John 19

Listen to John 19

Jesus Delivered to Be Crucified

1 Then Pilate took Jesus and 1flogged him.
2 2And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe.
3 They came up to him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" and struck him with their hands.
4 Pilate went out again and said to them, "See, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that 3I find no guilt in him."
5 So Jesus came out, wearing 4the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, 5"Behold the man!"
6 When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, "Crucify him, crucify him!" Pilate said to them, 6"Take him yourselves and crucify him, for 7I find no guilt in him."
7 The Jews answered him, "We have a law, and 8according to that law he ought to die because 9he has made himself the Son of God."
8 When Pilate heard this statement, 10he was even more afraid.
9 11He entered his headquarters again and said to Jesus, 12"Where are you from?" But 13Jesus gave him no answer.
10 So Pilate said to him, "You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?"
11 Jesus answered him, 14"You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. Therefore 15he who delivered me over to you 16has the greater sin."
12 From then on 17Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, "If you release this man, you are not Caesar's friend. 18Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar."
13 So when Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on 19the judgment seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Aramaic[a] Gabbatha.
14 Now it was 20the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour.[b] He said to the Jews, 21"Behold your King!"
15 They cried out, 22"Away with him, away with him, crucify him!" Pilate said to them, "Shall I crucify your King?" The chief priests answered, "We have no king but Caesar."
16 23So he 24delivered him over to them to be crucified. So they took Jesus,
17 and 25he went out, 26bearing his own cross, to the place called The Place of a Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha.
18 27There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them.
19 Pilate 28also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It read, "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews."
20 Many of the Jews read this inscription, for 29the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was written in Aramaic, in Latin, and in Greek.
21 So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews,' but rather, 'This man said, I am King of the Jews.'"
22 Pilate answered, 30"What I have written I have written."
23 31When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his garments and divided them into four parts, one part for each soldier; also his tunic.[c] But the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom,
24 so they said to one another, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be."32This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, 33"They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots."So the soldiers did these things,
25 34but standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene.
26 When Jesus saw his mother and 35the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, 36"Woman, behold, your son!"
27 Then he said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" And from that hour the disciple took her to 37his own home.

The Death of Jesus

28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now 38finished, said (39to fulfill the Scripture), 40"I thirst."
29 A jar full of sour wine stood there, 41so they put a sponge full of the sour wine on a hyssop branch and held it to his mouth.
30 When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, 42"It is finished," and he bowed his head and 43gave up his spirit.

Jesus' Side Is Pierced

31 Since it was 44the day of Preparation, and 45so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was 46a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away.
32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other 47who had been crucified with him.
33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.
34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out 48blood and water.
35 49He who saw it has borne witness--50his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth--51that you also may believe.
36 52For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: 53"Not one of his bones 54will be broken."
37 And again another Scripture says, 55"They will look on him whom they have pierced."

Jesus Is Buried

38 56After these things Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly 57for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took away his body.
39 58Nicodemus also, who earlier had come to Jesus[d] by night, came 59bringing a mixture of 60myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds[e] in weight.
40 So they took the body of Jesus and 61bound it in 62linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.
41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a 63garden, and 64in the garden a new tomb 65in which no one had yet been laid.
42 So because of the Jewish 66day of Preparation, 67since the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there.

Images for John 19

John 19 Commentary

Chapter 19

Christ condemned and crucified. (1-18) Christ on the cross. (19-30) His side pierced. (31-37) The burial of Jesus. (38-42)

Verses 1-18 Little did Pilate think with what holy regard these sufferings of Christ would, in after-ages, be thought upon and spoken of by the best and greatest of men. Our Lord Jesus came forth, willing to be exposed to their scorn. It is good for every one with faith, to behold Christ Jesus in his sufferings. Behold him, and love him; be still looking unto Jesus. Did their hatred sharpen their endeavours against him? and shall not our love for him quicken our endeavours for him and his kingdom? Pilate seems to have thought that Jesus might be some person above the common order. Even natural conscience makes men afraid of being found fighting against God. As our Lord suffered for the sins both of Jews and Gentiles, it was a special part of the counsel of Divine Wisdom, that the Jews should first purpose his death, and the Gentiles carry that purpose into effect. Had not Christ been thus rejected of men, we had been for ever rejected of God. Now was the Son of man delivered into the hands of wicked and unreasonable men. He was led forth for us, that we might escape. He was nailed to the cross, as a Sacrifice bound to the altar. The Scripture was fulfilled; he did not die at the altar among the sacrifices, but among criminals sacrificed to public justice. And now let us pause, and with faith look upon Jesus. Was ever sorrow like unto his sorrow? See him bleeding, see him dying, see him and love him! love him, and live to him!

Verses 19-30 Here are some remarkable circumstances of Jesus' death, more fully related than before. Pilate would not gratify the chief priests by allowing the writing to be altered; which was doubtless owing to a secret power of God upon his heart, that this statement of our Lord's character and authority might continue. Many things done by the Roman soldiers were fulfilments of the prophecies of the Old Testament. All things therein written shall be fulfilled. Christ tenderly provided for his mother at his death. Sometimes, when God removes one comfort from us, he raises up another for us, where we looked not for it. Christ's example teaches all men to honour their parents in life and death; to provide for their wants, and to promote their comfort by every means in their power. Especially observe the dying word wherewith Jesus breathed out his soul. It is finished; that is, the counsels of the Father concerning his sufferings were now fulfilled. It is finished; all the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, which pointed at the sufferings of the Messiah, were accomplished. It is finished; the ceremonial law is abolished; the substance is now come, and all the shadows are done away. It is finished; an end is made of transgression by bringing in an everlasting righteousness. His sufferings were now finished, both those of his soul, and those of his body. It is finished; the work of man's redemption and salvation is now completed. His life was not taken from him by force, but freely given up.

Verses 31-37 A trial was made whether Jesus was dead. He died in less time than persons crucified commonly did. It showed that he had laid down his life of himself. The spear broke up the very fountains of life; no human body could survive such a wound. But its being so solemnly attested, shows there was something peculiar in it. The blood and water that flowed out, signified those two great benefits which all believers partake of through Christ, justification and sanctification; blood for atonement, water for purification. They both flow from the pierced side of our Redeemer. To Christ crucified we owe merit for our justification, and Spirit and grace for our sanctification. Let this silence the fears of weak Christians, and encourage their hopes; there came both water and blood out of Jesus' pierced side, both to justify and sanctify them. The Scripture was fulfilled, in Pilate's not allowing his legs to be broken, Ps. 34:20 . There was a type of this in the paschal lamb, Ex. 12:46 . May we ever look to Him, whom, by our sins, we have ignorantly and heedlessly pierced, nay, sometimes against convictions and mercies; and who shed from his wounded side both water and blood, that we might be justified and sanctified in his name.

Verses 38-42 Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Christ in secret. Disciples should openly own themselves; yet some, who in lesser trials have been fearful, in greater have been courageous. When God has work to do, he can find out such as are proper to do it. The embalming was done by Nicodemus, a secret friend to Christ, though not his constant follower. That grace which at first is like a bruised reed, may afterward resemble a strong cedar. Hereby these two rich men showed the value they had for Christ's person and doctrine, and that it was not lessened by the reproach of the cross. We must do our duty as the present day and opportunity are, and leave it to God to fulfil his promises in his own way and his own time. The grave of Jesus was appointed with the wicked, as was the case of those who suffered as criminals; but he was with the rich in his death, as prophesied, ( Isaiah 53:9 ) ; these two circumstances it was very unlikely should ever be united in the same person. He was buried in a new sepulchre; therefore it could not be said that it was not he, but some other that rose. We also are here taught not to be particular as to the place of our burial. He was buried in the sepulchre next at hand. Here is the Sun of Righteousness set for a while, to rise again in greater glory, and then to set no more.

Cross References 67

  • 1. Matthew 20:19; Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:16
  • 2. Matthew 27:27-30; Mark 15:16-19
  • 3. ver. 6; John 18:38
  • 4. ver. 2
  • 5. [ver. 14]
  • 6. [John 18:31]
  • 7. ver. 4
  • 8. Leviticus 24:16; [John 10:33]
  • 9. John 5:17, 18; John 10:36; Matthew 26:63; Luke 22:70
  • 10. [Matthew 27:19]
  • 11. John 18:33
  • 12. John 7:27
  • 13. [John 18:37]; See Matthew 26:63
  • 14. [Romans 13:1]
  • 15. [John 18:14, 28-32; Matthew 27:2]
  • 16. See John 9:41
  • 17. Acts 3:13
  • 18. See Luke 23:2
  • 19. Matthew 27:19
  • 20. [John 18:28]; See Matthew 27:62
  • 21. [ver. 5]
  • 22. Luke 23:18; [Acts 21:36]
  • 23. Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:15; Luke 23:25
  • 24. John 18:36-40
  • 25. Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33
  • 26. Luke 14:27; [Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26]
  • 27. Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:24, 27; Luke 23:32, 33
  • 28. [Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38]
  • 29. ver. 17; [Numbers 15:35, 36; Hebrews 13:12]
  • 30. [Genesis 43:14; Esther 4:16]
  • 31. Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34
  • 32. See John 13:18
  • 33. Cited from Psalms 22:18
  • 34. Matthew 27:55, 56; Mark 15:40, 41; Luke 23:49
  • 35. See John 13:23
  • 36. John 2:4
  • 37. [John 16:32]
  • 38. [ver. 30]
  • 39. [See ver. 24 above]
  • 40. Psalms 69:21; See John 4:6, 7
  • 41. Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; [Luke 23:36]
  • 42. [ver. 28; Acts 13:29]; See John 17:4
  • 43. Matthew 27:50; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46
  • 44. ver. 14
  • 45. Deuteronomy 21:23; Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:26, 27
  • 46. Exodus 12:16
  • 47. ver. 18
  • 48. 1 John 5:6, 8
  • 49. 1 John 1:1-3; Revelation 1:2; See John 15:27
  • 50. [John 21:24]
  • 51. [John 20:31]
  • 52. See Matthew 1:22
  • 53. Cited from Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; [1 Corinthians 5:7]
  • 54. Psalms 34:20
  • 55. Cited from Zechariah 12:10; [Revelation 1:7]
  • 56. For ver. 38-42, see Matthew 27:57-61; Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-56
  • 57. See John 7:13
  • 58. John 3:1, 2; John 7:50
  • 59. [Mark 16:1; Luke 24:1]
  • 60. Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Songs 4:14
  • 61. John 11:44; [2 Chronicles 16:14; Acts 5:6]
  • 62. John 20:5-7; Luke 24:12
  • 63. [John 20:15]
  • 64. 2 Kings 21:18, 26
  • 65. Luke 23:53; [Mark 11:2]
  • 66. ver. 14, 31
  • 67. ver. 41

Footnotes 5

  • [a]. Or Hebrew; also verses 17, 20
  • [b]. That is, about noon
  • [c]. Greek chiton, a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin
  • [d]. Greek him
  • [e]. Greek one hundred litras; a litra (or Roman pound) was equal to about 11 1/2 ounces or 327 grams

John 19 Commentaries

The English Standard Version is published with the permission of Good News Publishers.