Isaiah 1

1 The vision concerning Judah and Jerusalem that Isaiah son of Amoz saw during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

A Rebellious Nation

2 Hear me, you heavens! Listen, earth! For the LORD has spoken: “I reared children and brought them up, but they have rebelled against me.
3 The ox knows its master, the donkey its owner’s manger, but Israel does not know, my people do not understand.”
4 Woe to the sinful nation, a people whose guilt is great, a brood of evildoers, children given to corruption! They have forsaken the LORD; they have spurned the Holy One of Israel and turned their backs on him.
5 Why should you be beaten anymore? Why do you persist in rebellion? Your whole head is injured, your whole heart afflicted.
6 From the sole of your foot to the top of your head there is no soundness— only wounds and welts and open sores, not cleansed or bandaged or soothed with olive oil.
7 Your country is desolate, your cities burned with fire; your fields are being stripped by foreigners right before you, laid waste as when overthrown by strangers.
8 Daughter Zion is left like a shelter in a vineyard, like a hut in a cucumber field, like a city under siege.
9 Unless the LORD Almighty had left us some survivors, we would have become like Sodom, we would have been like Gomorrah.
10 Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; listen to the instruction of our God, you people of Gomorrah!
11 “The multitude of your sacrifices— what are they to me?” says the LORD. “I have more than enough of burnt offerings, of rams and the fat of fattened animals; I have no pleasure in the blood of bulls and lambs and goats.
12 When you come to appear before me, who has asked this of you, this trampling of my courts?
13 Stop bringing meaningless offerings! Your incense is detestable to me. New Moons, Sabbaths and convocations— I cannot bear your worthless assemblies.
14 Your New Moon feasts and your appointed festivals I hate with all my being. They have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them.
15 When you spread out your hands in prayer, I hide my eyes from you; even when you offer many prayers, I am not listening. Your hands are full of blood!
16 Wash and make yourselves clean. Take your evil deeds out of my sight; stop doing wrong.
17 Learn to do right; seek justice. Defend the oppressed.[a]Take up the cause of the fatherless; plead the case of the widow.
18 “Come now, let us settle the matter,” says the LORD. “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they are red as crimson, they shall be like wool.
19 If you are willing and obedient, you will eat the good things of the land;
20 but if you resist and rebel, you will be devoured by the sword.” For the mouth of the LORD has spoken.
21 See how the faithful city has become a prostitute! She once was full of justice; righteousness used to dwell in her— but now murderers!
22 Your silver has become dross, your choice wine is diluted with water.
23 Your rulers are rebels, partners with thieves; they all love bribes and chase after gifts. They do not defend the cause of the fatherless; the widow’s case does not come before them.
24 Therefore the Lord, the LORD Almighty, the Mighty One of Israel, declares: “Ah! I will vent my wrath on my foes and avenge myself on my enemies.
25 I will turn my hand against you;[b]I will thoroughly purge away your dross and remove all your impurities.
26 I will restore your leaders as in days of old, your rulers as at the beginning. Afterward you will be called the City of Righteousness, the Faithful City.”
27 Zion will be delivered with justice, her penitent ones with righteousness.
28 But rebels and sinners will both be broken, and those who forsake the LORD will perish.
29 “You will be ashamed because of the sacred oaks in which you have delighted; you will be disgraced because of the gardens that you have chosen.
30 You will be like an oak with fading leaves, like a garden without water.
31 The mighty man will become tinder and his work a spark; both will burn together, with no one to quench the fire.”

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Isaiah 1 Commentary

Chapter 1

Isaiah prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. He has been well called the evangelical prophet, on account of his numerous and full prophesies concerning the coming and character, the ministry and preaching, the sufferings and death of the Messiah, and the extent and continuance of his kingdom. Under the veil of the deliverance from Babylon, Isaiah points to a much greater deliverance, which was to be effected by the Messiah; and seldom does he mention the one, without alluding at the same time to the other; nay, he is often so much enraptured with the prospect of the more distant deliverance, as to lose sight of that which was nearer, and to dwell on the Messiah's person, office, character, and kingdom.

The corruptions prevailing among the Jews. (1-9) Severe censures. (10-15) Exhortations to repentance. (16-20) The state of Judah is lamented; with gracious promises of the gospel times. (21-31)

Verses 1-9 Isaiah signifies, "The salvation of the Lord;" a very suitable name for this prophet, who prophesies so much of Jesus the Saviour, and his salvation. God's professing people did not know or consider that they owed their lives and comforts to God's fatherly care and kindness. How many are very careless in the affairs of their souls! Not considering what we do know in religion, does us as much harm, as ignorance of what we should know. The wickedness was universal. Here is a comparison taken from a sick and diseased body. The distemper threatens to be mortal. From the sole of the foot even to the head; from the meanest peasant to the greatest peer, there is no soundness, no good principle, no religion, for that is the health of the soul. Nothing but guilt and corruption; the sad effects of Adam's fall. This passage declares the total depravity of human nature. While sin remains unrepented, nothing is done toward healing these wounds, and preventing fatal effects. Jerusalem was exposed and unprotected, like the huts or sheds built up to guard ripening fruits. These are still to be seen in the East, where fruits form a large part of the summer food of the people. But the Lord had a small remnant of pious servants at Jerusalem. It is of the Lord's mercies that we are not consumed. The evil nature is in every one of us; only Jesus and his sanctifying Spirit can restore us to spiritual health.

Verses 10-15 Judea was desolate, and their cities burned. This awakened them to bring sacrifices and offerings, as if they would bribe God to remove the punishment, and give them leave to go on in their sin. Many who will readily part with their sacrifices, will not be persuaded to part with their sins. They relied on the mere form as a service deserving a reward. The most costly devotions of wicked people, without thorough reformation of heart and life, cannot be acceptable to God. He not only did not accept them, but he abhorred them. All this shows that sin is very hateful to God. If we allow ourselves in secret sin, or forbidden indulgences; if we reject the salvation of Christ, our very prayers will become abomination.

Verses 16-20 Not only feel sorrow for the sin committed, but break off the practice. We must be doing, not stand idle. We must be doing the good the Lord our God requires. It is plain that the sacrifices of the law could not atone, even for outward national crimes. But, blessed be God, there is a Fountain opened, in which sinners of every age and rank may be cleansed. Though our sins have been as scarlet and crimson, a deep dye, a double dye, first in the wool of original corruption, and afterwards in the many threads of actual transgression; though we have often dipped into sin, by many backslidings; yet pardoning mercy will take out the stain, ( Psalms 51:7 ) . They should have all the happiness and comfort they could desire. Life and death, good and evil, are set before us. O Lord, incline all of us to live to thy glory.

Verses 21-31 Neither holy cities nor royal ones are faithful to their trust, if religion does not dwell in them. Dross may shine like silver, and the wine that is mixed with water may still have the colour of wine. Those have a great deal to answer for, who do not help the oppressed, but oppress them. Men may do much by outward restraints; but only God works effectually by the influences of his Spirit, as a Spirit of Judgment. Sin is the worst captivity, the worst slavery. The redemption of the spiritual Zion, by the righteousness and death of Christ, and by his powerful grace, most fully accord with what is here meant. Utter ruin is threatened. The Jews should become as a tree when blasted by heat; as a garden without water, which in those hot countries would soon be burned up. Thus shall they be that trust in idols, or in an arm of flesh. Even the strong man shall be as tow; not only soon broken, and pulled to pieces, but easily catching fire. When the sinner has made himself as tow and stubble, and God makes himself as a consuming fire, what can prevent the utter ruin of the sinner?

Cross References 109

  • 1. Numbers 12:6; 1 Samuel 3:1; Isaiah 22:1,5; Obadiah 1:1; Nahum 1:1
  • 2. Isaiah 40:9; Isaiah 44:26
  • 3. Isaiah 2:1; Isaiah 13:1
  • 4. S 2 Kings 14:21; S 2 Chronicles 26:22
  • 5. S 1 Chronicles 3:12
  • 6. S 2 Kings 16:1
  • 7. S 1 Chronicles 3:13
  • 8. S Deuteronomy 4:26
  • 9. Judges 11:10; Jeremiah 42:5; Micah 1:2
  • 10. Isaiah 23:4; Isaiah 63:16
  • 11. ver 4,23; Isaiah 24:5,20; Isaiah 30:1,9; Isaiah 46:8; Isaiah 48:8; Isaiah 57:4; Isaiah 65:2; Isaiah 66:24; Ezekiel 24:3; Haggai 1:12; Malachi 1:6; Malachi 3:5
  • 12. Job 12:9
  • 13. S Genesis 42:27
  • 14. Jeremiah 4:22; Jeremiah 5:4; Jeremiah 8:7; Jeremiah 9:3,6; Hosea 2:8; Hosea 4:1
  • 15. S Deuteronomy 32:28; Isaiah 42:25; Isaiah 48:8; Hosea 4:6; Hosea 7:9
  • 16. Isaiah 5:18
  • 17. S ver 2; Isaiah 9:17; Isaiah 14:20; Isaiah 31:2; Jeremiah 23:14
  • 18. Psalms 14:3
  • 19. S Deuteronomy 32:15; S Psalms 119:87
  • 20. S 2 Kings 19:22; Isaiah 5:19,24; Isaiah 31:1; Isaiah 37:23; Isaiah 41:14; Isaiah 43:14; Isaiah 45:11; Isaiah 47:4; Ezekiel 39:7
  • 21. S Proverbs 30:9; Isaiah 59:13
  • 22. Proverbs 20:30
  • 23. Jeremiah 2:30; Jeremiah 5:3; Jeremiah 8:5
  • 24. S ver 2; Isaiah 31:6; Jeremiah 44:16-17; Hebrews 3:16
  • 25. Lamentations 2:11; Lamentations 5:17
  • 26. Isaiah 30:26; Isaiah 33:6,24; Isaiah 58:8; Jeremiah 30:17
  • 27. S Deuteronomy 28:35
  • 28. Psalms 38:3
  • 29. Isaiah 53:5
  • 30. S Psalms 147:3; Isaiah 30:26; Jeremiah 8:22; Jeremiah 14:19; Jeremiah 30:17; Lamentations 2:13; Ezekiel 34:4
  • 31. 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalms 23:5; Psalms 45:7; Psalms 104:15; Isaiah 61:3; Luke 10:34
  • 32. S Leviticus 26:34
  • 33. S Leviticus 26:31; S Deuteronomy 29:23
  • 34. Leviticus 26:16; Judges 6:3-6; Isaiah 62:8; Jeremiah 5:17
  • 35. S 2 Kings 18:13; S Psalms 109:11
  • 36. S Psalms 9:14; S Isaiah 10:32
  • 37. Isaiah 30:17; Isaiah 49:21
  • 38. S Job 27:18
  • 39. S Genesis 45:7; S 2 Kings 21:14; Isaiah 10:20-22; Isaiah 4:2; Isaiah 6:13; Isaiah 27:12; Isaiah 28:5; Isaiah 37:4,31-32; Isaiah 45:25; Isaiah 56:8; Jeremiah 23:3; Joel 2:32
  • 40. S Genesis 19:24; Romans 9:29*
  • 41. Isaiah 28:14
  • 42. S Genesis 13:13; S Genesis 18:20; Isaiah 3:9; Ezekiel 16:49; Romans 9:29; Revelation 11:8
  • 43. Isaiah 5:24; Isaiah 8:20; Isaiah 30:9
  • 44. Isaiah 13:19
  • 45. Psalms 50:8; Amos 6:4
  • 46. S Job 22:3
  • 47. Isaiah 66:3; Jeremiah 6:20
  • 48. 1 Samuel 15:22; S Psalms 40:6; Malachi 1:10; Hebrews 10:4
  • 49. Exodus 23:17; Deuteronomy 31:11
  • 50. Proverbs 15:8; Isaiah 66:3; Haggai 2:14
  • 51. Jeremiah 7:9; Jeremiah 18:15; Jeremiah 44:8
  • 52. S 1 Kings 14:24; Psalms 115:8; Proverbs 28:9; Isaiah 41:24; Malachi 2:11
  • 53. S Numbers 10:10
  • 54. 1 Chronicles 23:31
  • 55. S Nehemiah 10:33
  • 56. Exodus 12:16; Leviticus 23:1-44; Nu 28:11-29:39; Deuteronomy 16:1-17; Isaiah 5:12; Isaiah 29:1; Hosea 2:11
  • 57. S Psalms 11:5
  • 58. S Job 7:12
  • 59. Psalms 69:3; Isaiah 7:13; Isaiah 43:22,24; Jeremiah 44:22; Malachi 2:17; Malachi 3:14
  • 60. S Exodus 9:29
  • 61. S Deuteronomy 31:17; Isaiah 8:17; Isaiah 57:17; Isaiah 59:2; Micah 3:4
  • 62. S Deuteronomy 1:45; S 1 Samuel 8:18; S Job 15:31; S John 9:31
  • 63. S Job 9:30
  • 64. Isaiah 4:4; Isaiah 59:3; Jeremiah 2:34; Ezekiel 7:23; Hosea 4:2; Joel 3:21
  • 65. S Ruth 3:3; Matthew 27:24; James 4:8
  • 66. Numbers 19:11,16; Isaiah 52:11
  • 67. Isaiah 55:7; Jeremiah 25:5
  • 68. S Psalms 34:14
  • 69. S Psalms 72:1; Isaiah 11:4; Isaiah 33:5; Isaiah 56:1; Isaiah 61:8; Amos 5:14-15; Micah 6:8; Zephaniah 2:3
  • 70. S Deuteronomy 14:29
  • 71. ver 23; Job 22:9; Psalms 82:3; Psalms 94:6; Isaiah 10:2
  • 72. S Exodus 22:22; Ezekiel 18:31; Ezekiel 22:7; Luke 18:3; James 1:27
  • 73. S 1 Samuel 2:25; Isaiah 41:1; Isaiah 43:9,26
  • 74. S Psalms 51:7; Revelation 7:14
  • 75. Isaiah 55:7
  • 76. S Job 36:11; S Isaiah 50:10
  • 77. Deuteronomy 30:15-16; Ezra 9:12; Psalms 34:10; Isaiah 30:23; Isaiah 55:2; Isaiah 58:14; Isaiah 62:9; Isaiah 65:13,21-22
  • 78. S 1 Samuel 12:15
  • 79. S Job 15:22; Isaiah 3:25; Isaiah 27:1; Isaiah 65:12; Isaiah 66:16; Jeremiah 17:27
  • 80. Numbers 23:19; Isaiah 21:17; Isaiah 34:16; Isaiah 40:5; Isaiah 58:14; Jeremiah 49:13; Micah 4:4; Zechariah 1:6; Revelation 1:16
  • 81. Isaiah 57:3-9; Jeremiah 2:20; Jeremiah 3:2,9; Jeremiah 13:27; Ezekiel 23:3; Hosea 2:1-13
  • 82. Isaiah 5:7; Isaiah 46:13; Isaiah 59:14; Amos 6:12
  • 83. S Proverbs 6:17
  • 84. S Psalms 119:119
  • 85. S ver 2
  • 86. S Deuteronomy 19:14; Micah 2:1-2; Micah 6:12
  • 87. S Exodus 23:8; Amos 5:12
  • 88. Isaiah 10:2; Jeremiah 5:28; Ezekiel 22:6-7; Micah 3:9; Habakkuk 1:4; Zechariah 7:10
  • 89. S Genesis 49:24
  • 90. Isaiah 34:2,8; Isaiah 35:4; Isaiah 47:3; Isaiah 59:17; Isaiah 61:2; Isaiah 63:4; Jeremiah 51:6; Ezekiel 5:13
  • 91. S Deuteronomy 32:43; S Isaiah 10:3
  • 92. Deuteronomy 28:63
  • 93. S Psalms 78:38
  • 94. S Psalms 119:119
  • 95. 2 Chronicles 29:15; Isaiah 48:10; Jeremiah 6:29; Jeremiah 9:7; Ezekiel 22:22; Malachi 3:3
  • 96. Jeremiah 33:7,11; Micah 4:8
  • 97. S Genesis 32:28
  • 98. Isaiah 32:16; Isaiah 33:5; Isaiah 46:13; Isaiah 48:18; Isaiah 61:11; Isaiah 62:1; Jeremiah 31:23; Zechariah 8:3
  • 99. Isaiah 4:3; Isaiah 48:2; Isaiah 52:1; Isaiah 60:14; Isaiah 62:2; Isaiah 64:10; Daniel 9:24
  • 100. Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 31:6; Isaiah 59:20; Ezekiel 18:30
  • 101. Isaiah 35:10; Isaiah 41:14; Isaiah 43:1; Isaiah 52:3; Isaiah 62:12; Isaiah 63:4; Hosea 2:19
  • 102. Isaiah 33:14; Isaiah 43:27; Isaiah 48:8; Isaiah 50:1; Isaiah 59:2; Jeremiah 4:18
  • 103. S Deuteronomy 32:15
  • 104. Psalms 9:5; Isaiah 24:20; Isaiah 66:24; Jeremiah 16:4; Jeremiah 42:22; Jeremiah 44:12; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9
  • 105. Psalms 97:7; Isaiah 42:17; Isaiah 44:9,11; Isaiah 45:16; Jeremiah 10:14
  • 106. Isaiah 57:5; Ezekiel 6:13; Hosea 4:13
  • 107. Isaiah 65:3; Isaiah 66:17
  • 108. S Psalms 1:3
  • 109. Isaiah 4:4; Isaiah 5:24; Isaiah 9:18-19; Isaiah 10:17; Isaiah 24:6; Isaiah 26:11; Isaiah 30:27,33; Isaiah 33:14; Malachi 4:10">3Malachi 4:10; Isaiah 66:15-16,24; Jeremiah 5:14; Jeremiah 7:20; Jeremiah 21:12; Obadiah 1:18; Malachi 3:2; Malachi 4:1; S Matthew 25:41

Footnotes 2

  • [a]. Or "justice." / "Correct the oppressor"
  • [b]. That is, against Jerusalem

Chapter Summary


This book is called, in the New Testament, sometimes "the Book of the Words of the Prophet Esaias", Lu 3:4 sometimes only the "Prophet Esaias", Ac 8:28,30 and sometimes, as here, the "Book of the Prophet Esaias", Lu 4:17. In the Syriac version the title is, "the Prophecy of Isaiah the Son of Amos": and in the Arabic version, "the Beginning of the Prophecy of Isaiah the Prophet". It stands first of all the prophets; though the order of the prophets, according to the Jews {a}, is, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, and the twelve. But it is here placed first, not because Isaiah prophesied before the other prophets; for Joel, Jonah, Hosea, and Amos, begun before him, namely, in or before the days of Jeroboam the Second; but because of the excellency of the matter contained in it. Isaiah is called by Ben Syra {b} the great prophet, and by Eusebius {c} the greatest of the prophets; and Jerom {d} a says, he should rather be called an evangelist than a prophet, since he seems rather to write a history of things past, than to prophesy of things to come; yea, he styles him an apostle, as well as an evangelist {e}: and certain it is that no one writes so fully and clearly of the person, offices, grace, and kingdom of Christ; of his incarnation and birth of a virgin; of his sufferings and death, and the glory that should follow, as he does. John, the forerunner of Christ, began his ministry with a passage out of him concerning himself, \Mt 3:3 Mr 1:3 Lu 3:4 Joh 1:23\. Our Lord preached his first sermon at Nazareth out of this book, Lu 4:17-21 and it was in this the eunuch was reading when Philip came up to him, who from the same Scripture preached to him Christ, Ac 8:28-35. And there are more citations in the New Testament made out of this prophecy than any other book, excepting the book of Psalms, as Musculus observes. To which may be added, as another reason, the elegance and sublimity of his style in which he exceeds the greatest of orators, Demosthenes among the Greeks, and Tully among the Romans; and this is observed both by Jews and Christians. Abarbinel {f} says, that the purity, and elegance of his diction is like that of kings and counsellors, who speak more purely and elegantly than other men: hence their Rabbins, he says, compare Isaiah to a citizen, and Ezekiel to a countryman. And Jerom {g} observes, that Isaiah is so eloquent and polite, that there is nothing of rusticity in his language; and that his style is so florid, that a translation cannot preserve it. Moreover, another reason of this book being placed first may be the bulk of it; it being larger, and containing more chapters, than any of the greater prophets, and almost as many as all the lesser prophets put together. That Isaiah was the writer of this book is not to be questioned; many of the prophecies in it are by name ascribed to him, \Mt 13:14 15:7 Joh 12:39\ Ro 10:20,21 though some others might be the compilers of it, collect his prophecies, and digest them in order: so the Jews say {h}, that Hezekiah and his company wrote Isaiah At what time, and in whose days he prophesied, may be learnt from Isa 1:1 by which it appears that he prophesied long, and lived to a good old age. He began to prophesy about A. M. 3236, and about seven hundred and seventy years before Christ. Abulpharagius, an Arabic writer, says {i}, he lived an hundred and twenty years, eighty five of which he prophesied. It is a generally received tradition with the Jews, that he lived to the time of Manasseh, and that he was sawn asunder by him; and which has been embraced by the ancient Christian writers, and is thought to be referred to in Heb 11:37. \\See Gill on "He 11:37"\\. But Aben Ezra on Isa 1:1 observes, that had he lived to the time of Manasseh, it would have been written, and is of opinion that he died in Hezekiah's time. According to the Cippi Hebraici {k}, he was buried at Tekoah, over whose grave a beautiful monument was erected; though Epiphanius {l}, or the author of the Lives of the Prophets that go by his name, says he was buried under the oak of Rogel, near the fountain of Siloam; and it is a tradition with the Syriac writers, that his body lay hid in the waters of Siloah; \\see Gill on "Joh 5:4"\\ but these are things not to be depended on; and alike fabulous are all other writings ascribed to him, besides this prophecy; as what are called the ascension of Isaiah, the vision of Isaiah, and the conference of Isaiah. This book contains some things historical, but chiefly prophetic; of which some relate to the punishment of the Jews, and other nations; but for the most part are evangelical, and concern the kingdom and grace of Christ; of which some are delivered out more clearly and perspicuously, and others more obscurely, under the type of the deliverance of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity.

{a} T. Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 14. 2. {b} Ecclesiasticus, ch. xlviii. ver. 22. {c} Demonstrat, Evangel. l. 5. c. 4. inscript. p. 225. {d} Adv. Ruffinum, fol. 76. D. tom. 2. ad Paulam & Eustechium, fol. 8. M. tom. 3. {e} Prooem. in Es. fol. 2. B. tom. 5. {f} Comment. in Proph. Poster. fol. 1. 2. {g} Ad Paulam, ut supra, (& Eustechium, fol. 8. M. tom. 3.) {h} T. Bab. Bava Bathra, fol. 15. 1. {i} Hist. Dynast. p. 43. {k} P. 11. Ed. Hottinger. {l} De Vitis Prophet. c. 7. & Isidor. Hispalens. de Vit. & Mort. Sanct. c. 37.


This chapter, after the inscription, contains a charge of aggravated sin against the Jews; God's rejection of their ceremonial sacrifices and service; an exhortation to repentance and obedience, with a promise of pardon; a restoration from their sad estate; a prophecy of their restoration to a better; and of the destruction of idolatrous sinners. The inscription is in Isa 1:1 in which are the title of the prophecy, a vision; the writer of it described by his name, his descent, and the times in which he prophesied; and the subject of the prophecy is Judah and Jerusalem. The charge against the Jews is rebellion against the Lord, and the heavens and earth are called as witnesses of it; which is aggravated by the relation they stood in to God, and by the favours bestowed upon them, Isa 1:2 by their more than brutish stupidity, Isa 1:3 by the multitude of their sins, which were of a provoking nature, Isa 1:4 by the uselessness of chastisements, the whole body of the people, from the highest to the lowest, being afflicted without being the better for it, and so generally depraved, that no regard was had to any means of reformation, Isa 1:5,6 and by the desolation it brought upon them, which is illustrated by several similes, Isa 1:7,8 and by the grace and goodness of God in reserving a few, or otherwise they must have been for their punishment, as they were for their sins, like Sodom and Gomorrah, Isa 1:9 wherefore both rulers and people are called upon under those names to hearken to the law of God, and not trust in and depend upon their sacrifices and other rites of the ceremonial law, together with their hypocritical prayers; all which were abominable to the Lord, since they were guilty of such dreadful immoralities, Isa 1:11-15 when they are exhorted to repentance for sin, to the obedience of faith, and washing in the blood of Christ, whereby their crimson and scarlet sins would become as white as wool and snow, otherwise destruction must be expected, Isa 1:16-20 and then a lamentation is taken up concerning the deplorable state of Jerusalem, representing the difference between what it was now, and what it was formerly, and the sad degeneracy of the people, rulers, and judges, Isa 1:21-23 upon which the Lord foretells what he thought to do: to avenge himself of his enemies; to purge his church and people; to restore them to their former uprightness and integrity; and to redeem them with judgment and righteousness, Isa 1:24-27 and the chapter is concluded with a denunciation of utter destruction upon wicked men, who are described and pointed at as idolaters; which will cover them with shame and confusion, Isa 1:28,29 and which is illustrated by the fading of the leaves of an oak, and by a garden parched with drought, Isa 1:30 and it is suggested that it will be by burning with fire unquenchable, Isa 1:31.

Isaiah 1 Commentaries

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