Markos 12

1 2 And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach began to speak to them in meshalim (parables). A man, a Baal Bayit, planted a kerem (vineyard), and he put around [it] a fence and dug a pit for the yekev (winepress) and built a migdal (tower), and he leased it to koremim (vine keepers) and then the man went on a journey. [YESHAYAH 5:1-7]
2 And the Baal Bayit sent an eved to the tenants, the koremim, in the season [of katzir (harvest)] in order that from the koremim he might receive from the perot (fruit) of the kerem (vineyard).
3 But they seized the eved and they beat him and sent him away empty.
4 And again the Baal Bayit sent to the tenants, the koremim, another eved; and that one they struck on the rosh and insulted.
5 And the Baal Bayit sent another; and that one they killed, and many others, some beating, and others killing.
6 Still he had one BEN AHUV [T.N. see 9:7]. Lemaskana (finally), the Baal Bayit sent him to them saying, They will respect BENI.
7 But those koremim said to themselves, This one is the Yoresh (Heir) the Bechor. Come, let us kill him, and the nachalah, the bechorah, will be ours.
8 And having seized [him], they killed him and threw him out of the kerem.
9 What then will the Baal Bayit of the kerem do? He will come and destroy the koremim and will give the kerem to others.
10 Have you not read the Kitvei Hakodesh? EVEN MAASU HABONIM HAYTAH LEROSH PINAH; MEIET HASHEM HAYTAH ZOT, HI NIFLAT BEINEINU (The stone which the ones building rejected, this one has come to be for [the] chief cornerstone.
11 From Adonoi this came to be and it is wonderful in our eyes? [TEHILLIM 118:22,23]
12 And they were seeking to seize him, and they were afraid of the multitude, for they knew that against them he told the mashal. And leaving him, they went away.
13 And they send to him some of the Perushim (Pharisees) and the Herodians in order that they might catch him in a dvar.
14 And having come, they say to him: Rabbi, we have daas that you are an ish Emes and you do not show deference toward anyone. Ki ein masso panim (For there is no partiality) with you but rather on the Derech Hashem you give Divrei Torah in Emes. Is it mutar to give a poll tax to Caesar or not? Should we give or should we not give?
15 But Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, having seen their tzeviut (hypocrisy), said to them, Why are you testing me? Bring me a denarius that I may look [at it].
16 And they brought [one]. And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach says to them, Whose demut is this and whose inscription? And they said to him, Caesar’s.
17 And he said to them, The things of Caesar, give to Caesar, and the things of Hashem [give] to Hashem. And they were amazed at Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach.
18 And [the] Tzedukim come to Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, the ones who say that there is not to be a Techiyas HaMesim, and they were questioning him, saying,
19 Rabbi, Moshe (Rabbeinu) wrote to us that if an ACH of someone should die and leave behind an isha UVEN EIN LO (and there is no son to him) YEVAMAH YAVO ALEIHA ULEKAKHAH LO LISHA VHAYAH HABECHOR ASHER TELED YAKUM AL SHEM ACHIV HAMET (the brother of her husband must come to her and he must take her to him as wife and the Bechor she bears shall raise up the name of the dead brother. DEVARIM 25:5)
20 Now there were shiva achim. And the first took a wife and, dying, did not leave a descendant.
21 And the second took her and he died, not having left behind a descendant. And the third likewise.
22 And the seven did not leave a descendant.
23 In the Techiyas HaMesim, when they are made to stand up alive, of which of them will she be [the] isha? For seven had her as wife.
24 Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, said to them, Is not this the reason you are in error, having daas neither of the Kitvei Hakodesh nor of the gevurat Hashem?
25 But concerning the Mesim that are made to stand up alive, they do not marry nor are they given in nisuim, but are like the malachim in Shomayim.
26 But concerning the Mesim, that they are made to stand up alive, have you not read in the sefer Moshe at the bush, how Hashem spoke to him, saying, ANOCHI ELOHEI AVRAHAM ELOHEI YITZCHAK VELOHEI YAAKOV, SHEMOT 3:6)
27 Hashem is not the G-d of the Mesim (Dead ones) but of the Chayyim (Living ones). You are greatly mistaken.
28 And one of the Sofrim approached and heard them debating, and seeing that Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach answered them well, asked him, Which mitzvah is rishonah of all the mitzvot?
29 Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach answered, SHEMA YISROEL ADONOI ELOHEINU ADONOI ECHAD is harishonah.
31 And the shneyah is this, VAHAVTA LREACHA KAMOCHA [VAYIKRA 19:18]. There is not another mitzvah greater than these.
32 And the Baal Torah said to him, Well spoken, Rabbi, beemes you have said that Hashem is ECHAD (one, DEVARIM 6:4), and EIN OD and there is no other [YESHAYAH 45:18] except him. [DEVARIM 4:35,39; YESHAYAH 45:6,14; 46:9]
33 and to have ahavah for him BECHOL LVAVCHA (with all your heart) and with all your binah UVECHOL MODECHA (with all your strength DEVARIM 6:5) and LREACHA KAMOCHA (your neighbor as yourself, VAYIKRA 19:18) is greater [than] all of the burnt offerings and sacrifices. [SHMUEL ALEF 15:22; HOSHEA 6:6; MICHOH 6:68]
34 And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, when he saw that this Torah teacher answered with chochmah (wisdom), said to him, You are not far from the Malchut Hashem. And no one was daring to put a she’elah (question) in front of Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach again.
35 While Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was saying shiurim (Torah talks) in the Beis Hamikdash, he was saying: How is it that the Sofrim say that Moshiach is [merely] ben Dovid?
37 Dovid himself calls Moshiach Adon; how then is Moshiach [merely] ben Dovid? And the large multitude found it a huge oneg (pleasure) to listen to him.
38 And in his torah, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was saying, Beware of the Sofrim (Scribes, Torah teachers, rabbonim), the ones enamored of strutting about in extremely long kaftans and with equally lengthy Birkat Shalom greetings in the marketplaces,
39 And places of honor in the shuls and places of honor at the seudot (banquet dinners).
40 Beware particularly of the ones devouring the batim (houses) of the almanot (widows) and making a grand show of davening long tefillos. Mishpat (Judgment) will fall more heavily on these.
41 And having sat [down] opposite the Beis Hamikdash Otzar (Treasury), Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was observing how the multitude throws copper [coins] into the Otzar. And many ashirim (rich people) were throwing [in] much. [MELACHIM BAIS 12:9]
42 And a poor almanah (widow) came and threw [in] two leptas, which is a kodrantes.
43 And having summoned his talmidim, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them: Omein, I say to you that this poor almanah has put in more tzedakah (charity contribution) than all those contributing to the Otzar,
44 For everyone threw in from their abundance, but this almanah from her need has put in everything she had, all her michyah (subsistence).

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Markos 12 Commentary

Chapter 12

The parable of the vineyard and husbandmen. (1-12) Question about tribute. (13-17) Concerning the resurrection. (18-27) The great command of the law. (28-34) Christ the Son and yet the Lord of David. (35-40) The poor widow commended. (41-44)

Verses 1-12 Christ showed in parables, that he would lay aside the Jewish church. It is sad to think what base usage God's faithful ministers have met with in all ages, from those who have enjoyed the privileges of the church, but have not brought forth fruit answerable. God at length sent his Son, his Well-beloved; and it might be expected that he whom their Master loved, they also should respect and love; but instead of honouring him because he was the Son and Heir, they therefore hated him. But the exaltation of Christ was the Lord's doing; and it is his doing to exalt him in our hearts, and to set up his throne there; and if this be done, it cannot but be marvellous in our eyes. The Scriptures, and faithful preachers, and the coming of Christ in the flesh, call on us to render due praise to God in our lives. Let sinners beware of a proud, carnal spirit; if they revile or despise the preachers of Christ, they would have done so their Master, had they lived when he was upon earth.

Verses 13-17 The enemies of Christ would be thought desirous to know their duty, when really they hoped that which soever side he took of the question, they might find occasion to accuse him. Nothing is more likely to insnare the followers of Christ, than bringing them to meddle with disputes about worldly politics. Jesus avoided the snare, by referring to the submission they had already made as a nation; and all that heard him, marvelled at the great wisdom of his answer. Many will praise the words of a sermon, who will not be commanded by the doctrines of it.

Verses 18-27 A right knowledge of the Scripture, as the fountain whence all revealed religion now flows, and the foundation on which it is built, is the best preservative against error. Christ put aside the objection of the Sadducees, who were the scoffing infidels of that day, by setting the doctrine of the future state in a true light. The relation between husband and wife, though appointed in the earthly paradise, will not be known in the heavenly one. It is no wonder if we confuse ourselves with foolish errors, when we form our ideas of the world of spirits by the affairs of this world of sense. It is absurd to think that the living God should be the portion and happiness of a man if he is for ever dead; and therefore it is certain that Abraham's soul exists and acts, though now for a time separate from the body. Those that deny the resurrection greatly err, and ought to be told so. Let us seek to pass through this dying world, with a joyful hope of eternal happiness, and of a glorious resurrection.

Verses 28-34 Those who sincerely desire to be taught their duty, Christ will guide in judgment, and teach his way. He tells the scribe that the great commandment, which indeed includes all, is, that of loving God with all our hearts. Wherever this is the ruling principle in the soul, there is a disposition to every other duty. Loving God with all our heart, will engage us to every thing by which he will be pleased. The sacrifices only represented the atonements for men's transgressions of the moral law; they were of no power except as they expressed repentance and faith in the promised Saviour, and as they led to moral obedience. And because we have not thus loved God and man, but the very reverse, therefore we are condemned sinners; we need repentance, and we need mercy. Christ approved what the scribe said, and encouraged him. He stood fair for further advance; for this knowledge of the law leads to conviction of sin, to repentance, to discovery of our need of mercy, and understanding the way of justification by Christ.

Verses 35-40 When we attend to what the Scriptures declare, as to the person and offices of Christ, we shall be led to confess him as our Lord and God; to obey him as our exalted Redeemer. If the common people hear these things gladly, while the learned and distinguished oppose, the former are happy, and the latter to be pitied. And as sin, disguised with a show of piety, is double iniquity, so its doom will be doubly heavy.

Verses 41-44 Let us not forget that Jesus still sees the treasury. He knows how much, and from what motives, men give to his cause. He looks at the heart, and what our views are, in giving alms; and whether we do it as unto the Lord, or only to be seen of men. It is so rare to find any who would not blame this widow, that we cannot expect to find many who will do like to her; and yet our Saviour commends her, therefore we are sure that she did well and wisely. The feeble efforts of the poor to honour their Saviour, will be commended in that day, when the splendid actions of unbelievers will be exposed to contempt.

Markos 12 Commentaries

The Orthodox Jewish Bible fourth edition, OJB. Copyright 2002,2003,2008,2010, 2011 by Artists for Israel International. All rights reserved.