8:1-8 Daniel’s prophetic vision in chapter 8 is incredibly accurate in its historical fulfillment. This is one of the reasons why biblical critics, who dismiss the possibility of predictive prophecy, insist that this must have been written in the second century BC rather than in the sixth century. For believers, this is further evidence of the inspiration and inerrancy of God’s Word.
9:25 Gabriel said this period would begin with the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem. The reference is most likely to 444 BC, when Persian King Artaxerxes sent Nehemiah to begin rebuilding the walls in Jerusalem (see Neh 2:1-8). We know the date because Nehemiah tells us it happened “in the twentieth year of” Arta-xerxes’s reign (Neh 2:1). From that point until an Anointed One came, there would be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks. Again, remember that the “weeks” are periods of seven years. That’s a total of sixty-nine (seven plus sixty-two) times seven years, or 483 years.
During the first “seven weeks” (or “seven sevens”)—forty-nine years—Jerusalem was rebuilt. Nehemiah experienced these difficult times when his enemies wished to kill him and put an end to the work (see Neh 4:1-23; 6:1-14).
After the next time segment, the “sixty-two sevens” (434 years), the “Anointed One” would appear. This is the translation of the Hebrew word Messiah—in Greek, Christ. So, from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem (444 BC) to the coming of the Messiah would be 49 plus 434, equaling 483 years. However, we must keep in mind that these are prophetic years, not necessarily our modern calendar years. Nevertheless, if we compare Daniel’s three and a half years (see 9:27 below) with the 1,260 days of Revelation 11:3 (also Rev 12:6) and the forty-two months of Revelation 11:2 (also Rev 13:5), we see that all three are talking about the same time period—the last half of the seven-year great tribulation period. Forty-two months of 1,260 days works out to thirty days per month. That results in a prophetic year of 360 days. When the calculations are made, 483 prophetic years from 444 BC causes us to arrive at AD 33, the year of Christ’s crucifixion and resurrection. Our God is precise.
9:26 After those sixty-two weeks the Anointed One will be cut off refers to the crucifixion of Christ. But clearly, there is a break between Daniel’s sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks. After the sixty-ninth week, the prophetic clock stopped ticking. The events of 9:26-27 refer to the seven-year tribulation period that is to come. Therefore, a gap of time began at the conclusion of the sixty-ninth week and continues today. This interlude between weeks sixty-nine and seventy is the church age, which Daniel did not foresee. The coming ruler is the Antichrist, who will arise at the beginning of Daniel’s seventieth week (the tribulation) and wreak havoc.
9:27 When Daniel’s final “week” (seven years) begins, the Antichrist will make a firm covenant with many. He will be a world leader pretending to bring peace to Israel. But, in the middle of the week—halfway through the tribulation—he will put a stop to sacrifice and offering. So, while the Jews will apparently be offering sacrifices again in a rebuilt temple during this time, the Antichrist will break his covenant and put a stop to it. Moreover, he will set up the abomination of desolation . . . on a wing of the temple. He will set himself up as a god in Israel’s temple, demanding worship and finally revealing himself as the wicked beast that he is (see Rev 13:4-8). Yet, at the end of the tribulation, the Lord Jesus Christ will pour out his judgment on this desolator.
10:1-9 Once again, Daniel was being prepared to receive a vision and prophetic revelation from an angel. This time it would be a sweeping panorama of prophecy involving King Cyrus of Persia and even the establishment of God’s kingdom on earth (10:1). Daniel knew something awe-inspiring was coming because he mourned and fasted for three full weeks beforehand (10:2-3). The angel who appeared to him was dazzling in appearance (10:5-6). The men with Daniel did not see the vision, but a great terror fell on them nonetheless (10:7). Meanwhile, Daniel was weakened by holy fear and fell into a deep sleep (10:8-9).
10:10-14 Here we are given insight into the warfare that takes place in the spiritual realm. Daniel had been praying and fasting for three weeks, and the angel had been sent from the first day in response (10:12). However, the angel had been hindered by a figure called the prince of the kingdom of Persia who opposed him for twenty-one days—for the full period during which Daniel had been fasting and praying (10:13; see 10:2-3)! This was clearly a high-ranking demon assigned to the nation of Persia to represent the devil’s kingdom and fight against God’s.
Scripture frequently says that Satan exercises a level of control and rule in this fallen world (see 2 Cor 4:4; Eph 2:2; 1 John 5:19). Thus, the messenger who had come to Daniel had been engaging in angelic warfare. In fact, the power of this demonic prince of Persia was so great that Michael, one of the chief princes, was sent to his aid (10:13). We learn in Jude 9 that Michael is an “archangel.” By virtue of his strength, the angel prevailed and reached Daniel (10:14).
10:15-21 Though Daniel was overwhelmed with anguish and weakness, the angel strengthened him to receive the revelation that follows in chapters 11 and 12 (10:15-19). But, there was more angelic struggle ahead. The angel had to return at once to fight against the prince of Persia. Then he told Daniel that the prince of Greece would come (10:20). This indicates that the demons of Satan’s kingdom are always at war against God’s kingdom and servants. It’s this warfare that you can’t see—the war in the spiritual realm—that you must be prepared to wage (see Eph 6:10-18).
11:1-20 These verses contain some of the most detailed prophecy in Scripture. The angel first mentions the rise and fall of a succession of kings . . . in Persia (11:2). Then he focuses at length on the Greek Empire of Alexander the Great, the warrior king (11:3). Indeed, after he died, his empire was divided (11:4). It was the kingdoms of two of Alexander’s generals who divided his domain that were important to the future of Israel. These were the kingdoms of the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria. Daniel called them the king of the South and the king of the North (10:5-6), referring to their geographical locations in relation to Israel. Here the angel provides an account of the continual conflict between these kingdoms (10:6-20), during which Israel would often be invaded by one or the other power.
11:21-35 The great enemy of the Jews, Antiochus Epiphanes (whom we saw earlier in 8:9-14), appears again in a prophecy of his abominations (11:21-35). This despised person was not even the rightful ruler of his kingdom, but seized it by intrigue (11:21). He invaded Egypt but did not get all he wanted. When the Romans opposed him on a second attempt to invade Egypt, Antiochus withdrew in humiliation and took out his rage on the Jews on his way back to Syria (11:29-30). It was then that he set up his own abomination of desolation (11:31; see 9:27), and thousands of faithful Jews who resisted him were martyred (11:33). But the people who know their God will be strong and take action (11:32). Life’s circumstances will not keep them down.