Ekhah 3

1 I am the gever that hath seen affliction by the rod of His wrath.
2 He hath driven me away, and brought me into choshech, but not into ohr.
3 Surely against me is He turned; He turneth His yad against me kol hayom.
4 My basar and my ohr (skin) hath He made old; He hath broken my atzmot.
5 He hath set up seigeworks against me, and surrounded me with bitterness and hardship.
6 He hath set me in dark places, like the mesei olam (long dead).
7 He hath hedged me about, that I cannot escape; He hath made my chain heavy.
8 Also when I cry and call out, He shutteth out my tefillah.
9 He hath barred my ways with hewn stone, He hath made my paths crooked.
10 He was unto me like a dov (bear) lying in wait, and like an aryeh in mistarim (hiding places).
11 He hath turned aside the darkhei of mine, and pulled me in pieces; He hath made me desolate.
12 He hath bent His keshet, and set me as a target for the khetz (arrow).
13 He hath caused the arrows of His quiver to enter into my organs.
14 I was a derision to kol ami; and their [mocking] song kol hayom.
15 He hath filled me with merorim (bitter herbs); He hath made me drunk with suffering.
16 He hath also broken my teeth with gravel, He hath covered me with aphar.
17 And Thou hast removed my nefesh far off from shalom; I forgot tovah (prosperity).
18 And I said, My strength and my hope is perished from Hashem;
19 Remember mine oni (affliction) and my misery, the sorrow and the trouble.
20 My nefesh hath them still in remembrance, and is downcast in me.
21 This I recall to my lev, therefore have I hope:
22 Because of the chasdei Hashem we are not consumed, for His rachamim fail not.
23 They are chadashim every boker; great is Thy faithfulness.
24 Hashem is my chelek, saith my nefesh; therefore in hope will I wait for Him.
25 Hashem is tov unto them that wait for Him, to the nefesh that seeketh Him.
26 It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the Teshu’at Hashem.
27 It is tov for a gever that he bear the ol (yoke) from his youth.
28 He sitteth alone and keepeth silence, because He hath laid it upon him.
29 He putteth his mouth in the aphar; there may yet be tikvah.
30 He offereth his lekhi (cheek) to him that striketh him; he is filled full with reproach [Isa 50:6].
31 For Adonoi will not cast off l’olam (forever);
32 But though He cause grief, yet will He have compassion according to the rov chasadav (the multitude of His mercies).
33 For He doth not afflict willingly nor bring grief to Bnei Ish.
34 To crush under His feet kol asirei eretz (all the prisoners of the earth),
35 To turn aside the mishpat gever (the right of a man) before the face of Elyon,
36 To subvert a man in his cause, Adonoi approveth not.
37 Who is he that saith, and it cometh to pass, when Adonoi commandeth it not?
38 Out of the mouth of Elyon proceedeth not hara’ot (the woe) and hatov (the good)?
39 Why doth an adam chai (any man alive) complain, a gever for the punishment of his sins?
40 Let us search and test derakheinu (our ways), and let us turn again to Hashem.
41 Let us lift up levavenu (our heart) with our hands unto El baShomayim.
42 We have transgressed and have rebelled; Atah lo salachta (Thou hast not pardoned, forgiven).
43 Thou hast covered with af (anger), and pursued us; Thou hast slain, Thou hast not pitied.
44 Thou hast covered Thyself with an anan, that our tefillah not pass through.
45 Thou hast made us as the offscouring and refuse among the amim.
46 Kol oyveinu (all our enemies) have opened their mouths against us.
47 Pachad (terror) and a snare is come upon us, ruin and destruction.
48 Mine eye runneth down with streams of mayim for the destruction of Bat Ami.
49 Mine eye will flow down, and ceaseth not, without any intermission
50 Till Hashem look down, and behold from Shomayim.
51 Mine eye affecteth mine nefesh because of all the banot of my city.
52 Mine enemies hunted me down, like a tzippor (bird), without cause.
53 They have cut off my life in the bor (pit) and cast an even (stone) upon me.
54 Mayim flowed over mine rosh; then I said, I am cut off.
55 I called upon Thy Shem, Hashem, out of the lowest pit.
56 Thou hast heard my voice; close not thine ear at my sighing, at my cry.
57 Thou drewest near on the Yom that I called upon Thee; Thou saidst, Fear not.
58 Adonoi, Thou hast pleaded the causes of my nefesh; Thou hast redeemed my life.
59 Hashem, Thou hast seen my wrong; uphold my cause.
60 Thou hast seen all their vengeance and all their machsh’vot against me.
61 Thou hast heard their reproach, Hashem, and all their machsh’vot against me;
62 The whisperings of those that rose up against me, and their muttering against me kol hayom.
63 Behold their sitting down, and their rising up; Ani (I) am their mocking song.
64 Render unto them a gemul (recompence), Hashem, according to the work of their hands.
65 Give them hardness of lev as thy curse unto them.
66 Pursue in anger and destroy them from under HaShomayim of Hashem.

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Ekhah 3 Commentary

Chapter 3

The faithful lament their calamities, and hope in God's mercies.

Verses 1-20 The prophet relates the more gloomy and discouraging part of his experience, and how he found support and relief. In the time of his trial the Lord had become terrible to him. It was an affliction that was misery itself; for sin makes the cup of affliction a bitter cup. The struggle between unbelief and faith is often very severe. But the weakest believer is wrong, if he thinks that his strength and hope are perished from the Lord.

Verses 21-36 Having stated his distress and temptation, the prophet shows how he was raised above it. Bad as things are, it is owing to the mercy of God that they are not worse. We should observe what makes for us, as well as what is against us. God's compassions fail not; of this we have fresh instances every morning. Portions on earth are perishing things, but God is a portion for ever. It is our duty, and will be our comfort and satisfaction, to hope and quietly to wait for the salvation of the Lord. Afflictions do and will work very much for good: many have found it good to bear this yoke in their youth; it has made many humble and serious, and has weaned them from the world, who otherwise would have been proud and unruly. If tribulation work patience, that patience will work experience, and that experience a hope that makes not ashamed. Due thoughts of the evil of sin, and of our own sinfulness, will convince us that it is of the Lord's mercies we are not consumed. If we cannot say with unwavering voice, The Lord is my portion; may we not say, I desire to have Him for my portion and salvation, and in his word do I hope? Happy shall we be, if we learn to receive affliction as laid upon us by the hand of God.

Verses 37-41 While there is life there is hope; and instead of complaining that things are bad, we should encourage ourselves with the hope they will be better. We are sinful men, and what we complain of, is far less than our sins deserve. We should complain to God, and not of him. We are apt, in times of calamity, to reflect on other people's ways, and blame them; but our duty is to search and try our own ways, that we may turn from evil to God. Our hearts must go with our prayers. If inward impressions do not answer to outward expressions, we mock God, and deceive ourselves.

Verses 42-54 The more the prophet looked on the desolations, the more he was grieved. Here is one word of comfort. While they continued weeping, they continued waiting; and neither did nor would expect relief and succour from any but the Lord.

Verses 55-66 Faith comes off conqueror, for in these verses the prophet concludes with some comfort. Prayer is the breath of the new man, drawing in the air of mercy in petitions, and returning it in praises; it proves and maintains the spiritual life. He silenced their fears, and quieted their spirits. Thou saidst, Fear not. This was the language of God's grace, by the witness of his Spirit with their spirits. And what are all our sorrows, compared with those of the Redeemer? He will deliver his people from every trouble, and revive his church from every persecution. He will save believers with everlasting salvation, while his enemies perish with everlasting destruction.

Chapter Summary


This chapter is a complaint and lamentation like the former, and on the same subject, only the prophet mixes his own afflictions and distresses with the public calamities; or else he represents the church in her complaints; and some have thought him to be a type of Christ throughout the whole; to whom various things may be applied. It is indeed written in a different form from the other chapters, in another sort of metre; and though in an alphabetical manner as the rest, yet with this difference, that three verses together begin with the same letter; so that the alphabet is gone through three times in it. Here is first a complaint of the afflictions of the prophet, and of the people, expressed by a rod, by darkness, by wormwood and gall, and many other things; and especially by the Lord's appearing against them as an enemy, in a most severe and terrible manner; shutting out their prayer; being as a bear and lion to them; and giving them up to the cruelty and scorn of their enemies, La 3:1-21; then follows some comfort taken by them, from the mercy, faithfulness, and goodness of God; from the usefulness of patience in bearing afflictions; and from the end of God in laying them upon men; and from the providence of God, by which all things are ordered, La 3:22-38; wherefore, instead of complaining, it would be better, it is suggested, to attend to the duties of examination of their ways, and of repentance, and of prayer, La 3:39-41; and a particular prayer is directed to, in which confession of sin is made, and their miseries deplored, by reason of the hidings of God's face, and the insults of their enemies, La 3:42-47; and then the prophet expresses his sympathy with his people under affliction, and declares what he himself met with from his enemies, La 3:48-54; and relates bow he called upon the Lord, and he heard and delivered him, La 3:55-58; and concludes with a request that he would judge his cause, and avenge him on enemies, La 3:59-66.

Ekhah 3 Commentaries

The Orthodox Jewish Bible fourth edition, OJB. Copyright 2002,2003,2008,2010, 2011 by Artists for Israel International. All rights reserved.