Justinian in the empire, iii. 25 ; recals the
banished bishops, ib.
Justina, mother of Valentinian II. her predilection for Arianism
and hostility to Ambrose, ii. 181, 182; instils Arian doctrines
into her son, 193; her artifices, 194; procures a law in
favour of the Arians, 195.
Justinian, the Emperor, his character, iii. 15; his laws relating
to bishops, 18 ; recovers Africa, 22 ; his inconsistent conduct
regarding Silverius and Vigilantius, 23.; meddles in
Vol. v. Uu
controversy, ib.; condemns the errors of Origen, ib-; compels
Vigilius to consent to decrees of a council, ib.; banishes
several bishops for refusing to condemn the three chapters,
24; his edict respecting Christ's body, ib.; his death, 25;
bis pandects discovered, 419.
Justus, Bp. of Rochester, co-operates with Laurentius and Me-
litus, in an attempt to reduce ihe Scots to a conformity with
the English Church, iii. 97; retires into France, 99;
recalled and reinstated, 100; succeeds to see of Canter-
— a Paulician, stones the founder of that sect, iii. 206; betrays
his brethren, ib.
Kempis, Thomas d, his book de lniitatione Christi, iv. 290.
Kentigcrn, Bp. founds a monastery and a bishopric in Wales,
Kilian, an Irish missionary, his success at Wertzbourg, iii. 11s;
remonstrates with the duke on his incest, ib.; murdered,
Kortholt, Dr. an eminent divine, his character, v. 133.
Ladislaus, King of Poland, his Christian spirit, iv. 234 ; conquers
the Teutonic knights, ib.
Latus, a learned bishop, burned by order of Huneric, ii. 502.
Lambert, Bp. of Maestricht, murdered, iii. 142 ; his character, ib-
— a reformed monk, see Thorn.
— Francis, a French divine, his character, v. 451,452 ; assists
the Landgrave of Hesse in the Reformation, 451 : hi* pub-
lications, 452 ; made professor at Marpurg, 453; his
Lancaster, John of Gaunt, Duke of, befriends Wicklitf, iv. ill,
114; his treatment of the Bishop of London, 114; his violent
character, 115; discountenances WicklifTs opinions respect-
ing transubstantiation, 120 ; patronizes the Lollards, 164.
Lanfranc, Abp. of Canterbury, supports the papal power, iii. 304.
Langham, Abp. of Canterbury, ejects VVickliff, iv. 109.
langland, Bp. of Lincoln, persecutes the Lollards, iv. 198.
Laodieea, Church of, i. 96.
Lapsed, bow treated by church of Rome during Decian perse-
cution, i. 340 ; re-admitted at Carthage, without sufficient
tokens of repentance, 349; receive recommendatory letters
from martyrs, ib.; Cyprian's assertion of episcopal authority
with respect to them, 350; his direction respecting tbose
whose lives were in danger, 352; their eagerness for re-
admission reprehended, 360; their case determined in a
council, 376; anciently capable of restoration but once, 519.
Lardner, Dr. his predilection for Socinianism, i. 138; his par-
tiality to Julian, ii. 130, note.
T^atonrus, Jamts, his controversy with Luther, v. 7.
Lavrentius, a Roman deacon, his great affection for his bishop,
i. 470; his extraordinary answer to the prefect's demand
for the richesof the church, ib.; suffers dreadful tortures with
magnanimity, and is martyred, 471.
— succeeds Augustine in see of Canterbury, iii. 9(1; his pastoral
labours, ib.; labours to bring the Welsh and Irish to con-
formity to the church of Rome, 97 ; remarkable success of
1 his prayers, 99.
— a disciple of Luther, instructs Gustavus Vasa, v. 133; studies
at Wittemberg, 574.
Lazi, embrace Christianity, and become vassals of the empire,
League, Suabian, what, v. 124.
Leander, Bp. of Seville, assists Ingonda in bringing over her
husband to the faith, iii. 30; appointed to educate Recaredus,
ib.; his intimacy with Gregory the First, 33.
Leicester, Earl of, his rebellion, iv. 29 ; slain by Prince Edward, ib.
L'Enfant, strictures on his history of the council of Constance,
iv. 205, note, 274.
Leo, Bp. of Rome, his embassy to Attila, ii. 493 ; his success,
ib.; moderates cruelty of Genseric, ib.; his writings com-
mended, 526 ; sketch of his life, writings and character,
539 ; his decrees, 540.
— Emperor, succeeds Marcian, ii. 527 ; his laws against sabbath
breaking and simony, ib.
— the Isaurian, the Greek emperor, condemns the worship of
images, iii. 154; meets with great opposition, ib. & seq.;
his character, 157 ; rejects relics and intercession of saints,
ib.; publishes an edict against image worship, ib.; deposes
Germanus, ib.; his breach with the see of Rome, 160 ; his
— IV. Emperor, opposes image worship, iii. 165 ; his death, ib.;
— X. Pope, his universal offers of pardon for money, iv. 309;
patronises letters, 312; his premature promotion, ib. note;
his character, 313, 359,468, 477, 502 ; v. 30, 568; opposes
the Reformation, iv. 313; raises money by indulgences,
314; his indifference to the proceedings of Luther, 359;
roused to violence against him, 361 ; his artful letter to
Frederic the Wise, 362 ; his inconsistent conduct in con-
demning Luther, 363 ; his bull confirming indulgences, 386;
Luther'3 testimony to his reputation, 446 ; his extraordinary
reply to Frederic the Wise, 462; issues his bull against Lu-
ther, 474; his imprudence in this step, 479 ; confers title of
Defender of the Faith on the King of England, v. 27 ; his
I.tonidas, the father of Origen, suffers martyrdom, i. 295.
Lcontius, Bp. of Antioch, supports Arianism, ii. 83; his charac-
Leporius, a monk, boasts of his own purity, ii. 387 ; his notions
corrected by Augustine, ib.
Lnigildm, King of the Visigoths in Spain, persecutes the ortho-
dox, iii. 30 ; his cruel treatment of his son, ib.; orders him
to be dispatched, ib.; repents of the murder, ib.; orders his
second son to be educated in the orthodox faith, ib.
Lewis the Meek, Emperor, rebuked by a bishop for incest, iii. 231;
persuades Harold, King of Denmark, to receive baptism;
235 ; assigns him a district in Friezeland, ib.; provides him
a Christian teacher, 236.
— VII. of France, his disastrous crusade, iii. 339 ; holds the
Pope's bridle, 480 ; persecutes the Albigenses, 482. .
— XII. of France, his testimony to the character of the Waldenses,
iii. 454; favours them, 498; his character, 505.
— IX. of France, (Saint) his pious education, iv. 26; his devo-
tional turn, ib.; purity of his court, ib.; his love of justice,
27 ; punishes blasphemy, ib.; his fame for uprightness, 28 ;
Hume's encomium upon his character; his superstition, ib.;
his moderation regarding English affairs, 29; chosen arbiter
of the English disputes, 30; his equitable decision, ib.; his re-
marks 011 the approach of Ginghis Khan, ib.; enters upon a
crusade, ib.; his virtues in a military situation, ib.; taken
prisoner, 31 ; his conduct in that situation, ib.; ransomed, and
returns to Europe, ib.; his religious conduct on the voyage,
ib.; his pious observation to the King of England, ib.; at-
tempts to convert the Saracens and Tartars, ib; resists
papal exactions, ib.; his second crusade and death, 32 ; his
dying advice to his son, ib.
— Emperor, excommunicated by the Pope, iv. 73; obliged to
— Elector Palatine, his honourable conduct at Worms, iv. 565.
— King of Hungary, opposes the Reformation, v. 143, 146.
— II. King of Hungary, defeated by the Turks, v. 456; drowned
in his flight, 457.
Libanius, the friend of Julian, his funeral oration on that emperor,
ii. 6 ; bis oration in favour of Paganism, 205.
Libel/atici, what, i. 362.
Libentius, Abp. of Hamburg, his labours and character, iii. 273.
Liberiiu of Rome, persecuted by Constantine, ii. 87 ; prevailed
upon to sign Arian creed, and condemnation of Atbanasius.
92 ; his death, 170.
Licinius, nominated Augustus, and possesses himself of Asia
Minor, ii. 33 ; put to death the wife and daughter of Diocle-
sian, 37; befriends the Christians, 38 ; his war with Maxi-
min, and supernatural dream, ib.; publishes universal tolera-
tion, 39 ; begins to persecute, 43 ; his war with Constantine,
44 ; loses his empire and life in the contest, ib. 1
Ltvfuvyn> an English missionary, his intrepid conduct, iii. 186.
Litanies, remarkable one upon account of a plague, iii. 36; origin
of their use on Wednesdays and Fridays, 47, note; when
used, 87 ; present one when compiled, ib.
Liturgy, when written, iii. 88 ; more ancient than the Missal, ib.;
settlement thereof in England, 304, note.
Lollard, Reynard, an enemy of the Waldenses, converted by them,
iii. 509; suffers martyrdom, ib.; iv. 64; instructed Wick-
Lollards, to whom the term applied, iii. 509; iv. 63,164; persecuted,
ib.; 195 & seq. 595; their character, 166, 202; forbidden
to assemble, 186; surprised and routed by King Henry the
Fifth, 187 ; falsely accused of treason, 188.
Lombard, feter, master of the sentences and Bishop of Paris, his
fame, iii. 309 ; introduces degrees in divinity, 419; founds
theology of schoolmen, 420 ; his character, 435 ; why called
master of the sentences, 108, note; the doctrine of transub-
stantiation traced to him, v. 402.
Lombards settle in Italy, iii. 29 ; profess Arianism, and persecute
the church, ib.; brought over to orthodoxy, 50.
Longinus, his religious principles, i. 263 ; commends the writings
of Moses, 538; and of St. Paul, ib.
Lothaire, King of France, dissuaded by Ado from divorcing his
queen, iii. 199.
Love, disquisition concerning, iii. 394.
Lucian, a confessor, his injudicious conduct respecting the lapsed,
i. 353 ; his character and. sufferings, 355 ; assumes loo much
authority, 356 ; complained of by Cyprian, 357.
Lucifer of Cagliare, his constancy at council of Milan, ii. 86 ;
banished, 87; returns 126; becomes a schismatic, 133; his
character, ib. note.
Luci/'erians, a sect, ii. 133; their character, 172,201; petition
Theodosius for liberty of conscience, 201.
Lucilla, a rich lady, supports the Donatist3, ii. 47.
Lucius, Bp. of Rome, succeeds Cornelius, i. 419 ; banished, ib.;
returns, ib.; suffers martyrdom, ib.
— an Arian competitor for see of Constantinople, his bad cha-
racter, ii. 152; disappointed in an attempt to supplant
Athanasius, 153 ; forcibly introduced into see of Alexandria,
164 ; driven from thence, 167.
Luitprand, King of the Lombards, adds to the patrimony of the
church of Rome, iii. 161.
Lullus, invited by Boniface archbishop of Mentz, from England,
iii. 178; appointed his successor, 180.
Lupus, accompanies Germanus on a mission against the Pela-
gians, in Britain, ii. 484; his character, ib.
Luther, Martin, his testimony to the writings of Huss, iv. 212,
253 ; his preface to a work of Wesselus, 295; rather the
instrument than agent of the Reformation, 304 ; v. 564 ; his
character, iv. 311, 334 & seq. 622; v. 88, 189, 247,
381, 382, 485; his rise, iv. 314, 319; patronized by F»e-
deric the Wise, 319; begins to question the propriety of in-
dulgences, ib. 320; bis modest and cautious proceedings.
320, 321 ; v. 459 ; publishes his Theses, iv. 321; parity of
his motives, ib. note; 324, 333; sketch of his former- life
and character, 322 4c seq.; his talents and celebrity, 325,
334, 366, 458 & passim; sent to Rome on business, 326;
compelled to take degree of D. D. ib.; made subaltern vicar,
329; his opinion of Frederic, ib.; of Erasmus, ib. it seq.
494; preaches before Duke George, 331; his former spiritual
bondage, 333; his character by popish authors, 337 & seq.
509; his Theses burned by Telzel, 347 ; preaches and writes
against indulgences, 349; vindicated from charge of acting
at the instigation of others, ib. 353 ; risks himself at Heidel-
berg, and is courteously received by Wolfgang, 350; pro-
vokes a disputation upon doctrinal points, ib.; engaged in a
controversy with Eckius and Prierias, 351; writes to his
diocesan and vicar general, ib.; his writings in year 1518,
353 ; writes to the Pope, 354; his remarkable account of
his own feebngs in the contest, 356; observation of Leo X.
concerning him, 359; attacked by Prierias and Hogastratus,
360 ; cited to appear at Rome, 361; his prudent conduct on
the occasion, i\u; his case referred to Cardinal Cajetan, 362;
condemned previously at Rome, 3G3 ; appears under a safe
conduct at Augsburg, 365 ; his conversation with an emis-
sary of Cajetan, ib.; his odiousness to the hierarchy, 366;
his intrepidity and generosity, ib. 383, 397, 436, 463, 533,
542, 544, 546; v. 17, 51, 121, 122, 149 & passim; ap-
pears before the cardinal, iv. 368 ; proceedings of the trial,
ib. & seq.; his two letters to Cajetan, 373 ; his appeal, 374 ;
quits Augsburg, 375 ; his two letters to Staupitius, 379,380;
discharges the office of pastor at Wittemberg, 385; appeals
to a general council, ib. ; his conference with Mil tit*, 389 &
seq.; his submissive letter to the Pope vindicated, 390; his
respect for his superiors, 392, 409, 456; his generous letter
to Tetzel, 394 ; his reply to Eckius, 399 ; accepts his chal-
lenge to a disputation, 40J ; his opinion respecting the Pope's
supremacy, 405 & seq.; is condemned by two universities,
414; his notions regarding purgatory, ib.; his acuteness as
a disputant, 416; his indisposition to controversy, ib.;
v. 068, 36a ; publishes his conclusions, iv. 417 ; his honest
account of his religious experience, 418 ; doubts the authen-
ticity of St. James's epistle, 423 ; his modest opinion of bis
own style, ib.; v. 272 ; prodigious circulation of his writings,
iv. 424 ; composes a tract for the elector in his illness, 426;
his further negotiations with Miltitz, 431, 442 ; bis firmness
and consistency, 432, 438 ; preaches on the propriety of ad-
ministering the communion in both kinds, 433 ; accused to
the elector by the Duke of Saxony, ib.; defends his opinions
435! writes to Charles the Filth, 437; his reply, to the two
universities, 439 ; his protestation, 440 ; bis letters to the
Archbishop of Mentz and Bishop of Mersburg, 441; his letter
to Leo X. and treatise on Christian liberty, 442 & seq.; en-
couraged by offers of protection from German noblemen, 465;
his letter to Spalatinus, on the occasion, ib.; another letter
previous to the offer of protection, 466; his tract against the
popedom, 470; his tract on the Babylonish captivity, 471;
repents his concessions respecting indulgences, ib.; the Pope's
damnatory bull against him, 474; his letter on the occasion,
475; publishes a private letter of Eckius, 479; his books
burned by Aleander, 484; extraordinary testimony to his
probity, 485; occasional testimonies in his favour, 488,489;
appeals to a general council, 489; his tracts against the
bull, 490, 491 ; his apology for his harshness, 493 ; v. 355,
365 ; burns the bull and other pontifical works, iv. 497 ; his
defence of this step, 499; his second bull against him, 502 ;
his opinion of general councils, 505, note ; 554, 557, 560;
publishes a variety of sermons and tracts, ,509; his commen-
tary on Galatians, ib.; accused by Aleander at the diet of
Worms, 526; his intrepid letter to Spalatinus, respecting
his resolution to appear at Worms, 533 ; his letter to the
elector, 534; receives a safe conduct, 539 ; his letter to
Spalatinus on the occasion, 542 ; his journey to Worms,
543 ; his hilarity vindicated, 544; his memorable answer to
the attempts to dissuade him from venturing at Worms, 546 ;
his appearance and conduct at Worms, ib. & seq.; experiences
great honours there, ib.; his speech before the diet, 549 ; at-
tempts made to induce him to retract, 556 & 3eq.; ordered
to leave Worms, 560 ; seized and conveyed for protection to
Wartburg, 563 ; condemned by edict of Worms, 565 ; his
own opinion of his conduct at Worms, 575; Melancthon's
life of him, 604 & seq.; his practical devotion, 613; his
determination to the monastic life, 614; his advice to Spa-
latinus respecting the study of divinity, 616; his corres-
pondence with Spalatinus, 618; his writings, 624; effects
of his confinement upon his habits, v. 3; bis employments,
ib.; his tract on confession, 4; his treatise concerning the
abrogation of private masses, 5 ; his book on monastic vows,
6, 248 ; his controversy with Latomus, 7 ; begins to trans-
late the Scriptures, 16; his disguise at Wartburg, 18; his
remarks on hunting, ib.; exhorts his party to bold measures,
20 ; reproves the riotous conduct of the people of Erfurt, ib.;
composes expositions of Scripture and promotes lectures, 22;
external means employed by him, 23 ; success thereof, ib.;
pays a clandestine visit to Wittemberg, 24; condemned by
university of Paris, 26 ; hh controversy with Henry VIII.
of England, ib. & seq.; 355; returns to Wittemberg, 32;
his letter to Erederic respecting disturbances of Carolstadt,
40 ; his petitions to Frederic, 43 ; his advice respecting the
fanatics, 47; his letter to Erederic on quitting his Patmas, 50;
his answer to Frederic's communication by Scharff, 55;
resumes his preaching at Wittemberg, 62 ; extracts from his
sermons, ib. & seq.; vindicated from charge of ambition,
68, note; his account of his differences with Carolstadt, 69;
his conference with Stubner, 70: his danger at Wittemberg,
72 ; publishes his version of the New Testament, and sub-
sequently of the Old, 73; his tract respecting alteration
of external matters in the churches, 76; his tract styled
Common Treasury, 79; character and celebrity of his ver-
sion, 84; his remarks on Esmer's translation, 86; bis
publications in year 1522, 89; publishes a translation of
Adrian's mandates with notes, 105; his address to the
princes and nobles upon the edict of Nuremberg, 106 ; his
answers to Frederic's questions respecting lawfulness of de-
fending his subjects by force, 126; preaches before Chris-
tian II. of Sweden, 130; his letter to John Thurzo, 144;
his letter to the congregation of Miltenberg, 147, 576 ; ob-
jects to the term Lutherans, 147; composes a Latin hymn to
the memory of three martyrs, 149; his letter to Lambert
Thorn, 150; to John Hesse, 152 ; his letter to the Dnke of
Savoy, 157 ; his remarks on the decree of the diet of Nu-
remberg, 171; his letter to the bishop of Samland, 179;
his exposition of Deuteronomy, ib. 383 & seq.; his account
of Henry of Zutphen, 187 ; his conduct and writings in the
sacramentary contest, 191 & seq.; particularly 200, 201;
also 226, 396, 476, 501, 519 & seq.; receives abusive
treatment at Orlamuud, 193 ; intercedes for Carolstadt, 196,
198; his loyalty, 203, 216, 455; his account of Munzer,
204; his remonstrance against the lenity shown to that
fanatic, 206, & seq.; admonishes the magistrates of Mul-
hausen not to receive him, 211 ; his treatise against the ce-
lestial prophets and Carolstadt, ib.; his address to the
people against sedition, 216 & seq.; his advice to the
rulers in conseqnence of the Rustic war, 219 & seq.; his
tract against the robbers and murderers, 223 ; his conduct
compared with that of Carolstadt, 226 & seq.; his conces-
sions in the sacramentary contest, 236 & seq.; objects to
a tax on beer, 242, note ; preaches Frederic's funeral sermon,
244; resigns the title of an Augustine monk, 247; mar-
ries, 249; calumniated on the occasion, ib.; how affected
by the change, 250 ; his remarks on the step, 251 & seq.;
his marriage vindicated, 254 & seq.; his controversy with
Erasmus, 258 & seq.; vindicated from charge of incon-
sistency, 328 ; his concessions to Henry VIII. of England,
354 & seq.; 391 ; his opinion of Wolsey, 357 ; his conces-
sions to Duke George, 358 & seq. 391 ; complains of
opposition from among the reformers, 362, 365 ; his reply
to Henry VIII. of England, 363; institutes new ecclesias-
tical regulations at Wittemberg, 371 & seq.;' a curious
letter of his respecting some celestial prodigies, 375, note;
Iris letter respecting the invitation of Pomeranus to Dantzic
378 ; his industry, knowledge, and prudence, 381 ; his dis-
like of enthusiasm, 386, 485 ; order and perspicuity of his
writings, 388; his sermons, 389, 464; character of his
style, 391 ; his book of hymns, 392 ; his letter to reformed
pastors and congregations, 393 ; attempt upon his life by
poison, 395 ; intercedes for the accused person, ib.; his
asperity allowed to be excessive, 416, 474, 476, 489 &
aliter ; his treatise upon tbe secret treaty against the elector
and landgrave, 439; his account of Lambert, 451; bis po-
verty, 452, 483 ; his sentiments respecting resistance, 453;
& seq. 557; his advice respecting the clergy, 455; his
opinion respecting the war with the Turks, 456 & seq.;
makes various ecclesiastical regulations, 459 ; dedicates his
exposition of certain psalms to the Queen of Hungary, 460;
writes to the elector respecting smallness of Melancthon's
salary, 466 ; intercedes for certain friars, ib.; his desire of
martyrdom, 470 ; his temptations, 471 & seq.; confesses with
tears the intemperance of his language, 482 ; offends Duke
George, 490 ; his preface to the Directory for the clergy,
ib.; exhorts to pacific measures towards the papists, 493 ;
defends himself from the calumny of Hubmeier, 498 ; his
tolerant sentiments, ib. 500; his reasons for separating from
the papacy, 499, 502; his sentiments on predestination,
514 & seq.; attends conferences at Marpurg, 518 & seq.;
compared with Zuingle, 527 & seq.; his opinion respecting
the salvation of the heathens, 532 ; presents the articles of
Torgau to the elector, 561; publishes his catechism, 563 ;
his eulogium on Melancthon, 564; his uninterrupted friend-
ship with that reformer, ib.; his firm and pious conduct
after the diet of Augsburg, ib.; his prayers, 565, note ; his
letter to Gabriel, 570; his letter to Hartmurth, 571; his
intimacy and correspondence with Hesse, 575.
Lutheran denomination, what, v. 154 ; depart from the doctrines
of Luther, 335, note; 515.
Lutheranism, study of its history recommended, iv. 304 ; its pro-
Lydia, her conversion, i. 62.
Lyons, martyrs of, i. 223, & seq.
Hacarius, author of celebrated homilies, ii. 244.
Macedonians, their heresy, ii. 156.
Macedonius, his character, ii. 77 ; proposed by Arian paity as
Bishop of Constantinople without success, 78 ; takes pos-
session of that see by force, 85; persecutes the orthodox,
91 ; deprived of the see, 93 ; forms a sect, ib.
Maclanc, the translator of Mosheim, his prejudices against Luther,
v. 198, note; aoi, note; 230, 232, note; 233,514/528,
Macriamu, the favourite of Valerian, persuades that emperor to
persecute, i. 445 ; his magical practices, ib.
Macrinus, Emperor, succeeds Caracal I a, i. 315.
Magdeburg, treaty of, v. 441.
Magi, instrumental in persecuting the Christians, ii. 107.
Magic, forbidden by Constamine, ii. ill ; by Constantius, 112.
Magnus, a Pagan, his cruel treatment of the Athanasians, ii. 164.
— King of Norway, last invader of England, iii. 298; re-
Mahomet, declares himself a prophet, iii. 122; his doctrines and
rites, ib.; his conquests and death, 123 ; success of his sys-
tem, ib. 130.
Monometallism, success of, iii. 123, 130 ; its fatal influence, 284.
Mahometans, put an end to the kingdom of the Goths, iii. 143 ;
their pretensions to universal empire, 333.
Maimbourg, his history of Lutheranism, iv. 337; v. 84; bis
prejudices against Luther, iv. 337, 351, 456 ; v. 566, note.
Majorinus, Bp. of Carthage, ordained in opposition to Csecilian,
Malchion, a presbyter, his successful disputation against Paul of
Samosata, i. 490.
Malcolm III. of Scotland, protects Edgar and Margaret, iii. 306 ;
recovered throne of Scotland from Macbeth, ib.; marries
Margaret, ib.; his ferosity softened, ib.; slain, ib.
Malo, St. flies to France to escape being made Bishop of Win-
chester, iii. 27 ; becomes bishop at St. Malo's, ib.
Mammxa, Julia, mother of Alexander Severns, her character,
i. 316 ; sends for Origen, 318 ; is murdered, 321.
Manasscs, Abp. of Cologne, deposed for simony, iii. 326, note.
Manet, his heresy, i. 497.
Manichees, their absurd notions, ii. 314, note; 315, and note;
320; distinction among them of auditors and elect, 325;
their sect nearly eradicated by Augustine, 424.
Manzius, an Anabaptist, holds a public conference with Zuingie,
v. 506 ; his fanaticism and martyrdom, 507.
Maovia, Queen of the Saracens, makes peace with Valens, iL 239.
Marcellus, a centurion, refuses to serve in the army, and is be-
headed, i. 500.
— Bp. of Ancyra, having been deposed by the Arians is restored,
ii. 76; charged with Sabellianism, and justified by Julius,
Bishop of Rome, 81 ; his orthodoxy questionable, ib.; re-
stored to his see, 84.
Marcia, concubine of Commodus, exerts her interest for the
Christians, i. 241.
Marcian, Bp. of Arelate, joins the Novatians, i. 438.
— a Novatian presbyter, and tutor to the daughters of Valens,
his character, ii. 156; obtains toleration of his 6ect, ib.;
made bishop among the Novatians, 242 ; ordains Sabbatus,
a Jew, but shortly after obliged to check his ambition, ib.
Marcian, chosen by Pulcheria, the empress, for her husband, and
made emperor, ii. 526 ; his character, ib.
Marcion, ejected from the church, and turns heretic, i. 189; dis-
owned by Polycarp, 210; his heresy, 311.
Mare, Thomas de la, abbot of St. Albans, his fame for piety,
Margaret, Queen of Scotland, her exemplary piety, iii. 305 ;
protected by Malcolm upon the conquest of England, 306 ;
marries that monarch, ib.; greatly reforms the king and
people, ib.; her care of her children's education, ib.; her
— Governess of the Netherlands, her reply to an attack upon
Luther, iv. 489.
— of Navarre, sister to Francis I. of France, protects the re-
formers, v. 153; sends Faber and Roussel to confer'with
Strasburg divines, 186.
Marinas, appointed a centurion, i. 481 ; objected to as a Christian,
and confesses, ib.; beheaded, 482.
Mark, John, deserts Paul and Barnabas, i. 50; sails with Bar-
nabas to Cyprus, 56; further account of him, 115; founds
church at Alexandria, 116.
— Bp. of Arethusa, ordered to pay expense of rebuilding an
idolatrous temple, ii. 130 ; tortured, ib.; his constancy, ib.;
had saved the life of Julian, 131 ; his character ib.; proba-
bility of his return from Arianism, ib.
— the hermit, his writings, ii. 528.
Maronites, iii. 127.
Marpurg, university of, founded, v. 453; conferences at, 518
Marsilius of Padua, writes against the papal encroachments, iv. 73 ;
his opinions and character, ib.
Martial, a Spanish bishop, degraded, i. 438.
Martin, Bp. of Tours, resists the first attempt to punish heresy
with death, ii. 188; his piety and reputation, 189; his
early life, 190; reforms a robber, 191 ; his monastic ten-
dency, ib.; declines friendship of Maximus, 192; his cha-
— Bp. of Rome, assembles council of Lateran, iii. 124; anathe-
matises Monothelites, 125; his haughtiness, ib.; suffers
persecution, ib.; his firmness, ib.; his writings, 131.
— V. Pope, appointed by Council of Constance, iv. 206, 274 ;
eludes the demand for a reformation, 274, 276, 278; his
impious absolution of the members of the council of Con-
stance, 277 ; persecutes the Hussites, 278; and the Jaco-
1— a missionary among the Danes, his labours, v. 129.
Martyrs, superstitious veneration paid to them, i. 353 j extrava-
gant power attributed to them, 355 ; their great number
proved, ii. 33.
Maruthus, Bp. of Mesopotamia, his influence over Isdegerdes,
Mary, Queen of Hungary, apparently inclines to the Reforma-
tion, v. 461; her admonition to Charles the Fifth, ib.; go-
verns the Low Countries, ib.; relapses to popery, ib.; ber
character, ib.; called to Spain, 462.
Maryns, John, Abbot of St. Albans, his dying prayer to St. Alban,
Masses, private, abolished, v. 23, 34 & seq. 78 ; their corrup-
Matthias, the Apostle, substituted in the place of Judas Iscariot,
— a curate of Prague, maintains right of the laity to communion
in both kinds, iv. 235 ; obliged to retract, ib.; his charac-
Maturus, distinguished in the persecution at Vienne, i. 227 ; his
Maurice, Bp. of Ermland, denounces Luther, v. 178.
Mauritius, succeeds to the empire, iii. 34; confirms election of
Gregory I. 35; his law respecting civil and ecclesiastical
offices and monaslicism, 60; severely condemns Gregory's
conduct, 62 ; his character, 66; murdered, ib.; his resigna-
tion under his misfortunes, 67.
Maxentius, son of the Emperor Maximian, retains Rome and
Italy against Constantine, ii. 31 ; attempts the chastity of a
Christian matron, ib.; dispossessed by Constantine, 32.
— John, a Scythian monk, his v/ritings, iii. 94; suffers persecu-
Maximian, the associate of Dioclesian in the empire, his tyrannical
character, ii. 2 ; joins his efforts in the Dioclesian persecu-
tion, 4 ; resigns the empire, 19 ; put to death by Constan-
Maximilian, Emperor, sentences Tetzel to death for adultery,
3*7 ; complains to the Pope against Luther, 361.
Maximin, Emperor, murders Alexander, whom he succeeds,
i.321; persecutes the Christians, ib.; his character, ib.
— nephew of Galerius, appointed Cxsar, ii. 19 ; his savage dis-
position, ib.; persecutes the Christians, ib.; remarkable
instance of his injustice, 22 ; his edicts, 24 ; exceeds Galerius
in persecution, 32 ; suppresses that emperor's edict of tolera-
tion, 33 ; his struggle for empire, ib.; renews the persecu-
tion, ib.; appoints persons of quality as idolatrous priests, 34;
his artifices and cruelties in persecution, ib.; bis war with
Licinius, and vow to Jupiter, 38; conquered, and forbids
molestation of Christians, ib.; slays his own priests, 39;
publishes an edict of full toleration, ib ; his dreadful and
uncommon end, ib.
JMaximus, a Roman presbyter and confessor, imprisoned along
with Moyses, i. 337 ; see Moyses; joins Novatian, 37a;
repents and returns to the church, 381.
-— a presbyter, elected counter bishop by the Novatians, i. 374.
a merchant, his confession and martyrdom, i. 409.
a presbyter under Dionysius of Alexandria, banished along
with that bishop, i. 475 ; succeeds him, 478. Bishop of Naples, tortured at council of Milan, ii. 86 ; dies in
usurper of the empire, takes upon him to decide the case ol
the Priscillianists, ii. 188 ; courts the friendship of Martin,
192 ; his death, 200.
— Secretary to the Emperor Ileraclius, his learning, iii. 124;
enters a monastery, and made abbot, ib.; opposes Menothe-
lite heresy, ib.; examined at Constantinople, 125; solidity
of his answers, ib.; suffers persecution, 127 his writings,
Mayons, John de Beles, Abp. of Lyons, threatens Peter Walde,
JSIedici, family of, raised up to patronise science, iv. 288.
Meginher, Abp. of Treeves, provokes his clergy by his admoni-
tions, i'.i. 432; suffers from their treachery, and dies in
Melancihun, his opinion of Wickliffe, iv. 130 ; his character, 366 ;
428 ; v. 310, 322, 345, 353; made Greek professor at Wit-
temberg, iv. 366; his celebrity, ib.; v. 322 ; assists Carol-
stadtin his disputation, iv. 427 ; renders powerful assistance
to Luther in the Reformation, 428,459; his controversy
with Eckius, 430 ; hi3 timidity, v. 19, 310 ; defends Luther
against Parisian divines, 29; his account of and conduct re-
specting Stork and other fanatics, 44 & seq.; assists Luther
in translating the Scriptures, 73 ; his opinion as to resistance,
126, 557 ; his character of Carolstadt, 231; makes a Latin
oration on the death of Frederic, 244; defends Bernard's
marriage, 248; his sentiments on Luther's marriage, 250,
•55 ; his marriage, 257 ; his correspondence with Erasmus,
ib. and seq.; his theological tracts; 323, 330 & seq.; his
letter to Calvin, 332 ; his opinion of Erasmus, 345; his de-
fence of the Reformers, 430 ; attempts to moderate the zeal
of the Landgravp of Hesse, 450 ; his conscientiousness in-
stanced, 466; composes a directory for the clergy, 490 ;
writes in favour of pacific measures, 493; attends conferences
at Marpurg, 518, and seq.; his account of the conferences,
521 ; bis sentiments on Zuingle's confession, 522 ; draws up
the confession of Augsburg, 561 ; his deep melancholy, in
consequence of the decree of Augsburg, 562 ; Luther's eu-
logium, on his work, 564; his uninterrupted friendship with
Meletians, their schism, ii. 50; their controversy settled, 62;
return in numbers to the church, but sect still continues, 65.
Meletians, a party attached to Meletius of Antioch, ii. 132 ; per.
Meletius, an Egyptian bishop, lapses, ii. 49; deposed, ib.; sepa-
rates, and raises a schism, 50 ; allowed by Nicene couoci
to retain title of bishop without authority, 62.
— Bp. of Antioch, ordered to preach before Constantius, ii. 94;
banished for his doctrine, ib.; restored to his see, 126; con-
sidered head of a party, 132 ; presides at council of Antiock,
160; banished, ib.; restored, 182; attends council of Cos-
stantinople, and dies there, 183 ; his character, ib.
Melito, Bp. of Sardis, his apology, i. 207; his other writings,
251; becomes an eunuch, ib.
Mellitus, Bp. of London, co-operates with Laurentius a»j
Juttus, iii. 97 ; refuses the sacrament to three princes, 98,
expelled, 99 ; retires to France, ib; recalled, 100 ; made
Archbishop of Canterbury, ib.; his death and character, ib.
Mendicant orders, see Dominicans and Franciscans ; their prac-
tices, 20, 22, 42, 45, 53, 55, 75, 109, 133, 148 ; attacked
by WicklifF, 109, 112, 126; Luther's objections to them,
v. 384; their practices complained of in diet of Spires,
Methodius, a missionary, his piety and labours, iii. 227, 228;
made bishop of Moravia, 229.
Metros, a martyr, i. 390.
Metrodorus, a Marcionite, his martyrdom, i. 222, 408.
Meyer, Sebastian, a celebrated preacher at Strasburg, recants
popish errors, v. 186; publishes a confutation of them,
Michael, III. Emperor, succeeds his mother, iii. 208.
— Palabgus, usurps Greek empire, iv. 15; recovers Constan-
tinople, ib.; puts out the eyes of Prince John, ib.; excom-
municated by Arsenius, ib.; affects repentance, 16 ; his base
treatment of Arsenius, ib.
Micislaus, King or Duke of Poland, divorces his seven wives,
embraces Christianity, and marries Dambrouca, iii. 262.
Militxius, his successful preaching, iv. 76 ; silenced and impri-
soned by the Pope, 77.
Miltiadcs, detects false pretences to inspiration, i. 253.
Miltitz, Charles, a Saxon knight, employed to settle the ruptnre
between Luther and the Roman see, iv. 3B8 ; rebuke*
Tetzel, 389; his conferences with Luther, ib. & seq.; also
Minucius, Felix, his very eloquent Latin work, i. 315 ; his testi-
mony to continuance of miraculous gifts, 329.
Miracles, continuance thereof in third century, i. 329, 442, 470;
probability of, by Gregory Thaumaturgus, 505 ; in Augus-
tine's time, ii. 423; remarkable one in speech of persons
deprived of their tongues, 506.
Missions for propagating the Gospel, encouraged by Bishop of
Rome, iii. 156; apology for, 265. -
jytoiban, Ambrose, a reformer, v. 145.
Alonasteries, abuse of, iii. 140; deserted in Germany, v. 374,
Alonica, the mother of Augustine, renowned for piety, ii. 299;
note; remonstrates with her son on his views, 309; her
remarkable dream, 315; perseveres nine yeans in prayer for
him, 316 ; her remarkable conversation with a bishop re-
specting him, ib.; further proofs of her maternal attach-
ment, 323, 325, 328 ; her death, 357 ; her education, 358 ;
her exemplary conduct as a wife, ib.; her conversations be-
fore her death, 359 and seq.
Monks, their communities founded by Anthony, i. 524; evil
effects thereof, 525 ; ancient character of, ii. 95; two sorts
of, 97; support Nicene faith, ib.; those of Egypt courted
by the Arians, 165 ; their steadfastness, ib.; growth of mo-
nastic spirit, 234, 243 ; rules of their discipline formed, 267 ;
flower of Christ's flock in fourth century, ib.; instance of
their active charity, 281; difference between ancient and
modern idea of, 471 ; rules of Benedict established, iii. 21;
excessive multiplication of, 140, 166; their attempt at an
independent dominion, 246; contribute to revival of learn-
ing, 283; conduct of many at the Reformation, v. 71 > 87,
147; of Wittemberg desert the monastery, 247.
Monothelite, heresy, iii. 120; its success, 122; anathematized,
Mgntanus, his heresy, i. 260.
Montesquieu, accused of sophistry, ii. 416.
Montfort, earl Simon of, his infamous treatment of the Wal-
denses, iii. 4g2 ; his successful career, 493 ; slain, ib.; his
piety commended by Butler, iv. 24.
— Amalric of, resigns to the French king his claims to the
country of the Albigenses, iii. 494; appointed Constable of
Moors, extension of Christianity among them, iii. 02.
Moranus, Peter, an Albigensian, suffers persecution, iii. 483.
Moreri, his character of Luther, iv. 339.
Moses, a monk, appointed bishop of the Saracens, ii. 239; refused
to be ordained by Lucius, ib.; ordained by the exiled bishops,
240; his success among the Saracens, ib.
Mosheim, a judicious secular historian, but not to be trusted in
accounts of men of real holiness, i. 457 ; his unjust repre-
sentations of Cyprian, ib.; and of Origen, 459 ; mistaken in
depreciating the genius of Julian, ii. 113 ; his treatment of
Pelagian disputes indefensible, 389; his misrepresentation of
Augustine, 463; instance of his positiveness, 477 ; his par-
tiality, ib.; his inconsiderate aspersions, iii. 116; his ill
humour and want of discernment, 141; instance of his pre-
judice and inconsistency, 184; instance of his candour, 242 ;
his mistake respecting character of tenth century, 263;
instance of his uncharftablehess and self-sufficiency, 37 f ;
his account of the Waldenses erroneous, 444, note.
May us, a Roman presbyter and confessor, imprisoned, i. 337 ;
written to by Cyprian on that occasion, ib.; Cyprian's second
letter to him and Maximus, 358 ; his friendship with Nova-
tion, 371; renounces intercourse with that schismatic, ib. ;
dies in prison, ib.; bis character commended, ib.
Muller, Henry, a reformed preacher, burned, v. 132; see oho
Henry of Zutphen.
ilunzer, a German fanatic, v. 44 ; Luther's account of him, 504;
his fanatical opinions, ib.; forms a desperate association,
205 ; banished, ib.; expelled by the inhabitants from Nu-
remberg, ib.; exercises his ministry at Mulbausen, 206;
his violent proceedings there, ib.; heads the peasants in the
Rustic war, 215.
Myconius, Frederic, a reformer, his account of the state of reli-
gion before the Reformation, iv. 305; brief sketch of his
history, v. 567.
Narcissus, prime minister of Claudius, his family Christians,
i. 79; his character, 80.
Nassau, Count, his testimony to Luther, iv. 4S8.
Natalis, Bp. of Salonae, his correspondence with Gregory the
First, iii. 47. .
Nebridius, leaves hiB paternal estate to accompany Augustine,
»• 336; recovered from a heretical error, 356.
Nectarius, Bp. of Constantinople, ii. 185; his negligent adminis-
— a Pagan, his correspondence with Augustine, ii. 453.
Negrin, Stephen, a Waldensian, sent as pastor to Calabria, iii.
503; starved to death, 504.
Nemes, a Greek father, his testimony concerning divine faith,
Nero, Emperor, persecutes the Christians, i. 98 ; his death, 100.
Nerva, Emperor, his lenity to the Christians, i. 102.
Nestorians, their heresy, ii. 125; iii. 120 ; endeavour to propa-
gate Christianity, 129; increase their numbers, ib.
Nestorius, hi3 heresy, ii.525.
Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, i. 16.
Niccphorus, remarkable story of him and Sapricius, i. 473.
Nicholas, one of the seven deacons, i. 16.
Nicolaitans, i. 89.
Nicolas, Pope, commends the cruelties of Theodora, iii. 208.
Nicolaus, a zealous youth among the reformers, suffers martyr-
dom, v. 190.
Nicostratus, a Roman deacon, seduced by Novatian, i. 373.
Nile, superstitious veneration of, given up, ii. 205.
XTiZus, his sanctity, iii. 280; retires to a convent, ib.; his con-
ference with certain priests who came to try his skill, ib.;
ill-treated by Euphraxus, 281 ; his visit to his death-bed, ib.
refuses a bishopric, 282; driven from his convent on the
Saracen invasion, ib.; offers made to him by Otho the
Third, ib.; his sole request of that Emperor, ib.
Jcvoc/im of Smyrna, propagates Praxean heresy, i. 319; ejected
from the church, ib.; his affectation, 320.
N"ovatian, a Roman priest, persuaded by Novatus to separate
from the church, i. 371; had been a Stoic, ib.; his senti-
ments respecting the lapsed, ib. 374; irregularly elected
Bishop of Rome, 372; his doctrine sound, 373 ; charges
laid against him by Cornelius, ib.; condemns second mar-
riages, ib.; rejected by African Synod, 375 ; his moral cha-
racter correct, 398 ; his early history and character, 399 ;
his treatise on the Trirwty, 400 ; suffered martyrdom, 401.
Novatians, the first body of dissenters, i. 373 ; elect a counter bi-
shop, 374 ; their character, ib.376, 398 ; ii. 48, 65,91,172,
243; complain against Cornelius at Carthage, but are re-
fused audience, i. 377 ; strive to make a party, ib.; animad-
version on them by council of Carthage, ib.; no trace of the
Holy Spirit's influence among them, 398; their schism
spreads in Gaul, 438 ; only differ from the church in disci-
pline, 54.6; real spirituality among them, ii. 48; allowed
to return to the church, 64; suffer persecution from the
Arians, 91; instances of their zeal and bigotry, ib.; included
in an edict against heretics, 100; suffer persecution under
Valens, 156; tolerated, ib. 185; flourish in Phrygia and
Paphlagonia, 241 ; appoint in a synod the time of celebrating
Easter, ib.; schism among them, 242; consequences of
their narrow bigotry, 243; find fault with Chrysostom's
expressions regarding repentance, 285.
Novatus, a presbyter of Carthage, his infamous character, i.370,
382; supports schism of Felicissimus, ib.; goes to Rome,
371 ; seduces Novatian from the church, ib.; liia inconsis-
tency, 372 ; returns to Africa, 373; Cyprian's testimony
respecting his character, 382.
Noviomagus, Gerard, his controversy with Erasmus, v. 339.
Numidicus, a presbyter, his sufferings and recovery, i. 365.
Nuremberg, edict of, v. 81, 116; diet of, Ioi & seq.; another
diet of 160 & seq.
Ochham, William, iv. 67.
Odoacer, King of the Heruli, conquers Rome and puts an end to
the Roman empire, ii. 496; overcome by Theodoric, ib,
(Ecolampadius, see Ecolampadius.
Offices in the church, rise of the lower ones, i. 515.
VOL. V. X X
Olaus, King of-Sweden, patronizes Christians, iii. 257.
I— King of Norway, professes conversion but retains idolitrce
practices, iii. 259.
— King of Norway, the most successful of all the Nomefas
kings in recommending Christianity, iii. s6c>.
— King of Norway, assists the Danes against Etheldred of EE-
land, iii. 296; carries over several priests, ib.; his ratios
labours, ib. ;. slain, ib.
-— Petri, instructs Gustavus V'asa, .v. 133; holds a disputaca
in support of Lutheranism against Peter Galle, in.; mxt
secretary to Gustavus Vasa, 136; engaged in a second im-
putation against Peter Galle, 140; publishes an explanatka
of justification by faith, 141, 574; and a ritual, 141; sfcesd
of his history, 574.
Olga, Queen of the Russians, receives baptism, iii. 263.
Olympics, an opulent lady, her liberijity to Chrysoston>, ii. 991,
. banished, to Nicomedia, ib. -
Omcr, Bp. of Tarvanue, his successful labours, iii. 111,
Ouesimus, a slave, and afterwards a Christian convert, i. 83;
Bishop of Ephesus, commended by Ignatius, 155.
Optatus, Bp. of Melevi, his treatise against the Donatists, ii.247.
Oracle of Apollo, its answer concerning Christianity, ii. no.
Ordination, ideas of it strict in early times, i. 364 ; recommended
., to be performed publicly, why, 439 ; power of confined to
. ■ bishops, 514.