1 Paul, bondman of Jesus Christ, [a] called a apostle, separated to God's glad tidings,

References for Romans 1:1

    • a 1:1 - 'A called apostle,' i.e. an apostle by (divine) calling. Cf. ver. 7 'called saints,' and see note there.
      2 (which he had before promised by his prophets in holy writings,) b

      References for Romans 1:2

        • b 1:2 - 'In holy writings:' there is no article in the original. The statement of the apostle is general, addressing himself, as he does, to Gentiles.
          3 concerning his Son (come of David's seed according to flesh,
          4 marked out Son of God in power, according to [the] Spirit c of holiness, d by resurrection of [the] dead) e Jesus Christ our Lord;

          References for Romans 1:4

            • c 1:4 - In many cases it is impossible to put a small or a large S rightly to the word Spirit, as the presence and power of the Holy Spirit characterizes the state, and that and the state are both included; so it is here. It is divine, not merely human, perfectness, and by the Holy Spirit, yet it is Christ's state. But it is not merely a state, but that state which consists in the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, and is the absolute expression of it. On the whole, I put a large S here, but it is the Son manifested on earth who is spoken of, and characteristic of him. Resurrection was the proof, but he who had eyes to see, saw what came in flesh justified in the Spirit even when here, the same Spirit which was quickening power in resurrection, as 1Pet. 3.18.
            • d 1:4 - Hagiosune, the nature and quality itself, as 2Cor. 7.1 and 1Thess. 3.13. Distinct from hagiasmos, the practical effect produced, the character in activity, translated 'holiness' in Rom. 6.19,22; 1Cor. 1.30; 1Tim. 2.15; Heb. 12.14; and 'sanctification' in 1Thess. 4.3; 4.7; 2Thess. 2.13 and 1Pet. 1.2. Another word, hagiotes, is used in Heb. 12.10 (the only time in Scripture), for the quality itself.
            • e 1:4 - Plural, 'of dead persons.'
              5 by whom we have received grace and apostleship in behalf of his name, for obedience of faith among all the nations,
              6 among whom are *ye* also [the] called f of Jesus Christ:

              References for Romans 1:6

                • f 1:6 - 'Called ones of Jesus Christ' is what they are.
                  7 to all that are in Rome, beloved of God, called g saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and [our] Lord Jesus Christ.

                  References for Romans 1:7

                    • g 1:7 - 'Called saints' is ambiguous in English, but the sense is that they are saints by the calling of God. The Greek implies that they are already saints, not called to be so.
                      8 First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all, that your faith is proclaimed in the whole world.
                      9 For God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the glad tidings of his Son, how unceasingly I make mention of you,
                      10 always beseeching at my prayers, if any way now at least I may be prospered h by the will of God to come to you.

                      References for Romans 1:10

                        • h 1:10 - This does not refer to a prosperous journey, but to the hope that God may favour or prosper him so that he may come; he had long wished it, and hoped that at last it might be granted him.
                          11 For I greatly desire to see you, that I may impart to you some spiritual gift to establish you;
                          12 that is, to have mutual comfort among you, each by the faith [which is] in the other, both yours and mine.
                          13 But I do not wish you to be ignorant, brethren, that I often proposed to come to you, (and have been hindered until the present time,) that I might have some fruit among you too, even as among the other nations also.
                          14 I am a debtor both to Greeks and barbarians, both to wise and unintelligent:
                          15 so, as far as depends on me, am I ready to announce the glad tidings to you also who [are] in Rome.
                          16 For I am not ashamed of the glad tidings; for it is God's power to salvation, to every one that believes, both to Jew first and to Greek:
                          17 for righteousness of God i is revealed therein, on the principle of faith, to faith: according as it is written, But the just shall live by j faith.

                          References for Romans 1:17

                            • i 1:17 - 'Righteousness of God.' The absence of the article may arrest the mind here, and in some other places, in this part of the epistle. It is likely to do so, because the righteousness of God is now a known doctrine; not so when the apostle taught. The righteousness of God was a wholly new thought, as was indeed wrath from heaven: wrath on earth was not. The gospel, or 'glad tidings,' was the power of God to salvation, because righteousness of God (that kind of righteousness) was revealed -- not a righteousness required of man. See ch. 3.21.
                            • j 1:17 - 'By faith.' The word 'by' is the same in Greek (ek) as that translated 'on the principle of.' I have left 'by' as being a quotation from Hab. 2.4.
                              18 For there is revealed wrath of God from heaven k upon all impiety, and unrighteousness of men holding the truth in unrighteousness.

                              References for Romans 1:18

                                • k 1:18 - 'Wrath of God from heaven is revealed:' see Note d; 'there' is merely the impersonal form, not an adverb, but necessary, as it is difficult to put the words in another order without injuring the sense.
                                  19 Because what is l known of God is manifest among them, for God has manifested [it] to them,

                                  References for Romans 1:19

                                    • l 1:19 - Or 'may be.' The Greek word here is used for 'may be known.' What is spoken of here is 'knowledge acquirable by nature in contrast with revelation,' it means what is within the capacity of man's apprehension. But 'is known' sufficiently represents that and is more exact.
                                      20 -- for from [the] world's creation the invisible things of him are perceived, being apprehended by the mind through the things that are made, both his eternal power and divinity, m -- so as to render n them inexcusable.

                                      References for Romans 1:20

                                        • m 1:20 - What is characteristic of God; not 'Godhead,' as in Col. 2.9.
                                        • n 1:20 - The Greek expression does not affirm that they are so, but states the consequence of the display of creative glory in what was seen. 'So that they should,' or 'might be,' is ambiguous in English, and implies purpose. Hence I have said 'so as to render,' which gives the sense.
                                          21 Because, knowing God, they glorified [him] not as God, neither were thankful; but fell into folly in their thoughts, o and their heart without understanding was darkened:

                                          References for Romans 1:21

                                            • o 1:21 - The 'inward reasonings of the mind,' as Luke 9.46. The word 'thoughts' in English conveys this best.
                                              22 professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,
                                              23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into [the] likeness of an image of corruptible man and of birds and quadrupeds and reptiles.
                                              24 Wherefore God gave them up [also] in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, to dishonour their bodies between themselves:
                                              25 who changed the truth of God into falsehood, and honoured and served the creature more than him who had created [it], who is blessed for ever. Amen.
                                              26 For this reason God gave them up to vile lusts; for both their females changed the natural use into that contrary to nature;
                                              27 and in like manner the males also, leaving the natural use of the female, were inflamed in their lust towards one another; males with males working shame, and receiving in themselves the recompense of their error which was fit.
                                              28 And according as they did not think good p to have God in [their] knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate q mind to practise unseemly things;

                                              References for Romans 1:28

                                                • p 1:28 - Not 'did not like.' The word means 'to assay, test, prove,' and thence 'to approve' as Phil. 1.10.
                                                • q 1:28 - Or, as some, 'a mind void of moral discernment.'
                                                  29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, malice; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil dispositions; whisperers,
                                                  30 back-biters, hateful to God, r insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

                                                  References for Romans 1:30

                                                    • r 1:30 - I doubt that it has the sense of 'God-haters.' It acquired the sense of 'abominably wicked:' as 'cursed children' does not mean that a curse is pronounced, but that they are fit only to be so named. It is the moral state.
                                                      31 void of understanding, faithless, without natural affection, unmerciful;
                                                      32 who knowing the righteous judgment s of God, that they who do t such things are worthy of death, not only practise u them, but have fellow delight v in those who do [them].

                                                      References for Romans 1:32

                                                        • s 1:32 - Dikaioma: what the righteous will of God requires; hence even an ordinance of his will, or a righteous act meeting his requirement. See ch. 5.18; Luke 1.6; and Rev. 15.4, where it is judgment itself. In ch. 2.5, 'righteous judgment' is dikaiokrisia.
                                                        • t 1:32 - Prasso: to do an act: see John 5.29.
                                                        • u 1:32 - Poieo: practise a course of action: see John 5.29.
                                                        • v 1:32 - It means that not only their own passions carry them away, but, being thoroughly corrupt, they enjoy other people's sinning, associating themselves in thought and spirit with them, as taking pleasure in their doing so.