THE FIFTH BOOK.
AUGUSTINE'S TWENTY-NINTH YEAR— FAUSTUS, A SNARE OF SATAN TO MANY, MADE AN INSTRUMENT OF DELIVERANCE TO AUGUSTINE BY SHOWING THE IGNORANCE OF THE MANICHEES ON THOSE things WHEREIN THEY PROFESSED TO HAVE DIVINE KNOWLEDGE — AUGUSTINE GIVES UP ALL THOUGHT OF GOING FURTHER AMONG THE MANICHEES — IS GUIDED TO ROME AND MILAN, WHERE HE HEARS AMBROSE, LEAVES THE MANICHEES, AND BECOMES AGAIN A CATECHUMEN IN THE CHURCH CATHOLIC.
I. 1. Accept, O Lord, the sacrifice of my confessions from the ministry of my tongue, which Thou hast formed and stirred up to confess unto Thy name. Heal Thou all my bones, and let them say, O Lord, who is like unto Thee?1 For he who confesses to Thee, doth not teach Thee what takes place within him; seeing a closed heart shuts not out Thy eye, nor can man's hardheartedness thrust back Thy hand: for Thou dissolvest it at Thy will in pity or in vengeance, and nothing can hide itself from Thy heat? But let my soul praise Thee, that it may love Thee; and let it confess Thy own mercies to Thee, that it may praise Thee. Thy whole creation ceaseth not, nor is silent in Thy praises; neither the spirit of man, with voice directed unto Thee, nor creation animate or inanimate, by the voice of those who meditate thereon: that so our 90 Some things known to God.
1 Ps xxxv. 20. 2 Ps. xix. 6.
souls may from their weariness arise towards Thee, leaning on those things which Thou hast created, and passing on to Thyself who madest them wonderfully; whereby cometh refreshment and true strength.
II. 2. Let the restless, the godless, depart and flee from Thee; yet Thou seest them, and dividest the darkness. And behold, the universe with them is fair, though they are foul. But how can they injure Thee? or how disgrace Thy government, which, from the heaven to this lowest earth, is just and perfect? For whither fled they, when they fled from Thy presence?1 or where dost not Thou find them? They fled, that they might not see Thee looking at them, and blinded, might stumble against Thee:2 (because Thou forsakest nothing Thou hast made;3) that the unjust, I say, might stumble upon Thee, and justly be hurt; withdrawing themselves from Thy gentleness, and stumbling at Thy uprightness, and falling upon their own ruggedness. Ignorant, in truth, that Thou art everywhere, Whom no place encompasseth 1 that Thou alone art near, even to those that remove far from Thee.* Let them, then, turn, and seek Thee; because not as they have forsaken their Creator, hast Thou forsaken Thy creation. Let them be turned and seek Thee; for behold, Thou art there in their heart, in the heart of those that confess to Thee, and cast themselves upon Thee, and weep in Thy bosom, after all their rugged The wicked obey not, but must serve God. 91
1 Ps. cxxxix. 7. 8 Wisd. xi. 25, old vers.
2 Gen. xvi. 14. 4 Ps. lxxiii. 27.
ways. Then dost Thou gently wipe away their tears, and they weep the more, and joy in weeping; even for that Thou, Lord, — not man of flesh and blood, but — Thou, Lord, who madcst them, remakest and comfortest them. But where was I when I was seeking Thee? Thou wert before me, but I had gone away from Thee; nor did I find myself, how much less Thee!
III. 3. I would lay open before my God that nineand-twentieth year of mine age. There had then come to Carthage, a certain Bishop of the Manichees, Faustus by name, a great snare of the Devil, and many were entangled by him through the lure of his smooth language: which, though I did commend, yet could I separate from the truth of the things which I was earnest to learn: nor did I so much regard the service of oratory, as the science which this Faustus, so praised among them, set before me to feed upon. Fame had before bespoken him most knowing in all valuable learning, and exquisitely skilled in the liberal sciences. And since I had read and well remembered much of the philosophers, I compared some things of theirs with those long f;ibles of the Manichees, and found the former the more probable; even although they could only prevail so far as to make judgment of this lower world, the Lord of it they could by no means find out} For Thou art great, O Lord, and hast respect unto the humble, but the proud Thou beholdest afar off.2 Nor dost Thou draw near, but to the contrite in 92 Discoveries of science lead not to God.
lWisd.xiii.9. 2 Ps. cxxxviii. 6.
heart,1 nor art found by the proud, no, not though by curious skill they could number the stars and the sand, and measure the starry heavens, and track the courses of the planets.
4. For with their understanding and wit, which Thou bestowedst on them, they search out these things; and much have they found out; and foretold, many years before, eclipses of those luminaries, the sun and moon, — what day and hour, and how many digits, — nor did their calculation fail, but it came to pass as they foretold; and they wrote down the rules they had found out, and these are read at this day, and out of them do others foretell in what year, and month of the year, and what day of the month, and what hour of the day, and what part of its light, moon or sun is to be eclipsed, and so it shall be as it is foreshowed. At these things men, that know not this art, marvel and are astonished, and they that know it, exult, and are puffed up ; and by an ungodly pride departing from Thee, and failing of Thy light, they foresee so long before, a failure of the sun's light, which shall be, but see not the failure of their own, which now is. For they search not religiously to know whence they have the wit wherewith they search out this. And finding that Thou madest them, they give not themselves up to Thee, to preserve what Thou madest, nor sacrifice to Thee, what they have made themselves; nor slay their own soaring imaginations, as fowls of the air, nor their own diving curiosities (wherewith, like the fishes of the We must sacrifice self, to know God. 93
1 Ps. xxxiv. 18.
sea,1 they wander over the unknown paths of the abyss), nor their own luxuriousness, as beasts of the field, that Thou, Lord, a consuming fire,2 mayest burn up those dead cares of theirs, and recreate themselves immortally.
5. For they knew not the Way, Thy Word,3 by Whom Thou madest these things which they number, and themselves who number, and the sense whereby they perceive what they number, and the understanding out of which they number; or that of Thy wisdom there is no number.* But the Only Begotten is Himself, made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification,5 and was numbered among us, and paid tribute unto Cwsar.e They knew not this Way whereby to descend to Him from themselves, and by Him ascend unto Him. They knew not this Way, and deemed themselves exalted among the stars and shining; and behold, they fell upon the earth, and their foolish heart was darkened.7 They discourse many things truly concerning the creature; but Truth, Artificer of the creature, they seek not piously, and therefore find Him not; or if they find Him, knowing Him to be God, they glorify Him not as God, neither are thankful, but become vain in their imaginations, and profess themselves to be ioise,8 attributing to themselves what is Thine; and thereby with most perverse blindness, study to impute to Thee what is 94 Knowledge of God the greatest happiness.
1 Ps. riii. 7,8. * Ps. cxlvii. 5. 7 Is. xiv. 13; Rev. xii. i; Rom. i. 21.
2 Deut. iv. 24. s 1 Cor. i. 30. 3 Rom. i. 21.
3 Johni. 3. 6 Matt. xvii. 27.
their own, forging lies of Thee who art the Truth, and changing the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things, changing Thy truth into a lie, and worshiping and serving the creature more than the Creator)
C. Yet many truths concerning the creature learned I from these men, and saw the reason thereof from calculations, the succession of times, and the visible testimonies of the stars; and compared them with the views of Munichaeus, which in his frenzy he had written out most largely on these subjects; but I discovered not any account of the solstices, or equinoxes, or the eclipses of the greater lights, nor whatever of this sort I had learned in the books of secular philosophy. But I was commanded to believe; and yet it corresponded not with what had been established by calculations and my own sight, but was quite contrary.
IV. 7. Doth then, O Lord God of truth, he who knoweth these things, therefore please Thee? Surely unhappy is he who knoweth all these, and knoweth not Thee: but happy whoso knoweth Thee, though he know not these. And whoso knoweth both Thee and them, is not the happier for them, but for Thee only, if knowing Thee, he glorifies Thee as God, and is thankful, and becomes not vain in his imaginations? For as he is better off who knows how to possess a tree, and return thanks to Thee for the use thereof, although he know not how many cubits high Heretics a warning to the faithful. 95
1 Rom. i. 23. 2 Rom. i. 21.
it is, or how wide it spreads, than he that can measure it, and count all its boughs, and neither owns it nor knows or loves its Creator: so a believer, to whom all this world of wealth belongs (since having nothing, he yet possesseth all things,1 by cleaving unto Thee, whom all things serve), though he know not even the circles of the Great Bear, is doubtless in a better state than one who can measure the heavens and number the stars, and poise the elements, yet neglecteth Thee who hast made all things in number, weight and measure?
V. 8. But yet who bade that unknown Manichaeus to write on these things, the knowledge of which is no element of piety? For Thou hast said to man, Behold, piety and wisdom /* of which he might be ignorant, though he had perfect knowledge of these things. But since Manichaeus in reality knew not these things, and yet most impudently dared to teach them, he plainly could have no knowledge of piety. For it is vanity to make profession of these worldly things even when known; but confession to Thee is piety. Wherefore this errorist to this end spake much of these things, that convicted by those who had truly learned them, it might be manifest what understanding he had in the other abstruser things. For he would not have himself meanly thought of, but went about to persuade men, " That the Holy Ghost, the Comforter and Enricher of Thy faithful ones, was with plenary authority personally within him." When, therefore, he was found out to have
ICor. vl. 10. 2Wisd. xi. 20. 3 Job xxviii. 28. LXX.
96 Truth not to be valued, nor
taught falsely of the heaven and stars, and of the motions of the sun and moon (although these things pertain not to the doctrine of religion), his sacrilegious presumption became evident enough, seeing he delivered things which not only he knew not, but which were falsified, with so mad a vanity of pride, that he sought to ascribe them to himself, as to a divine person.
9. For when I hear any Christian brother ignorant of these things, and mistaken on them, I can patiently behold such a man holding his opinion; nor do I see that any ignorance as to the position or character of the corporeal creation can injure him, so long as he doth not believe anything unworthy of Thee, O Lord, the Creator of all. But it doth injure him if he imagine it to pertain to the form of the doctrine of piety, and will affirm that too stiffly whereof he is ignorant. And yet is even such an infirmity, in the infancy of faith, borne by our mother Charity, till the new-born may grow up unto a perfect man, so as not to be carried about with every wind of doctrine? But in the instance of him who in such wise presumed to be the teacher, source, guide, chief of all whom he could so persuade, that whoso followed him thought that he followed not a mere man, but Thy Holy Spirit; who would not judge that when he were once convicted of having taught anything false, he were to be detested and utterly rejected? But I had not as yet clearly ascertained whether the vicissitudes of longer and shorter days and nights, suspected, for its outward garb. 97
1 Eph.lv. 13,14.
and of day and night itself, with the eclipses of the greater lights, and whatever else of the kind I had read of in other books, might be explained consistently with his sayings; so that, if they by any means might be, it should still remain a question to me whether it were so or no; and yet I might, on account of his reputed sanctity, rest my credence upon his authority.
VI. 10. And for almost all those nine years, wherein with unsettled mind I had been their disciple, I had longed but too intensely for the coming of this Faustus. For the rest of the sect, whom by chance I had lighted upon, when unable to solve my objections about these things, still held out to me the coming of this Faustus, by conference with whom, these and greater difficulties, if I had them, were to be most readily and abundantly cleared. When, then, he came, I found him a man of pleasing discourse, and who could speak fluently and in better terms, yet still but the self-same things which they were wont to say. But what availed the utmost neatness of the cup-bearer, to my thirst for a more precious draught? Mine ears were already cloyed with the like, nor did they seem to me therefore better, because better said; nor therefore true, because eloquent; nor the soul therefore wise, because the face was comely and the language graceful. But they who held him out to me were no good judges of things; and therefore to them he appeared intelligent and wise, because his words were pleasing. I remembered, however, that another sort of people 98 Faustus' superficiality, how disguised.
were suspicious even of truth, and refused to assent to it, if delivered in a smooth and copious discourse. But Thou, O my God, hadst already taught me by wonderful and secret ways; and I believe that Thou taughtest me, because it is truth; nor is there, besides Thee, any teacher of truth, where or whencesoever it may shine upon us. Of Thyself, therefore, had I now learned that neither ought anything to seem to be spoken truly, because eloquently; nor therefore falsely, because the utterance of the lips is inharmonious; nor, again, therefore true, because rudely delivered; nor therefore false, because the language is rich; but that wisdom and folly are as wholesome and unwholesome food; and adorned or unadorned phrases, as courtly or country vessels: either kind of meats may be served up in either kind of dishes.
11. That longing, then, wherewith I had so long expected that man, was delighted verily with his action and feeling when disputing, and his choice and readiness of words to clothe his ideas. I was delighted, and, with many others and more than they, did I praise and extol him. It troubled me, however, that in the assembly of his auditors, I was not allowed to put in, and communicate those questions that troubled me, in familiar converse with him. Which, when I might, and with my friends began to engage his ears at such times as it was not unbecoming for him to discuss with me, and had brought forward such things as moved me, I found him first utterly ignorant of liberal sciences, save grammar, and that but in an ordinary way. But Fanstus' superficiality, how disguised. 99
because he had read some of Tully's Orations, a very few books of Seneca, some things of the poets, and such few volumes of his own sect as were written in Latin and neatly, and was daily practised in speaking, he acquired a certain eloquence, which proved the more pleasing and seductive because under the guidance of a good wit, and with a kind of natural gracefulness. Was it not thus, as I recall it, O Lord my God. Thou Judge of my conscience? My heart and my remembrance is before Thee, Who didst at that time direct me by the hidden mystery of Thy providence, and didst set those shameful errors of mine before my face, that I might see and hate them.1
VII. 12. For, after it was clear that he was ignorant of those arts in which I thought he excelled, I began to despair of his opening and solving the difficulties which perplexed me (of which, indeed, however ignorant, he might yet have held the truths of piety, had he not been a Manichee); for their books are fraught with prolix fables of the heaven, and stars, sun and moon; and I now no longer thought him able satisfactorily to decide what I much desired, whether, on comparison of these things with the calculations I had elsewhere read, the account given in the books of Manichaeus were preferable, or at least as good. Which, when I proposed to be considered and discussed, he, so far modestly, shrunk from the burthen. For he knew that he knew not these things, and was not ashamed to confess it. For he
1 Ps. l. 21.
100 Snares to others disentangle Augustine.
was not one of those talking persons, many of whom I had endured, who undertook to teach me these things, and said nothing. But this man had a heart, though not right towards Thee, yet neither altogether treacherous to himself. For he was not altogether ignorant of his own ignorance, nor would he rashly be entangled in a dispute, whence he could neither retreat nor extricate himself fairly. Even for this I liked him the better. For fairer is the modesty of a candid mind, than the knowledge of those things which I desired; and such I found him in all the more difficult and subtile questions.
13. My zeal for the writings of Manichaeus being thus blunted, and despairing yet more of their other teachers, seeing that in divers things which perplexed me, he, so renowned among them, had so turned out; I began to engage with him in the study of that literature, on which he also was much set (and which as rhetoric-reader I was at that time teaching young students at Carthage), and to read with him, either what himself desired to hear, or such as I judged fit for his genius. But all my efforts whereby I had purposed to advance in that sect, upon knowledge of that man, came utterly to an end; not that I detached myself from them altogether, but as one finding nothing better, I had settled to be content meanwhile with what I had in whatever way fallen upon, unless by chance something more eligible should dawn upon me. Thus Faustus, to so many a snare of death, had now, neither willing nor witting it, begun to loosen that wherein I was taken. For Augustine led to Rome, for his salvation, 101
Thy hands, O my God, in the secret purpose of Thy providence, did not forsake my soul; and out of my mother's heart's blood, through her tears night and day poured out, was a sacrifice offered for me unto Thee; and Thou didst deal with me by wondrous ways.1 Thou didst it, O my God: for the steps of a man are ordered by the Lord, and He shall dispose his way? Or how shall we obtain salvation, but from Thy hand, remaking what It made?
VIII. 14. It was Thy doing, O Lord, that I should be persuaded to go to Rome, and to teach there what I was teaching at Carthage. And how I was persuaded to this, I will not neglect to confess to Thee: because herein also the deepest recesses of Thy wisdom, and Thy most present mercy to us, must be considered and confessed. I did not wish to go to Rome, because higher gains and higher dignities were warranted me by my friends who persuaded me to this (though even these things had at that time an influence over my mind); but my chief and almost only reason was, that I heard that young men studied there more peacefully, and were kept quiet under a restraint of more regular discipline; so that they did not, at their pleasure, petulantly rush into the school of one whose pupils they were not, nor were even admitted without his permission. Whereas, at Carthage, there reigns among the scholars a most disgraceful and unruly license. They burst in audaciously, and, with gestures almost frantic, disturb all order which any one hath estab102 'by others' vanities and his own.
1 Joel ii. 26. 2 Ps. xxxvii. 23.
lished for the good of his scholars. Divers outrages they commit, with a wonderful stolidity, punishable by law, did not custom uphold them; that custom evincing them to be the more miserable, in that they now do as lawful what by Thy eternal law shall never be lawful; and they think they do it unpunished, whereas they are punished with the very blindness whereby they do it, and suffer incomparably worse than what they do. The manners, then, which, when a student, I would not make my own, I was fain, as a teacher, to endure in others: and so I was well pleased to go where all that knew assured me that the like was not done. But Thou, my refuge and my portion in the land of the living, 1 that I might change my earthly dwelling for the salvation of my soul, at Carthage didst goad me, that I might thereby be torn from it; and at Rome didst proffer me allurements, whereby I might be drawn thither, by men in love with a dying life: the one class doing frantic, the other promising vain, things; and, to correct my steps, didst secretly use their and my own perverseness. For both they who disturbed my quiet were blinded with a disgraceful frenzy, and they who invited me elsewhere, savored of earth. And I, who here detested real misery, went there seeking unreal happiness.
15. But why I went hence, and went thither, Thou knowest, O God, yet showedst it neither to me nor to my mother, who grievously bewailed my journey, and followed me as far as the sea. 'But I His mother's prayers heard, though denied. 103
1 Ps cxIii. 5.
deceived her, as she held me by force, that either she might keep me back, or go with me; and I feigned that I had a friend whom I could not leave, till he had a fair wind to sail. And I lied to my mother, and to such a mother, and escaped. For this also hast Thou mercifully forgiven me, preserving me, 'thus full of execrable defilements, from the waters of the sea, for the water of Thy Grace; whereby, when I was cleansed, the streams of my mother's eyes should be dried, with which for me she daily watered the ground under her face. And yet refusing to return without me, I scarcely persuaded her to stay that night in a place hard by our ship, where was an Oratory in memory of the blessed Cyprian. That night I privily departed, but she remained weeping and in prayer. And what, O Lord, was she with so many tears asking of Thee, but that Thou wouldest not suffer me to sail? But Thou, in the depth of Thy counsels and hearing the main point of her desire, regardest not what she then asked, that Thou mightest make me what she ever asked. The wind blew and swelled our sails, and withdrew the shore from our sight; and she on the morrow was there, frantic with sorrow, and with complaints and groans filled Thine ears, who didst then disregard them; whilst through my desires, Thou wert hurrying me to end all desire, and the earthly part of her affection to me was chastened by the allotted scourge of sorrows. For she loved to have me with her, as mothers do, but much more than most; and she knew not how great joy Thou wert about to 104 His apathy in dangerous illness.
work for her out of my absence. She knew not; therefore did she weep and wail, and by this agony there appeared in her the inheritance of Eve, with sorrow seeking what in sorrow she had brought forth. And yet, after accusing my treachery and hardheartedness, she betook herself again to intercede to Thee for me, went to her wonted place, and I to Rome.
IX. 16. And lo! there was I received by the scourge of bodily sickness, and I was going down to hell, carrying all the sins which I had committed, both against Thee, and myself, and others, many and grievous, over and above that bond of original sin, whereby we all die in Adam} For Thou hadst not forgiven me any of these things in Christ, nor had He abolished by His cross the enmity which by my sins I had incurred by Thee. For how could He, by the crucifixion of a phantasm, which I believed Him to be? Thus the death of my soul was as real as the death of His flesh seemed to me false; and as real as was the death of His body, so false was the life of my soul, which did not believe it. And now, the fever heightening, I was parting and departing forever. For had I then parted hence, whither had I departed, but into fire and torments, such as my misdeeds deserved in the truth of Thy appointment? And this my mother knew not, yet in absence prayed for me. But Thou, everywhere present, heardest her where she was, and, where I was, hadst compassion upon me; that I should recover the health of my body, though frenzied as yet in my sacrilegious heart. Monica's devotions and visions. 105
1 1 Cor. xv. 22.
For I did not in all that danger desire Thy baptism; and I was better as a boy, when I begged it of my mother's piety, as I have before recited and confessed. But I had grown up to my own shame, and I madly scoffed at the prescripts of Thy medicine, yet wonldest Thou not suffer me, being such, to die a double death. With which wound had my mother's heart been pierced, it could never be healed. For I cannot express the affection she bare to me, and with how much more vehement anguish she was now in labor of me in the spirit, than at her childbearing in the flesh.1
17. I see not then how she should have been healed, had such a death of mine stricken through the bowels of her love. And where, then, would have been her so strong and unceasing prayers? But wouldest Thou, O God of mercies, despise the contrite and humbled heart2 of that chaste and sober widow, so frequent in almsdeeds, so full of duty and service to Thy saints, no day intermitting the oblation at Thine altar, twice a day, morning and evening, without any intermission, coming to Thy church, not for idle tattlings and old V/'iy es' fables,1 but that she might hear Thee in Thy discourses, and Thou her, in her prayers? Couldest Thou despise and reject from Thy aid the tears of such an one, wherewith she begged of Thee not gold or silver, nor any mutable or passing good, but the salvation of her son's soul? Thou, by whose gift she was such? Never, Lord. Yea, Thou wert at hand, and wert hearing and doing, 106 Augustine continues a Manichee.
1 Gal. iv. 9. 2 Ps. li. 51. 3 1 Tim. v. 10.
in that order wherein Thou hadst determined before, that it should be done. Far be it that Thou shouldest deceive her in Thy visions and answers, some whereof I have, some I have not mentioned, which she laid up in her faithful heart, and ever praying, urged upon Thee, as Thine own handwriting. For Thou, because Thy mercy endureth forever, vouchsafest to those to whom Thou fbrgivest all their debts, to become also a debtor by Thy promises.
X. 18. Thou recoveredst me then of that sickness, and healedst the son of Thy handmaid, for the time, in body, that he might live, for Thee to bestow upon him a better and more abiding health. And even then, at Rome, I joined myself to those deceiving and deceived "holy ones;" not with their disciples only (of which number was he in whose house I had fallen sick and recovered); but also with those whom they call "The Elect." For I still thought, " that it was not we that sin, but that I know not what other nature sinned in us;" and it delighted my pride to be free from blame, and when I had done any evil, not to confess I had done any, that Thou mightest heal my soul because it had sinned against Thee:1 but I loved to excuse it, and to accuse I know not what other thing, which was with me, but which I was not. But in truth it was wholly I, and mine impiety had divided me against myself: and that sin was the more incurable, whereby I did not judge myself a sinner: and execrable iniquity it was, that I had rather have Thee, Thee, O God Almighty, to Risk of scepticism in parting from error. 107
1 Ps. xli. i.
be overcome in me to my destruction, than myself to be overcome of Thee to salvation. Not as yet then hadst Thou set a watch before my mouth, and a door of safe keeping around my lips, that my heart might not turn aside to wicked speeches, to make excuses of sins, with men that work iniquity: and therefore was I still united with their Elect}
19. But now despairing to make proficiency in that false doctrine, even those things, with which, if I should find no better, I had resolved to rest contented, I now held more laxly and carelessly. For there half arose a thought in me, that those philosophers, whom they call Academics, were wiser than the rest, for that they held, men ought to doubt everything, and laid down that no truth can be comprehended by man: for so, not then understanding even their meaning, I also was clearly convinced that they thought as they are commonly reported. Yet did I freely and openly discourage that host of mine from that over-confidence which I perceived him to have in those fables, which the books of Manichaeux are full of. Yet I lived in more familiar friendship with them than with others who were not of this heresy. Nor did I maintain it with my ancient eagerness; still my intimacy with that sect (Rome secretly harboring many of them) made me slower to seek any other way: especially since I despaired of finding the truth, from which they had turned me aside, in Thy Church, O Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of all things visible and invisible: and it 108 One wrong doctrine
1 Ps. cxli. 3, 4. Vulg.
seemed to me very unseemly to believe Thee to have the shape of human flesh, and to be bounded by the bodily lineaments of our members. And because, when I wished to think on my God, I knew not what to think of, but a mass of bodies (for what was not such did not seem to me to be anything), this was the greatest, and almost only cause of my inevitable error.
20. For hence I believed Evil also to be some kind of substance, and to have its own.foul and hideous bulk; whether gross, which they called earth, or thin and subtile (like the body of the air), which they imagine to be some malignant mind creeping through that earth. And because a piety, such as it was, constrained me to believe, that the good God never created any evil nature, I conceived two masses, contrary to one another, both unbounded, but the evil narrower, the good more expansive. And from this pestilent beginning, the other sacrilegious conceits followed on me. For when my mind endeavored to recur to the Catholic faith, I was driven back, since that was not the Catholic faith, which I thought to be so. And I seemed to myself more reverential, if I regarded Thee, my God (to whom Thy mercies confess out of my mouth), as unbounded at least on all other sides (although on that one where the mass of evil was opposed to Thee I was constrained to confess Thee bounded), than if on all sides I should imagine Thee to be bounded by the form of a human body. And it seemed to me better to believe Thee to have created no evil (which to me in my ignothe pare?i t of others. 109
ranee seemed not only a substance, but a bodily substance, because I could not conceive of mind unless as a subtile body, and that diffused in definite spaces), than to believe that the nature of evil, such as I conceived it, could come from Thee. Yea, and our Saviour Himself, Thy Only Begotten, I believed to have been reached forth (as it were) for our salvation, out of the mass of Thy most lucid substance, so as to believe nothing of Him but what I could image in my vanity. His Nature, then, being such, I thought could not be born of the Virgin Mary, without being mingled with the flesh: and how that which I had so figured to myself could be mingled, and not defiled, I saw not. I feared therefore to believe Him born in the flesh, lest I should be forced to believe Him defiled by the flesh. Now will Thy spiritual ones mildly and lovingly smile upon me, if they shall read these my confessions. Yet such was I.
XI. 21. Furthermore, what the Manichees had criticized in Thy Scriptures, I thought could not be defended; yet at times verily I had a wish to confer upon these several points with some one very well skilled in those books, and to make trial what he thought thereon; for the words of one Helpidius, as he spoke and disputed face to face against the said Manichees, had begun to stir me even at Carthage: in that he had produced things out of the Scriptures not easily withstood, the Manichees' answer whereto seemed to me weak. And this answer they liked not to give publicly, but only to us in private. It 110 Manichees and Scripture opposed.
was, that the Scriptures of the New Testament had been corrupted by certain ones, I know not whom, who wished to engraft the law of the Jews upon the Christian faith: yet themselves produced not any uncorrupted copies. But I, conceiving of things corporeal only, was strongly held down, vehemently oppressed, and, in a manner, suffocated, by those "masses;" panting under which after the breath of Thy truth, I could not breathe it pure and untainted. XII. 22. I began then diligently to practise that for which I came to Rome, to teach rhetoric; and first, to gather some to my house, to whom, and through whom, I had begun to be known; when lo! I found other offences committed in Rome, to which I was not exposed in Africa. True, those " subvertings" by profligate young men,1 were not here practised, as was told me: but on a sudden, said they, to avoid paying their master's stipend, a number of youths plot together, and remove to another,— breakers of faith, who for love of money hold justice cheap. These also my heart hated, though not with a perfect hatred:2 for perchance I hated them more because I was to suffer by them, than because they did things utterly unlawful. Of a truth, such arc base persons, and they go a whoring from Thee, loving these fleeting mockeries of things temporal, and filthy lucre, which fouls the hand that grasps it; hugging the fleeting world, and despising Thee, who abidest, and recallest, and forgivest the adulteress soul of man, when she returns to Thee. And now I Sources of Ambrose's influence. Ill
1 supra, p. 46. 2 Ps. cxxxix. 22.
hate such depraved and crooked persons, though I love them if they can be corrected so as to prefer to money the learning which they acquire, and to learning, Thee, O God, the truth and fulness of assured good, and most pure peace. But then, I rather for my own sake disliked them, and wished them evil, than liked and wished them good for Thine.
XIII. 23. When, therefore, they of Milan had sent to Rome, to the prefect of the city, to furnish them with a rhetoric reader for their city, and send him at the public expense, I made application (through those very persons, intoxicated with Manichaean vanities, to be freed wherefrom I was to go, neither of us, however, knowing it) that Symmachus, then prefect of the city, would try me by setting me some subject, and so send me. To Milan I came, to Ambrose the Bishop, known to the whole world as among the best of men, Thy devout servant; whose eloquent discourse did then plentifully dispense unto Thy people the fatness of Thy wheat, the gladness of Thy oil, and the sober inebriation of Thy wine.1 To him was I unconsciously led by Thee, that by him I might consciously be led to Thee. That man of God received me as a father, and showed me an episcopal kindness on my coming. Thenceforth I began to love him, at first indeed not as a teacher of the truth (which I utterly despaired of in Thy Church), but as a person kind towards myself. And I listened diligently to him preaching to the people, not with the intent I ought, but, as it were, trying 112 Augustine's perplexed notions
l Ps. iv. 7; civ. 15.
his eloquence, whether it answered the fame thereof, or flowed fuller or lower than was reported; and I hung on his words attentively; but of the matter I was as a careless and scornful looker-on; and I was delighted with the sweetness of his discourse, more recondite, yet in manner less winning and harmonious, than that of Faustus. Of the matter, however, there was no comparison; for the one was wandering amid Manichaean delusions, the other teaching salvation most soundly. But salvation is far from sin?iers,1 such as I then stood before him; and yet was I drawing nearer by little and little, and unconsciously.
XIV. 24. For though I took no pains to learn what he spake, but only to hear how he spake (for that empty interest in style alone was left me, despairing of a way, open for man, to Thee); yet together with the words which I would choose, came also into my mind the things which I would refuse; for I could not separate them. And while I opened my heart to admit " how eloquently he spake," there also entered "how truly he spake ;" but this by degrees. For first, the things spoken by Ambrose began now to appear to me capable of defence; and the Catholic faith, for which I had thought nothing could be said against the Manichees' objections, I now thought might be maintained without shamelessness; especially after I had heard one or two places of the Old Testament resolved, and ofttimes "in a figure,"2 which when I understood only accordAugustine's perplexed notions. 113
1 Vs. cxix. 155. 2 1 Cor. xiii. 12; 2 Cor. iii. 6.
ing to the letter, I was slain. Very many places then of those books having been explained, I now blamed my despair, in believing that no answer could be given to such as hated and scoffed at the Law and the Prophets. Yet did I not therefore then see, that the Catholic way was to be held, because it also could find learned maintainers, who could at large and with some show of reason answer objections; nor that what I held was therefore to be condemned, because both sides could be maintained. For the Catholic cause seemed to me in such sort not vanquished, as still not as yet to be victorious.
25. Hereupon I earnestly bent my mind, to see if in any way I could by any certain proof convict the Manichees of falsehood. Could I once have conceived a spiritual substance, all their strongholds had been beaten down, and cast utterly out of mind; but I could not. Notwithstanding, concerning the frame of this world, and the whole of nature, which the senses of the flesh can reach to, as I more and more considered and compared things, I judged the tenets of most of the philosophers to have been much more probable. So, then, after the manner of the Academics (as they are supposed)1 doubting everything, and wavering between all, I settled so far, that the Manichees were to be abandoned ; judging that, even while doubting, I ought not to continue in that sect to which I already preferred some of the philosophers; to which philoso114 He returns to the Church.
1 Compare Augustine's De Civitate Dei, Lib. XIX. c. i — Ed.
phers, notwithstanding, for that they were without the saving Name of Christ, I utterly refused to commit the cure of my sick soul. I determined therefore to be a Catechumen in the Catholic Church, to which I had been commended by my parents, until something certain should dawn upon me, whither I might steer my course.