Vayikra 16

1 6 And Hashem spoke unto Moshe after the mot of the two Bnei Aharon, when they approached before Hashem, and died;
2 And Hashem said unto Moshe, Speak unto Aharon thy brother, that he come not at any time into HaKodesh within the Parochet (curtain) before the Kapporet, which is upon the Aron; that he die not; for I will appear in the Anan upon the Kapporet.
3 Thus shall Aharon come into HaKodesh: with a young bull for a chattat, and a ram for an olah (burnt offering).
4 He shall put on the Kesones Bahd Kodesh (holy linen tunic [see Yn 19:23 on Moshiach’s Kesones, the day kapporah was made by the Kohen L’Olahm al Divrati Melki-Tzedek—Ps 110:4]), and he shall have the Mikhnesei Bahd (linen breeches) upon his basar, and shall be girded with a Avnet Bahd (linen sash), and with the Mitznefet Bahd (linen turban) shall he be attired; these are Bigdei Kodesh; therefore shall he immerse his basar in mayim, and so put them on.
5 And he shall take of the Adat Bnei Yisroel two male goats of the goats for a chattat, and one ram for an olah.
6 And Aharon shall offer his bull of the chattat, which is for himself, and make kapporah for himself, and for his bais.
7 And he shall take the two goats, and present them before Hashem at the entrance of the Ohel Mo’ed.
8 And Aharon shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for Hashem, and the other lot for Azazel.
9 And Aharon shall bring the goat upon which Hashem’s lot fell, and offer him for a chattat.
10 But the goat, on which the lot fell for Azazel shall be presented chai (alive) before Hashem, to make kapporah through it, and to let him go for Azazel into the midbar.
11 And Aharon shall bring the bull of the chattat, which is for himself, and shall make kapporah for himself, and for his bais, and shall slaughter (shachat) the bull of the chattat which is for himself;
12 And he shall take a machtah (censer) full of burning coals of eish from off the Mizbe’ach before Hashem, and his hands full of ketoret, ground and fragrant, and bring it within the Parochet (Curtain);
13 And he shall put the ketoret upon the eish before Hashem, that the anan of the ketoret may cover the Kapporet that is upon the Edut, that he die not;
14 And he shall take of the dahm of the bull, and sprinkle it with his forefinger upon the eastern front of the Kapporet; and before the Kapporet yazzeh (he shall sprinkle [see Isaiah 52:15 for Moshiach’s world-wide sprinkling]) of the dahm with his forefinger seven times.
15 Then shall he slaughter (shachat) the goat of the chattat, that is for the Am, and bring his dahm within the Parochet, and do with that dahm as he did with the dahm of the bull, and sprinkle it upon the Kapporet, and before the Kapporet;
16 And he shall make kapporah for HaKodesh, because of the tuma of the Bnei Yisroel, and because of their peysha’im in all their chattot; and so shall he do for the Ohel Mo’ed, that remaineth among them in the midst of their tumah.
17 And there shall be no adam in the Ohel Mo’ed when he goeth in to make kapporah in HaKodesh, until he come out, and have made kapporah for himself, and for his bais, and for kol Kehal Yisroel.
18 And he shall go out unto the Mizbe’ach that is before Hashem, and make kapporah for it; and shall take of the dahm of the bull, and of the dahm of the goat, and put it upon the Karnot of the Mizbe’ach around about.
19 And he shall sprinkle of the dahm upon it with his forefinger seven times, and make it tahor, and set it apart as kodesh from the tumah of the Bnei Yisroel.
20 And when he hath finished making kapporah for HaKodesh, and the Ohel Mo’ed, and the Mizbe’ach, he shall bring the live goat;
21 And Aharon shall lay both his hands upon the rosh (head) of the live goat, v’hitvaddah (and confess) over him kol avonot Bnei Yisroel, and all their peysha’im in all their chattot, putting them upon the rosh of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a designated man into the midbar;
22 And the goat nasah (shall carry, see Isaiah 53:12) upon him all their avonot unto an eretz gezerah (uninhabited, solitary place); and he shall release the goat in the midbar.
23 And Aharon shall come into the Ohel Mo’ed, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put on when he went into HaKodesh, and shall leave them there;
24 And he shall wash his basar with mayim in the Makom Kadosh, and put on his garments, come out, and offer his olah and the olah of HaAm, and make kapporah for himself, and for HaAm.
25 And the chelev of the chattat shall he burn upon the Mizbe’ach.
26 And he that released the goat for Azazel shall immerse his garments and immerse his basar in mayim, and afterward come into the machaneh.
27 And the bull for the chattat, and the goat for the chattat whose dahm was brought in to make kapporah in HaKodesh, shall one carry forth outside the machaneh; and they shall burn in the eish their hides, and their basar, and their dung.
28 And he that burneth them shall immerse his garments, and immerse his basar in mayim, and afterward he shall come into the machaneh.
29 And this shall be a chukkat olam (eternal decree) unto you: that in the Chodesh HaShevi’i, on the tenth day of the chodesh, ye shall afflict your nefashot, and do no melachah at all, whether it be ezrach (native) or the ger that sojourneth among you:
30 For on that day shall the kohen make kapporah for you, to make you tahor, that ye may be tahor from all your chattot before Hashem.
31 It shall be a Shabbat Shabbaton unto you, and ye shall afflict your nefashot, by a chukkat olam.
32 And the kohen, who has been anointed or who has been given authority to minister as a kohen in place of his father, shall make kapporah, and shall put on the linen garments, even the Bigdei Hakodesh;
33 And he shall make kapporah for the Mikdash HaKodesh, and he shall make kapporah for the Ohel Mo’ed, and for the Mizbe’ach, and he shall make kapporah for the kohanim, and for kol HaAm HaKahal.
34 And this shall be a chukkat olam unto you, to make kapporah for the Bnei Yisroel for all their chattat once a year. And he did as Hashem commanded Moshe.

Vayikra 16 Commentary

Chapter 16

The great day of atonement. (1-14) The sacrifices on it, The scape-goat. (15-34)

Verses 1-14 Without entering into particulars of the sacrifices on the great day of atonement, we may notice that it was to be a statute for ever, till that dispensation be at an end. As long as we are continually sinning, we continually need the atonement. The law of afflicting our souls for sin, is a statue which will continue in force till we arrive where all tears, even those of repentance, will be wiped from our eyes. The apostle observes it as a proof that the sacrifices could not take away sin, and cleanse the conscience from it, that in them there was a remembrance made of sin every year, upon the day of atonement, ( hebrews 10:1 hebrews 10:3 ) . The repeating the sacrifices, showed there was in them but a feeble effort toward making atonement; this could be done only by offering up the body of Christ once for all; and that sacrifice needed not to be repeated.

Verses 15-34 Here are typified the two great gospel privileges, of the remission of sin, and access to God, both of which we owe to our Lord Jesus. See the expiation of guilt. Christ is both the Maker and the Matter of the atonement; for he is the Priest, the High Priest, that makes reconciliation for the sins of the people. And as Christ is the High Priest, so he is the Sacrifice with which atonement is made; for he is all in all in our reconciliation to God. Thus he was figured by the two goats. The slain goat was a type of Christ dying for our sins; the scape-goat a type of Christ rising again for our justification. The atonement is said to be completed by putting the sins of Israel upon the head of the goat, which was sent away into a wilderness, a land not inhabited; and the sending away of the goat represented the free and full remission of their sins. He shall bear upon him all their iniquities. Thus Christ, the Lamb of God, takes away the sin of the world, by taking it upon himself, ( John 1:29 ) . The entrance into heaven, which Christ made for us, was typified by the high priest's entrance into the most holy place. See ( Hebrews 9:7 ) . The high priest was to come out again; but our Lord Jesus ever lives, making intercession, and always appears in the presence of God for us. Here are typified the two great gospel duties of faith and repentance. By faith we put our hands upon the head of the offering; relying on Christ as the Lord our Righteousness, pleading his satisfaction, as that which alone is able to atone for our sins, and procure us a pardon. By repentance we afflict our souls; not only fasting for a time from the delights of the body, but inwardly sorrowing for sin, and living a life of self-denial, assuring ourselves, that if we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. By the atonement we obtain rest for our souls, and all the glorious liberties of the children of God. Sinner, get the blood of Christ effectually applied to thy soul, or else thou canst never look God in the face with any comfort or acceptance. Take this blood of Christ, apply it by faith, and see how it atones with God.

Chapter Summary


This chapter treats of the day of atonement, and of the rites, sacrifices, and services of it, directs when Aaron should come into the holy of holies, Le 16:1,2; and in what habit he should then appear, and with what offerings both for himself, and for the people, Le 16:3-10; and that having slain his own sin offering, and that for the people, he should offer incense before the mercy seat, and sprinkle that with the blood of both, Le 16:11-15; and by these offerings make atonement for the holy place, the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, Le 16:16-19; and having done this, he was to take the live goat, lay his hands on it, confess over it, and put upon it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and then send it away by a fit man into the wilderness, Le 16:20-22; upon which he was to put off his linen garments, wash his flesh, and put them on again, and offer the burnt offering for himself, and for the people, Le 16:23-25; also he that let go the goat, and he that carried and burnt the sin offerings without the camp, were to wash themselves and clothes also, Le 16:26-28; the observance of this day, once a year, which was on the tenth of the seventh month, as a day of affliction and atonement, was to be a statute for ever to the children of Israel, Le 16:29-34.

Vayikra 16 Commentaries

The Orthodox Jewish Bible fourth edition, OJB. Copyright 2002,2003,2008,2010, 2011 by Artists for Israel International. All rights reserved.