Leviticus 11

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
2 Speak ye to the sons of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat of all beasts that are upon the earth.
3 Every beast parting the hoof and making divisions of two claws, and chewing the cud among beasts, these ye shall eat.
4 But of these ye shall not eat, of those that chew the cud, and of those that part the hoofs, and divide claws; the camel, because it chews the cud, but does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
5 And the rabbit, because it chews the cud, but does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
6 And the hare, because it does not chew the cud, and does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
7 And the swine, because this divides the hoof, and makes claws of the hoof, and it does not chew the cud, is unclean to you.
8 Ye shall not eat of their flesh, and ye shall not touch their carcases; these are unclean to you.
9 And these what ye shall eat of all that are in the waters: all things that have fins and scales in the waters, and in the seas, and in the brooks, these ye shall eat.
10 And all things which have not fins or scales in the water, or in the seas, and in the brooks, of all which the waters produce, and of every soul living in the water, are an abomination; and they shall be abominations to you.
11 Ye shall not eat of their flesh, and ye shall abhor their carcases.
12 And all things that have not fins or scales of those that are in the waters, these are an abomination to you.
13 And these are the things which ye shall abhor of birds, and they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle.
14 And the vulture, and the kite, and the like to it;
15 and the sparrow, and the owl, and the sea-mew, and the like to it:
16 and every raven, and the birds like it, and the hawk and his like,
17 and the night-raven and the cormorant and the stork,
18 and the red-bill, and the pelican, and swan,
19 and the heron, and the lapwing, and the like to it, and the hoopoe and the bat.
20 And all winged creatures that creep, which go upon four feet, are abominations to you.
21 But these ye shall eat of the creeping winged animals, which go upon four feet, which have legs above their feet, to leap with on the earth.
22 And these of them ye shall eat: the caterpillar and his like, and the attacus and his like, and the cantharus and his like, and the locust and his like.
23 Every creeping thing from among the birds, which has four feet, is an abomination to you.
24 And by these ye shall be defiled; every one that touches their carcases shall be unclean till the evening.
25 And every one that takes of their dead bodies shall wash his garments, and shall be unclean till the evening.
26 And whichever among the beasts divides the hoof and makes claws, and does not chew the cud, shall be unclean to you; every one that touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening.
27 And every one among all the wild beasts that moves upon its fore feet, which goes on all four, is unclean to you; every one that touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening.
28 And he that takes of their dead bodies shall wash his garments, and shall be unclean till evening: these are unclean to you.
29 And these unclean to you of reptiles upon the earth, the weasel, and the mouse, and the lizard,
30 the ferret, and the chameleon, and the evet, and the newt, and the mole.
31 These are unclean to you of all the reptiles which are on the earth; every one who touches their carcases shall be unclean till evening.
32 And on whatsoever one of their dead bodies shall fall it shall be unclean; whatever wooden vessel, or garment, or skin, or sack it may be, every vessel in which work should be done, shall be dipped in water, and shall be unclean till evening; and it shall be clean.
33 And every earthen vessel into which one of these things shall fall, whatsoever is inside it, shall be unclean, and it shall be broken.
34 And all food that is eaten, on which water shall come , shall be unclean; and every beverage which is drunk in any vessel, shall be unclean.
35 And every thing on which there shall fall of their dead bodies shall be unclean; ovens and stands for jars shall be broken down: these are unclean, and they shall be unclean to you.
36 Only of fountains of water, or a pool, or confluence of water, it shall be clean; but he that touches their carcases shall be unclean.
37 And if one of their carcases should fall upon any sowing seed which shall be sown, it shall be clean.
38 But if water be poured on any seed, and one of their dead bodies fall upon it, it is unclean to you.
39 And if one of the cattle die, which it is lawful for you to eat, he that touches their carcases shall be unclean till evening.
40 And he that eats of their carcases shall wash his garments, and be unclean till evening; and he that carries any of their carcases shall wash his garments, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean till evening.
41 And every reptile that creeps on the earth, this shall be an abomination to you; it shall not be eaten.
42 And every that creeps on its belly, and every one that goes on four continually, which abounds with feet among all the reptiles creeping upon the earth—ye shall not eat it, for it is an abomination to you.
43 And ye shall not defile your souls with any of the reptiles that creep upon the earth, and ye shall not be polluted with them, and ye shall not be unclean by them.
44 For I am the Lord your God; and ye shall be sanctified, and ye shall be holy, because I the Lord your God am holy; and ye shall not defile your souls with any of the reptiles creeping upon the earth.
45 For I am the Lord who brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God; and ye shall be holy, for I the Lord am holy.
46 This is the law concerning beasts and birds and every living creature moving in the water, and every living creature creeping on the earth;
47 to distinguish between the unclean and the clean; and between those that bring forth alive, such as should be eaten, and those that bring forth alive, such as should not be eaten.

Leviticus 11 Commentary

Chapter 11

What animals were clean and unclean.

- These laws seem to have been intended, 1. As a test of the people's obedience, as Adam was forbidden to eat of the tree of knowledge; and to teach them self-denial, and the government of their appetites. 2. To keep the Israelites distinct from other nations. Many also of these forbidden animals were objects of superstition and idolatry to the heathen. 3. The people were taught to make distinctions between the holy and unholy in their companions and intimate connexions. 4. The law forbad, not only the eating of the unclean beasts, but the touching of them. Those who would be kept from any sin, must be careful to avoid all temptations to it, or coming near it. The exceptions are very minute, and all were designed to call forth constant care and exactness in their obedience; and to teach us to obey. Whilst we enjoy our Christian liberty, and are free from such burdensome observances, we must be careful not to abuse our liberty. For the Lord hath redeemed and called his people, that they may be holy, even as he is holy. We must come out, and be separate from the world; we must leave the company of the ungodly, and all needless connexions with those who are dead in sin; we must be zealous of good works devoted followers of God, and companions of his people.

Chapter Summary

INTRODUCTION TO LEVITICUS 11

This chapter treats of creatures clean and unclean, as fit or not fit to be eaten; and first of beasts, whose signs are given, Le 11:1-8 then of fishes, which are likewise described, Le 11:9-12 after that of fowls, and those that are not to be eaten are particularly named, Le 11:13-19 next of creeping things, which are distinguished into two sorts, as flying creeping things, of which those that are unclean, their carcasses are not even to be touched, as neither the carcasses of unclean beasts, Le 11:20-28 and creeping things on the earth, which defile by touching, as well as eating, and make everything unclean, upon which, being dead, they fall, Le 11:29-43 and these laws are enforced from the holiness and goodness of God, Le 11:44,45 and the chapter is concluded with a recapitulation of them, Le 11:46,47.

Leviticus 11 Commentaries