The descendants of Jacob numbered seventya in all;1 Joseph was already in Egypt.
Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died,27
but the Israelites were fruitful and multiplied greatly and became exceedingly numerous,3 so that the land was filled with them.
Then a new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt.49
"Look," he said to his people, "the Israelites have become much too numerous5 for us.610
Come, we must deal shrewdly7 with them or they will become even more numerous and, if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country."811
So they put slave masters9 over them to oppress them with forced labor,10 and they built Pithom and Rameses11 as store cities12 for Pharaoh.
But the more they were oppressed, the more they multiplied and spread; so the Egyptians came to dread the Israelites
and worked them ruthlessly.1314
They made their lives bitter with hard labor14 in brick15 and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their hard labor the Egyptians used them ruthlessly.16