The Book of Psalms
This psalm manifestly treats of the declining state of the house and kingdom of David, in or about the Babylonish captivity. The psalmist praises and rejoices in God, ver. 1 - 18.
He builds all his hopes on God's covenant with David, ver. 19 - 37.
He laments the present calamities of the king and royal family, ver. 38 - 45.
Expostulates with, prays to God, and praises him, ver. 46 - 52.
Maschil of Ethan the Ezrahite.
Title of the psalm. Ezrahite - Not him who is mentioned, 4:31 ,
but some person of the same name, and inspired by the same spirit, who lived long after.
Blessed - Let thine enemies reproach thee and thy promises concerning the sending of the Messiah, I will heartily bless and praise thee for them, and encourage myself with them.
|89:1||Sing - He prefaces this, lest the following complainers of present miseries should argue ingratitude for former mercies.Faithfulness - Whatsoever hath befallen us, it proceeded not from thy unfaithfulness.|
|89:2||Establish - As firmly and durably as the heavens themselves.|
|89:3||Chosen - With David; whom I have chosen to the kingdom.|
|89:4||Build up - I will perpetuate the kingdom to thy posterity; which was promised upon condition, and was literally accomplished in Christ.|
|89:5||Heavens - The inhabitants of heaven. Faithfulness - Understand, shall be praised; which supplements are usual in scripture.|
|89:6||Among - The highest angels.|
|89:7||Feared - With a fear of reverence. Saints - The whole society of angels. All that - That encompass his throne.|
|89:8||Round thee - Like a girdle encompassing thee. It appears in all thy words and works.|
|89:10||Rhahab - Egypt.|
|89:12||Tabor - The several parts of the land of Canaan, both within Jordan, where mount Tabor is; and without it, where Hermon lies.Rejoice - Shall be fruitful and prosperous, and so give their inhabitants cause to rejoice. In - By thy favour.|
|89:14||Justice and judgment - Justice in judging.|
|89:15||Know - Who enjoy the presence of God and his ordinances, to which they are called by the sound of trumpets. Walk - Under the comfortable influences of thy favour.|
|89:16||Name - In the knowledge and remembrance of thy name, of thy infinite power and goodness.|
|89:17||The glory - To thee alone belongs the glory of all their valiant achievements.|
|89:19||Vision - Which then was the usual way by which God spake to the prophets. Holy one - To thy holy prophets; the singular number being put for the plural; especially to Samuel and Nathan.Laid help - I have provided help for my people. Upon - Upon a person of singular courage and wisdom.|
|89:22||Exact - Not conquer him or make him tributary.|
|89:25||Set - Establish his power and dominion. The sea - The mid - land sea. The rivers - Euphrates, called rivers, in regard of divers branches of it, and rivers which flow into it. So here is a description of the uttermost bounds of the promised land.|
|89:27||My first - born - As he calls me father, ver. 26 , so I will make him my son, yea my first - born; who had divers privileges above other sons. This and the following passage in some sort agree to David, but are properly accomplished in Christ. Higher - This also was in some sort accomplished in David, but more fully in the Messiah.|
|89:29||For ever - To sit upon the throne for ever, as the next words explain it. This was accomplished only in Christ.|
|89:37||A witness - The rainbow, which is God's faithful witness, a token of God's everlasting covenant between God and every living creature for perpetual generations, Genesis 9:12 ,16.|
|89:38||But - Having hitherto declared the certainty of God's promises, he now humbly expostulates with God about it.|
|89:45||Youth - The youthful and flourishing estate of David's kingdom was very short, and reached not beyond his next successor.|
|89:47||Short - Our time, the time of our king and kingdom, in whose name the psalmist puts up this petition. Wherefore - Wherefore hast thou made us and our king (and consequently all other men, whose condition is nothing better than ours) in vain, or to so little purpose? Didst thou raise us and him, settle the crown upon David's head by a solemn covenant, and vouchsafe so many and great promises and privileges, and all this but for a few years, that our crown and glory should be taken from us, within a little time after it was put upon our heads?|
|89:48||What man - All men at their best estate are mortal and miserable; kings and people must unavoidably die by the conditions of their natures; and therefore, Lord, do not increase our affliction.|
|89:50||How I - We thy servants; our king and his people; of whom he speaks as of one person.|
|89:51||Anointed - By whom he seems to understand either first the kings of Judah, the singular number being put for the plural; and by their footsteps may be meant either their ways or actions, or the memorials of their ancient splendor; or secondly the Messiah, whom the Jews continually expected for a long time, which being well known to many of the Heathens, they reproached the Jews, with the vanity of this expectation. And by the footsteps of the Messiah, he may understand his coming.|
Probably Moses wrote this psalm, on occasion of the sentence passed
on the Israelites, that their carcases should fall in the wilderness.
Herein he considers the eternity of God, ver. 1 - 3.
And the frailty of man, ver, 4 - 6.
He submits to the righteous sentence of God, ver. 7 - 11.
And prays for the return of his favour, ver. 12 - 17.
A prayer of Moses the Man of God.Title of the psalm. A prayer of Moses - Who considering that terrible sentence of God, concerning the cutting off all that sinful generation in the wilderness, takes occasion to publish these meditations concerning man's mortality and misery.
V. 1. Dwelling place - Although we and our fathers, for some generations,have had no fixed habitation, yet thou hast been instead of a dwelling - place to us, by thy watchful and gracious providence. And this intimates that all the following miseries were not to be imputed to God but themselves.
|89:2||Thou - Thou hadst thy power, and all thy perfections, from all eternity.|
|89:3||Turnedst - But as for man, his case is far otherwise, though he was made by thee happy. and immortal, yet for his sin thou didst make him mortal and miserable. Saidst - Didst pronounce that sad sentence, return, O men, to the dust out of which ye were taken, Genesis 3:19 .|
|89:4||Past - Indeed time seems long when it is to come, but when it is past, very short and contemptible. A watch - Which lasted but three or four hours.|
|89:5||Them - Mankind. Away - Universally, without exception or distinction. A sleep - Short and vain, as sleep is, and not minded 'till it be past.|
|89:7||Are consumed - Thou dost not suffer us to live so long as we might by the course of nature.|
|89:8||Hast set - Thou dost observe them, as a righteous judge, and art calling us to an account for them. Secret sins - Which though hid from the eyes of men, thou hast brought to light by thy judgments.|
|89:10||Our years - Of the generality of mankind, in that and all following ages, some few persons excepted. Flee - We do not now go to death, as we do from our very birth, but flee swiftly away like a bird, as this word signifies.|
|89:11||Thy fear - According to the fear of thee; according to that fear which sinful men have of a just God. So - It bears full proportion to it, nay indeed doth far exceed it.|
|89:12||Teach us - To consider the shortness of life, and the certainty and speediness of death. That - That we may heartily devote ourselves to true wisdom.|
|89:13||Return - To us in mercy. How long - Will it be before thou return to us? Repent thee - Of thy severe proceedings against us.|
|89:14||Early - Speedily.|
|89:17||The beauty - His gracious influence, and glorious presence.In us - Do not only work for us, but in us, |
This psalm is a dialogue, wherein one declares the safety of them,
who take God for their keeper, ver. 1.
David declares this to be his resolution, ver. 2.
Various promises are made to him, ver. 3 - 13.
Which God himself confirms, ver. 14 - 16.
|89:1||He - He that makes God his habitation and refuge.|
|89:3||Pestilence - From the pestilence, which like a fowler's snare takes men suddenly and unexpectedly.|
|89:5||By night - When evil accidents are most terrible and least avoidable. Arrow - The pestilence, or any such destructive calamity; such are frequently called God's arrows. By day - Thou shalt be kept from secret and open mischiefs.|
|89:6||Darkness - Invisibly, so that we can neither foresee nor prevent it.|
|89:12||Bear thee - Sustain or uphold thee in thy goings, as we do a child.|
|89:13||The lion - Shall lie prostrate at thy feet, and thou shalt securely put thy feet upon his neck. Dragon - By which he understands all pernicious creatures, though never so strong, and all sorts of enemies.|
|89:14||Because - This and the two following verses are the words of God.|
God is praised for his works, ver. 1 - 5.
The doom of the wicked, from the eternal God, ver. 6 - 9.
The prosperity of the righteous, ver. 10 - 15.
A psalm or song for the sabbath - day.
|89:5||Thoughts - Thy counsels in the government of the world and of thy church.|
|89:6||A brutish man - Who is led by sense, not by reason and faith.This - The depth of God's counsels and works.|
|89:10||Anointed - I shall have cause of testifying my joy by anointing myself, as the manner was at all joyful solemnities.|
|89:12||Palm - tree - Which is constantly green and flourishing.|
|89:13||Planted - Whom God by his gracious providence has fixed there.The house - In its courts; he means in the church of God, whereof all good men are living members.|
|89:14||Old age - Their last days shall be their best days, wherein they shall grow in grace, and increase in blessedness.|
This and the six following psalms, according to the opinion of the
Hebrew doctors, belong to the times of the Messiah.
The glory of God's kingdom, both of providence and glory, ver. 1 - 6.
|89:1||Clothed - That majesty and strength which he always had, he will shew in the eyes of all people. Moved - He will overrule all the confusions in the world, so that they shall end in the erection of that kingdom of the Messiah, which can never be moved.|
|89:3||Floods - The enemies of thy kingdom.|
|89:5||Testimonies - Thy promises, which no less than the precepts are God's testimonies, or the witnesses, or declarations of his will to mankind. He seems here to speak of those precious promises concerning the erection of his kingdom in the world by the Messiah. Holiness - It becometh thy people to be holy in all their approach to thee.|
The danger and folly of persecuting the children of God, ver. 1 - 11.
Assurance given to the persecuted, that God will deliver them,
ver. 12 - 23.
|89:4||Utter - Or pour forth freely, constantly, abundantly, as a fountain doth waters (so this Hebrew word signifies.) Hard things - Insolent, and intolerable words against thee and thy people.|
|89:7||Of Jacob - He who takes that name to himself, but has no regard to his people.|
|89:9||Planted - The word is emphatical, signifying the excellent structure of the ear, or the several organs belonging to the sense of hearing. Formed - By which word he intimates the accurate and curious workmanship of the eye.|
|89:10||Know - Mens thoughts and words and actions.|
|89:11||Thoughts - Yes, he knoweth all things, even the most secret things, as the thoughts of men; and in particular your thoughts; much more your practices.|
|89:12||Blessed - Those afflictions which are accompanied with Divine instructions are great and true blessings.|
|89:15||But - God will declare himself to be a righteous judge, and will again establish justice in the earth. Follow - They will all approve of it, and imitate this justice of God in all their actions.|
|89:16||Rise - To defend and help me. I looked hither and thither, but none appeared; God alone helped me.|
|89:17||Dwelt - In the place of silence, the grave.|
|89:19||Thoughts - While my heart was filled with various and perplexing thoughts, as this Hebrew word signifies. Comforts - Thy promises, and the remembrance of my former experience of thy care and kindness.|
|89:20||Shall - Wilt thou take part with the unrighteous powers of the world who oppress thy people. A law - By virtue of those unrighteous decrees which they have made.|
The author of this psalm was David, as is affirmed, Hebrews 4:7 .
It has a special reference to the days of the Messiah; as it is
understood by the apostle, Hebrews 3:7 &c. and Hebrews 4:3 - 9.
Herein we are called upon, to praise God, as a great and gracious God,
ver. 1 - 7.
To hear God's voice, and not harden our hearts, lest we fall as the
Israelites did, ver. 8 - 11.
|89:3||God's - Above all that are called God's angels, earthly potentates, and especially the false gods of the Heathen.|
|89:4||Hand - Under his government. Strength - The strongest or highest mountains.|
|89:7||Pasture - Whom he feeds and keeps in his own pasture, or in the land which he hath appropriated to himself. The sheep - Which are under his special care. Today - Forthwith or presently.|
|89:8||Harden not - By obstinate unbelief. Provocation - In that bold and wicked contest with God in the wilderness. Temptation - In the day in which you tempted me.|
|89:9||Works - Both of mercy, and of justice.|
|89:10||Do err - Their hearts are insincere and bent to backsliding.Not known - After all my teaching and discoveries of myself to them; they did not know, nor consider, those great things which I had wrought for them.|
|89:11||My rest - Into the promised land, which is called the rest, 12:9 .|
This psalm is a part of that which was delivered to Asaph and his
brethren, 1 Chronicles 16:7 ,
on occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David.
Here is a call to praise God, as a great and glorious God, ver. 1 - 9.
To rejoice in his judging all the world, ver. 10 - 13.
|89:1||O sing - Upon this new and great occasion, not the removal of the ark, but the coming of the Messiah.|
|89:4||Gods - The gods of the nations, as the next verse expounds it.|
|89:6||Before him - In his presence.|
|89:9||Beauty - Cloathed with all the gifts and graces, which are necessary in God's worship.|
|89:10||Reigneth - God hath now set up his kingdom in the world.Established - The nations of the world shall by the means of it enjoy an established and lasting peace.|
|89:13||Before - At the presence and approach of their Lord and Maker.Cometh - To set up his throne among all the nations of the earth.|
Christ is the Alpha and Omega in this psalm.
His government speaks terror to his enemies, ver. 1 - 7.
And comfort to his friends, whom he preserves and delivers, ver. 8 - 12.
|89:1||Isles - The Gentile nations, as this word, used Isaiah 42:4 , is expounded, 12:21 .|
|89:2||Darkness - A dark cloud doth encompass him.|
|89:6||Heavens - The angels, yea God himself from heaven.|
|89:7||Confounded - Let them be ashamed of their folly. Gods - All you whom the Gentiles have made the objects of their worship.|
|89:8||Zion - Thy people dwelling in Zion or Jerusalem, to whom Christ came. Heard - The fame of thy judgments, and the setting up the kingdom of the Messiah.|
|89:11||Light - Joy and happiness. Sown - Is laid up for them.|
This psalm sets forth the glory of the Redeemer, ver. 1 - 3.
And the joy of the redeemed, ver. 4 - 9.
|89:2||Salvation - The redemption of the world by the Messiah: which was hitherto reserved was a secret among the Jews, yea was not throughly known by the most of the Jews themselves. Righteousness - His faithfulness in accomplishing this great promise.|
Israel is required to praise God, for their hasty constitution both in
church and state, ver. 1 - 5.
Some instances of the happy administration of it, ver. 6 - 9.
|89:1||People - Such as are enemies to God and his people.Sitteth - Upon the ark. He is present with his people.Earth - The people of the earth. Moved - With fear and trembling.|
|89:3||Them - All people.|
|89:4||Judgment - Though his dominion be absolute, and his power irresistible, yet he manages it with righteousness. The king's strength is by a known Hebraism put for the strong, or powerful king.Equity - In all thy proceedings.|
|89:5||Foot - stool - Before the ark, which is so called, 1 Chronicles 28:2 .Holy - It is consecrated to be a pledge of God's presence.|
|89:6||Moses - Moses before the institution of the priesthood executed that office, Exodus 24:6 .That call - Who used frequently and solemnly to intercede with God on the behalf of the people.|
|89:7||Spake - To some of them: to Moses and Aaron, Exodus 19:24 33:9, - 11 1Sam 7:9, &c.|
|89:8||Them - The intercessors before mentioned. Forgavest - The people for whom they prayed, so far as not to inflict that total destruction upon them which they deserved; |
An exhortation to praise God and to rejoice in him, ver. 1 - 5
A psalm of praise.
This psalm was composed by David between the time of God's promising
the kingdom to him and his actual possession of it.
The general scope of David's vow, at his entrance on his government,
ver. 1, 2.
The particulars of it ver. 3 - 8.
A psalm of David.
|89:1||I will sing - I will praise thee, O Lord, for thy mercy and justice, which thou hast so eminently discovered in the government of the world, and of thy people; and I will make it my care to imitate thee herein.|
|89:2||I will - I will manage all my affairs with wisdom and integrity.When - God is often said in scripture to come to men, when he fulfills a promise to them. House - In my court and family, as well as in my public administrations.|
|89:4||Depart - Shall be turned out of my court. Know - Not own nor countenance.|
|89:8||Early - Speedily; as soon as I am seated in the throne.|
A complaint of pressing afflictions, ver. 1 - 11.
Motives of comfort, ver. 12 - 28.
A prayer of the afflicted when he is overwhelmed, and poureth out
his complaint before the LORD.Title of the psalm. Complaint - This psalm contains a prayer for the use of all true Israelites, in the name and behalf of the church of Israel. It seems to have been composed in the time of their captivity, and near the end of it, ver. 13, 14.
|89:3||An hearth - An hearth is heated or burnt by the coals which are laid upon it.|
|89:5||Skin - My flesh being quite consumed.|
|89:6||A pelican - Is a solitary and mournful bird.|
|89:9||Bread - The sense is, dust and ashes are as familiar to me as the eating of my bread; I cover my head with them; I sit, yea, lie down in them, as mourners often did.|
|89:10||Lifted me - As a man lifts up a thing as high as he can, that he may cast it to the ground with greater force.|
|89:12||Remembrance - Thy name, Jehovah, which is called by this very word, God's remembrance, or memorial, and that unto all generations, Exodus 3:15.|
|89:13||The set time - The end of those seventy years which thou hast fixed.|
|89:18||This - This wonderful deliverance shall be carefully recorded by thy people.|
|89:19||Looked - From heaven.|
|89:20||To loose - To release his poor captives out of Babylon, and from the chains of sin and eternal destruction.|
|89:21||To declare - That they might publish the name and praises of God in his church.|
|89:22||When - When the Gentiles shall gather themselves to the Jews, and join with them in the worship of the true God.|
|89:23||He - God. The way - In the midst of the course of our lives.Some think the psalmist here speaks of the whole commonwealth as of one man, and of its continuance, as of the life of one man.|
|89:24||I said - Do not wholly destroy thy people Israel.In the midst - Before they come to a full possession of thy promises and especially of that fundamental promise of the Messiah.Thy years - Though we die, yet thou art the everlasting God.|
|89:26||Perish - As to their present nature and use.|
|89:28||Continue - Though the heavens and earth perish, yet we rest assured that our children, and their children after them, shall enjoy an happy restitution to, and settlement in their own land.|
The psalmist stirs up himself to praise God for all his benefits,
ver. 1 - 19.
Calls upon all his works to assist him therein, ver. 20 - 22.
A psalm of David.
|89:5||The eagles - Which lives long in great strength and vigour.|
|89:11||So great - So much above their deserts and expectations.|
|89:14||Knoweth - The weakness and mortality of our natures, and the frailty of our condition, so that if he should let loose his hand upon us, we should be irrecoverably destroyed.|
|89:21||His hosts - A title often given to the angels, in regard of their vast numbers, mighty power, unanimous concurrence, and exquisite order.Ministers - This Hebrew word is commonly used of the highest and most honourable sort of servants, |
David in the foregoing psalm praises God for his love to his people;
in this, for his works of creation and providence.
He gives God the glory of his majesty in the upper world, ver. 1 - 4.
The creation of the sea and dry land, ver. 5 - 9.
The provision he makes for all the creatures, ver. 10 - 18.
The regular course of the sun and moon, ver. 19 - 24.
The furniture of the sea, ver. 25, 26.
God's care and sovereign power over all the creatures, ver. 27 - 32.
Concludes with a resolution to continue praising God, ver. 33 - 35.
|89:2||Light - With that first created light, which the psalmist fitly puts in the first place, as being the first of God's visible works.|
|89:3||Waters - In the waters above the heavens, as they are called, Genesis 1:7.|
|89:4||Spirits - Of a spiritual or incorporeal nature, that they might be fitter for their employments. Fire - So called for their irresistible force and agility, and fervency in the execution of God's commands.|
|89:5||Who laid - Heb. he hath established the earth upon its own basis, whereby it stands as fast and unmoveable, as if it were built upon the strongest foundations. Forever - As long as the world continues.God has fixt so strange a place for the earth, that being an heavy body, one would think it should fall every moment. And yet which way so ever we would imagine it to stir, it must, contrary to the nature of such a body, fall upwards, and so can have no possible ruin, but by tumbling into heaven.|
|89:6||The deep - In the first creation, Genesis 1:2,9.|
|89:7||Rebuke - Upon thy command, Genesis 1:9.Fled - They immediately went to the place which God had allotted them.|
|89:8||Go up - In that first division of the waters from the earth, part went upwards, and became springs in the mountains, the greatest part went downwards to the channels made for them.|
|89:9||A bound - Even the sand of the sea - shore.|
|89:11||Wild asses - Stupid creatures, and yet plentifully provided for by the Divine providence.|
|89:13||The hills - Which most need moisture. From - From the clouds.Satisfied - By this means all the parts of the earth, are made fruitful.The fruit - With the effects of those sweet showers.|
|89:15||Oil - He alludes to the custom of those times and places, which was upon festival occasions to anoint their faces with oil.Bread - Which preserves or renews our strength and vigour.|
|89:16||Trees - Which come up, and thrive not by man's industry, but merely by the care of God's providence.|
|89:19||For seasons - To distinguish the times, the seasons of divers natural events, as of the ebbing and flowing of waters, and other seasons for sacred and civil affairs, which were commonly regulated by the moon.|
|89:20||Darkness - Which succeeds the light by virtue of thy decree.|
|89:21||Roar - They roar when they come within sight of their prey.Seek - Their roaring is a kind of natural prayer to God, for relief.|
|89:25||Creeping - This word is common to all creatures that move without feet.|
|89:26||Leviathan - The whale. Therein - Who being of such a vast strength and absolute dominion in the sea, tumbles in it with great security, and sports himself with other creatures.|
|89:29||Hidest - Withdrawest the care of thy providence.|
|89:30||Spirit - That quickening power of God, by which he produces life in the creatures from time to time. For he speaks not here of the first creation, but of the continued production of living creatures.Created - Other living creatures are produced; the word created being taken in its largest sense for the production of things by second causes.Renewest - And thus by thy wise and wonderful providence thou preservest the succession of living creatures.|
|89:31||Rejoice - Thus God advances the glory of his wisdom and power and goodness, in upholding the works of his hands from generation to generation, and he takes pleasure in the preservation of his works, as also in his reflection upon these works of his providence.|
|89:32||He looketh - This is a farther illustration of God's powerful providence: as when he affords his favour to creatures, they live and thrive, so on the contrary, one angry look or touch of his upon the hills or earth, makes them tremble and smoke, as Sinai did when God appeared in it.|
|89:35||Praise ye the Lord - Heb. Hallelujah. This is the first time that this word occurs. And it comes in here on occasion of the destruction of the wicked. And the last time it occurs, Revelation 19:1,3,4,6, it is on a like occasion, the destruction of Babylon.|
In the former psalm we praise God for his common providence; in this,
for his special favours to his church. The first eleven verses of it
David delivered to Asaph, (1 Chronicles 16:7, &c.) to be used in the
daily service of the sanctuary.
Here is the preface, ver. 1 - 7.
The history itself in several articles: God's covenant with the
patriarchs, ver. 8 - 11.
His care of them in a strange land, ver. 12 - 15.
His raising up Joseph, ver. 16 - 22.
The increase of Israel in Egypt, and their deliverance out of
it, ver. 23 - 38.
His care of them in the wilderness, and their settlement in Canaan,
ver. 39 - 45.
|89:3||Glory - Glory in the God whom you serve, as the only true God.|
|89:4||Seek - The Lord in his strength, in his sanctuary, or before the ark, which is called God's strength. Face - His gracious presence.|
|89:5||Judgments - The punishments which he brought upon Egypt by his mere word.|
|89:6||Of Jacob - The only branch of Abraham's seed to whom the following blessings belong.|
|89:7||Judgments - God executes his judgments upon all nations and people.|
|89:8||Remembered - So as to perform it. The word - The promise.Commanded - Established. Thousand generations - To all generations.|
|89:9||Oath - Wherewith he ratified the covenant with Isaac, Genesis 26:3.|
|89:10||A law - That it might be as firm and irrevocable as a law.|
|89:11||Lot - The portion assigned to you by lot.|
|89:13||They went - Both in Canaan, where there were seven nations, and in Egypt.|
|89:15||Anointed - My prophets, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; who are called God's anointed, because they were consecrated to be his peculiar people, and to be kings and princes in their families.And they are called prophets, because God familiarly conversed with them and revealed his will to them, and by them to others.|
|89:16||Staff of bread - Bread, which is the staff or support of our lives.|
|89:19||His word - That word or revelation which came first to Pharaoh in a dream, and then to Joseph concerning the interpretation of it.Purged - From those calamities which were cast upon him, and so prepared the way for his release.|
|89:23||Ham - Ham was the father of Mizraim, or the Egyptians, Genesis 10:6.|
|89:25||Turned - That is, suffered them, to be turned.|
|89:28||They - Moses and Aaron, who inflicted that plague after Pharaoh had threatened them.|
|89:30||Land - Their country.In chambers - Which entered into the chambers.Kings - Of Pharaoh and his sons, and his chief nobles and governors.|
|89:31||Coasts - In all their land, even to the utmost borders of it.|
|89:37||Feeble - Diseased or unable for his journey: which in so vast a body, and in a people who had been so dreadfully oppressed, was wonderful.|
|89:39||Covering - To protect them from the heat of the sun.|
|89:40||Quails - He speaks of the first giving of quails, 16:13, which God gave them as a refreshment, notwithstanding their sin in desiring them, which he graciously pardoned.Bread - With manna which came out of the air, commonly called heaven.|
|89:41||River - They flowed in channels which God provided for them, and followed the Israelites in their march.|
|89:44||Labour - The fruits of their labour; their cities, vineyards, olive - yards.|
The foregoing psalm was an history of God's goodness to Israel;
this is an history of their rebellion: against him; probably both
were wrote by David at the same time, as we find the first verse
and the two last in that psalm, which he delivered to Asaph,
1 Chronicles 16:35, &c.
Herein we have the preface, ver. 1 - 5.
The narrative of all of the sins of Israel, aggravated by the great
things God did for them; their provocations at the Red - sea, ver. 6 - 12.
Lusting, ver. 13 - 15.
Mutinying, ver. 16 - 18.
Worshiping the golden calf, ver. 19 - 23.
Murmuring, ver. 24 - 27.
Worshiping Baal - peor, ver. 28 - 31.
Quarreling with Moses, ver, 32, 33.
Mixing with the nations of Canaan, ver. 34 - 39.
God rebuked them, yet saved them from ruin, ver. 40 - 46.
The conclusion, ver. 47, 48.
It begins and ends with Hallelujah.
|89:4||Me - He speaks here in the name, and on the behalf of the whole nation. With - With those favours which thou dost usually and peculiarly give to thy people.|
|89:5||See - Enjoy. Chosen - Of thy chosen people; such as are Israelites indeed. Gladness - Such joy as thou hast formerly afforded unto thy beloved nation. Glory - That we may have occasion to glory in God's goodness towards us. Inheritance - In the congregation of thy people.|
|89:6||Glory - As our fathers did.|
|89:7||At the sea - When those wonders were but newly done, and fresh in memory.|
|89:8||Saved them - That he may vindicate his name from the blasphemous reproaches, which would have been cast upon it, if they had been destroyed.|
|89:9||Led them - As securely as if they had walked upon the dry land.|
|89:13||Soon - Even within three days, Exodus 15:22,23.Waited not - They did not wait patiently upon God for supplies, in such manner and time as he thought fit.|
|89:14||Lusted - For flesh.|
|89:15||Souls - Into their bodies. So their inordinate desire of pampering their bodies, was the occasion of destroying them.|
|89:16||The saint - So called, because he was consecrated by God for that sacred office of the priesthood, in which respect all the priests are said to be holy, Leviticus 21:6- 8. Hereby he intimates, that their envy and rebellion was not only against Aaron, but against God himself.|
|89:19||A calf - When they were but just brought out of Egypt by such wonders, and had seen the plagues of God upon the Egyptian idolaters, and when the law of God was but newly delivered to them in such a tremendous manner.|
|89:20||Their glory - God, who was indeed their glory. Into - Into the golden image of an ox or calf, which is so far from feeding his people, as the true God did the Israelites, that he must be fed by them.|
|89:23||Breach - God had made a wall about them; but they had made a breach in it by their sins, at which the Lord, who was now justly become their enemy, might enter to destroy them; which he had certainly done, if Moses by his prevailing intercession had not hindered him.|
|89:24||Despised - Preferring Egypt, and their former bondage, before it, Numbers 14:3,4.|
|89:25||The voice - To God's command, that they should boldly enter into it.|
|89:26||Lifted up - He sware. Of this dreadful and irrevocable oath of God, see Numbers 14:11,12.|
|89:27||Overthrow - He sware also (tho' not at the same time) that he would punish their sins, not only in their persons, but in their posterity.|
|89:28||Joined - They had communion with him, as God's people have with God in acts of his worship.|
|89:31||And - It was accepted and rewarded of God as an act of justice and piety.|
|89:37||Devils - They did not worship God as they pretended, but devils in their idols; for those spirits, which were supposed by the Heathen idolaters to inhabit in their images, were not good spirits, but evil spirits, or devils.|
|89:43||Counsel - By forsaking God's way, and following their own inventions.|
|89:45||Repented - Changed his course and dealing with them.|
The psalmist here observes God's providential care of the children of
men in general, and shews how he helps those that are in any distress,
in answer to their prayers.
He instances in banishment and dispersion, ver. 1 - 9.
Captivity and imprisonment, ver. 10 - 16.
Sickness, ver. 17 - 22.
Distress at sea, ver. 23 - 32.
The disposal of families and nations, ver. 33 - 13
|89:3||Gathered - Into their own land.|
|89:4||No city - Or rather, no town inhabited, where they might refresh themselves.|
|89:6||The Lord - Heb. Unto Jehovah, to the true God.For the Heathens had, many of them, some knowledge of the true God.|
|89:7||Forth - Out of the wilderness.|
|89:10||Darkness - In dark prisons or dungeons.|
|89:12||Heart - The pride and obstinacy of their hearts.Fell - They fell into hopeless miseries.|
|89:17||Afflicted - With sickness.|
|89:20||Word - His command, or blessing.|
|89:32||Exalt him - In public assemblies, and before all persons, as they have opportunity. Elders - The magistrates or rulers; let them not be ashamed nor afraid to speak of God's wonderful works, before the greatest of men.|
|89:33||Rivers - Those grounds which are well watered, and therefore fruitful. And so the water - springs, here, and the standing water, ver. 35 , , .Into - Into a dry ground, which is like a parched and barren wilderness.|
|89:34||For - He doth not inflict these judgments without cause, but for the punishment of sin in some, and the prevention of it in others.|
|89:35||Water - Into a well - watered and fruitful land.|
|89:36||Hungry - Poor people who could not provide for themselves.|
|89:39||They - These men, who when they are exalted by God, grow insolent and secure. Low - By God's just judgment.|
|89:40||Contempt - Renders them despicable. Wander - Banishes them from their own courts and kingdoms, and forces them to flee into desolate wildernesses for shelter.|
The five first verses of this psalm are taken out of psalm 57,
the rest out of psalm 60.
David thanks God for personal mercies, ver. 1 - 5.
Prays for national mercies, ver. 6 - 13.
A song or psalm of David.
|89:1||Glory - With my tongue.|
David complains of his enemies and appeals to God, ver. 1 - 5.
Foretells their destruction, ver. 6 - 20.
Prays that God would succour him in his low condition, ver. 21 - 29.
Concludes with a joyful hope of deliverance, ver. 30, 31
To the chief musician, A psalm of David.
|89:1||God - The author and matter of all my praises.|
|89:4||Adversaries - They requite my love with enmity, as it is explained ver. 5.|
|89:6||A wicked man - Who will rule him with rigour and cruelty.Satan - To accuse him; for this was the place and posture of accusers in the Jewish courts.|
|89:7||Sin - Because it is not from his heart.|
|89:10||Desolate places - Into which they are fled for fear and shame.|
|89:11||Catch - Heb. ensnare, take away not only by oppression but also by cunning artificers. Stranger - Who hath no right to his goods.|
|89:17||Delighted not - In desiring and promoting the welfare of others.|
|89:18||Garment - Which a man wears constantly. Like water - Water in the cavity of the belly, between the bowels, is almost certain death.And oil soaking into any of the bones, will soon utterly destroy it.|
|89:20||That speak evil against my soul - With design to take away my life.|
|89:21||Is good - Above the mercy of all the creatures.|
|89:23||When - Towards the evening, when the sun is setting.The locust - Which is easily driven away with every wind.|
That this psalm belongs to the Messiah, is abundantly evident both from
the express testimony of the New Testament,
Acts 2:34 , 15:25, , Hebrews 1:13, , 10:13, .
and from the consent of the ancient Hebrew doctors. Of him, it is
directly and immediately to be understood; the spirit of God wisely so
ordering this matter, that it might be a convincing testimony against
the unbelieving Jews, concerning the true Messiah, and concerning
the nature and quality of his kingdom.
His prophetic office, ver. 2.
His priestly office, ver. 4,
His kingly office, ver. 1, 3, 5, 6.
His states of humiliation and exaltation, ver. 7.
A psalm of David.
|89:1||The Lord - God the father. Said - Decreed it from eternity, and in due time published this decree, and actually executed it; which he did when he raised up Christ from the dead, and brought him into his heavenly mansion. Unto - Unto his son the Messiah, whom David designedly calls his Lord, to admonish the whole church, that although he was his son according to his human nature, yet he had an higher nature, and was also his Lord, as being God blessed for ever, and consequently Lord of all things. The Hebrew word Adon is one of God's titles, signifying his power and authority over all things, and therefore is most fitly given to the Messiah, to whom God hath delegated all his power 28:18.Sit - Now take thy rest and the possession of that sovereign kingdom and glory, which by right belongeth to thee; do thou rule with me with equal power and majesty, as thou art God; and with an authority and honour far above all creatures, as thou art man. Make - By my almighty power communicated to thee as God by eternal generation, and vouchsafed to thee as mediator. Enemies - All ungodly men, sin and death, and the devil.Footstool - Thy slaves and vassals.|
|89:2||The rod - Thy strong or powerful rod, and the rod is put for his scepter, or kingly power: but as the kingdom of Christ is not carnal, but spiritual, so this scepter is nothing else but his word.Zion - From Jerusalem.|
|89:3||People - Thy subjects, shall offer thee as their king and Lord, not oxen or sheep, but themselves, their souls and bodies, as living sacrifices, and as freewill - offerings, giving up themselves to the Lord, 8:5, to live to him, and to die for him.The day - When thou shalt take into thy hands the rod of thy strength, and set up thy kingdom in the world. In the beauties - Adorned with the beautiful and glorious robes of righteousness and true holiness.The dew - That is, thy offspring (the members of the Christian church) shall be more numerous than the drops of the morning dew.|
|89:4||Sworn - That this priesthood might be made sure and irrevocable.|
|89:5||The Lord - God the son; the Lord, who is at thy right - hand.Strike - Shall destroy all those kings who are obstinate enemies to him.|
|89:6||Judge - Condemn and punish them. The places - Or, the place of battle. Dead bodies - Of his enemies. Heads - All those princes who oppose him. But this and the like passages are not to be understood grossly, but spiritually, according to the nature of Christ's kingdom.|
|89:7||Drink - He shall have a large portion of afflictions, while he is in the way or course of his life, before he comes to that honour of sitting at his father's right - hand. Waters in scripture frequently signify sufferings. To drink of them, signifies to feel or bear them.Therefore - He shall be exalted to great glory and felicity.|
This and several of the following psalms seem to have been wrote for
the service of the church in their solemn feasts. It is composed
alphabetically, each sentence beginning with a several letter of the
The psalmist here praises God for his works, ver. 1 - 9.
Recommends the fear of God, ver. 10.
|89:2||Sought - Diligently meditated upon.|
|89:3||Work - Either all his works, or that eminent branch of those works, his providence towards his people. Righteousness - His justice or faithfulness in performing his word.|
|89:4||Remembered - By their own nature, and the lasting benefits flowing from them, which are such as cannot easily be forgotten.|
|89:5||Meat - All necessary provisions for their being and well - being.|
|89:7||The works - All that he doth on the behalf of his people, or against their enemies. Truth - Are exactly agreeable to his promises, and to justice. Commandments - His laws given to the Israelites, especially the moral law. Sure - Constant and unchangeable.|
|89:8||Done - Constituted or ordered.|
|89:9||Redemption - The deliverance out of Egypt, which was a type of that higher redemption by Christ. Commanded - Appointed, or established firmly by his power and authority. For ever - Through all successive generations of his people to the end of the world. Reverend - Terrible to his enemies, venerable in his peoples eyes, and holy in all his dealings with all men.|
|89:10||The fear - True religion. Beginning - Is the only foundation of, and introduction to, true wisdom.|
This also is an alphabetical psalm.
We have here the character and blessedness of the righteous, ver. 1 - 9.
The iniquity of the wicked, ver. 10.
|89:2||Generation - The posterity.|
|89:3||Righteousness - The fruit or reward of his righteousness, which is God's blessing upon his estate.|
|89:4||Darkness - In the troubles and calamities of life.He - The upright man.|
|89:5||Lendeth - Gives freely to some, and lends to others according to the variety of their conditions. Affairs - His domestick affairs.Discretion - Not getting his estate unjustly, nor casting it away prodigally, nor yet withholding it from such as need it.|
|89:6||Moved - Though he may for a season be afflicted, yet he shall not be eternally destroyed.|
|89:7||Evil tidings - At the report of approaching calamities.|
|89:9||Dispersed - His goods, freely and liberally.Righteousness - His liberality, or the reward of it.Ever - What he gives is not lost, but indeed is the only part of his estate, which will abide with him to all eternity.|
|89:10||The desire - Either of the misery of good men; or of his own constant prosperity.|
We are here exhorted to praise God, ver. 1 - 3.
Particularly for his glory and greatness, ver. 4, 5
And for his grace and goodness, ver. 6 - 9.
|89:6||Humbleth - Who is so high, that it is a wonderful condescention in him to take any notice of his heavenly host, and much more of sinful and miserable men upon earth.|
|89:8||Princes - As he did Joseph, David, and others.His people - Who in God's account are far more honourable than the princes of Heathen nations.|
This and the four following psalms, the Jews were wont to sing at
the close of the paschal supper.
It is a solemn commemoration of God's delivering Israel, giving them
the law, and water out of the rock, ver. 1 - 8.
|89:2||Judah - Or Israel, one tribe being put for all.Judah he mentions as the chief of all the tribes.|
|89:4||The mountains - Horeb and Sinai, two tops of one mountain, and other neighbouring mountains.|
|89:7||Tremble - The mountains did more than what was fit at the appearance of the great God.|
We are to give glory to God, not to ourselves or idols, ver. 1 - 8.
By trusting in his promise and blessing, ver. 9 - 15.
And by praising him, ver. 16 - 18.
|89:8||Are like them - As void of all sense or reason as their images.|
|89:9||Their - Who trust in him.|
|89:10||Aaron - You priests and Levites.|
|89:11||Ye that fear - All of you who worship the true God, not only Israelites, but even Gentile proselytes.|
|89:12||Mindful - In our former straits, and therefore we trust he will still bless us.|
|89:13||Both small - Of whatsoever quality, high and low, rich and poor.|
|89:16||The Lord's - In a peculiar manner, where he dwelleth in that light and glory, to which no man can approach. Given - As the foregoing verse declares, that God was the creator of heaven and earth, so this asserts that he is also their Lord and governor to dispose of all men and things as he pleases.|
|89:17||Silence - Into the place of silence, the grave.|
This psalm is a solemn thanksgiving to God.
Wherein the psalmist professes his love to God, for delivering him out
of great straits and dangers, ver. 1 - 8.
Prays for his future protection, and promises to praise him, and to
walk holy before him, 9 - 19.
|89:3||The sorrows - Dangerous and deadly calamities. Pains - Such agonies and horrors, as dying persons use to feel.|
|89:7||Rest - Unto a chearful confidence in God.|
An exhortation to all nations to praise God for his mercy and truth,
ver. 1, 2.
The form of this psalm seems to be dramatical, and several parts of it
are spoken in the name of several persons; as it is in the book of the
Song of Solomon, and in one part of Ecclesiastes.
David speaks in his own name from the beginning to ver. 22, from
thence to ver. 25, in the name of the people; and thence to ver. 28,
in the name of the priests; and then concludes in his own name.
He calls upon all about him to praise God, ver. 1 - 4.
Encourages himself and others to trust in God, from the experience
he had had of his power and mercy, ver. 5 - 18.
He gives thanks for his advancement to the throne, as it was a figure
of the exaltation of Christ, ver. 19 - 23.
The people, the priests, and the psalmist himself triumph in the
prospect of the Redeemer's kingdom, ver. 24 - 29.
|89:10||Nations - The neighbouring nations, Philistines, Syrians, Ammonites, Moabites, who were stirred up, by the overthrows which David had given some of them, by their jealousy at his growing greatness, and by their hatred against the true religion.|
|89:11||Yea - The repetition implies their frequency and fervency in this action.|
|89:12||Bees - ln great numbers. Thorns - Which burns fiercely, but quickly spends itself.|
|89:13||Thou - O mine enemy. The singular word is here put collectively for all his enemies.|
|89:14||Salvation - My Saviour.|
|89:15||Doth valiantly - These are the words of that song of praise now mentioned.|
|89:16||Exalted - Hath appeared evidently, and wrought powerfully and gloriously.|
|89:19||Open - O ye porters, appointed by God for this work.The gates - Of the Lord's tabernacle: where the rule of righteousness was kept and taught, and the sacrifices of righteousness were offered.|
|89:20||The righteous - As David was a type of Christ and the temple of heaven, so this place hath a farther prospect than David, and relates to Christ's ascending into heaven, and opening the gates of that blessed temple, both for himself and for all believers.|
|89:22||The builders - The commonwealth of Israel and the church of God are here and elsewhere compared to a building, wherein, as the people are the stones, so the princes and rulers are the builders.And as these master - builders rejected David, so their successors rejected Christ. Head stone - The chief stone in the whole building, by which the several parts of the building are upheld and firmly united together. Thus David united all the tribes and families of Israel: and thus Christ united Jews and Gentiles together.And therefore this place is justly expounded of Christ, 12:10 , Acts 4:11, , Romans 9:32, , Ephesians 2:20, .And to him the words agree more properly than to David.|
|89:24||Made - Or sanctified as a season never to be forgotten.|
|89:25||We - These seem to be the words of the Levites, to whom he spake ver. 19.|
|89:26||Blessed - We pray that God would bless his person and government.Cometh - To the throne; or from his Father into the world: who is known by the name of him that cometh or was to come, and of whom this very word is used, Genesis 49:10 , Isaiah 35:4, .Name - By commission from him. We - We who are the Lord's ministers attending upon him in his house, and appointed to bless in his name, Numbers 6:23 , 10:8, . So these are the words of the priests.|
|89:27||The Lord - Or, The mighty God, as this name of God signifies, and as he shewed himself to be by this, his wonderful work. Who - Who hath scattered our dark clouds, and put us into a state of peace, and safety, and happiness. The horns - These are supposed to he made for this very use, that the beasts should be bound and killed there.These three last verses are David's words.|
Because this psalm was very large, and the matter of it of the greatest
importance, the psalmist thought fit to divide it into two and twenty
several parts, according to the number of the Hebrew letters, that
he might both prevent tediousness, and fix it in the memory. Each part
consists of eight verses. All the verses of the first part beginning
with Aleph, all the verses of the second with Beth, and so on.
It is observable, that the word of God is here called by the names of
law, statutes, precepts or commandments, judgments, ordinances,
righteousness, testimonies, way and word. By which variety, he
designed to express the nature and perfection of God's word. It is
called his word, as revealed by him to us; his way, as
prescribed by him for us to walk in; his law, as binding us to
obedience; his statutes, as declaring his authority of giving us
laws; his precepts as directing our duty; his ordinances, as
ordained by him; his righteousness, as exactly agreeable to God's
righteous nature and will; his judgments, as proceeding from the
great judge of the world, and being his judicial sentence to which all
men must submit; and his testimonies, as it contains the witness of
God's will, and of man's duty. And there is but one of these one
hundred and seventy six verses, in which one or other of these titles
is not found. The general scope and design of this psalm is, to
magnify the law and make it honourable: to shew the excellency and
usefulness of divine revelation, and recommend it to us, by the
psalmist's own example, who speaks by experience of the benefits of it,
for which he praises God, and earnestly prays for the continuance of
God's grace, to direct and quicken him in his way.
|89:6||Respect - A due respect, which implies hearty affection, diligent study, and constant practice. To all - So as not to allow myself in any known sin, or in the neglect of any known duty.|
|89:7||When - When by thy good spirit I shall he more fitly instructed in the meaning of thy word.|
|89:8||Forsake me not - For then I shall fall into the foulest sins.|
|89:9||A young man - Or, any man. But he names the young man, because such are commonly void of wisdom and experience, and exposed to many and great temptations. Cleanse - Purge himself from all filthiness of flesh and spirit.|
|89:11||Hid - I have laid it up in my mind like a choice treasure, to be ready upon all occasions to counsel, quicken or caution me.|
|89:17||Live - Safely and comfortably.|
|89:18||Open - Enlighten my mind by the light of thy Holy Spirit, and dispel all ignorance and error. Behold - Those great and marvellous depths of Divine wisdom and goodness, and those profound mysteries of Christ, and God's grace to mankind, and of that everlasting state, which are not to be known but by Divine illumination.|
|89:19||A stranger - I am not here as in my home, but as a pilgrim travelling homeward in a strange land. Commandments - Which are my chief support and guide in my pilgrimage.|
|89:20||Breaketh - Faints, as it frequently does, when a thing vehemently desired is delayed. Judgments - To a more sound knowledge and serious practice of them.|
|89:21||The proud - Obstinate and presumptuous sinners, who sin with an high hand. Err - Or, wander, knowingly or wilfully.|
|89:25||The dust - I am in danger of present death: I am like one laid in the grave. Quicken - Preserve my life, or raise me out of the dust.Word - According to thy promise.|
|89:26||My ways - My sins; and all my cares, and fears, and troubles.|
|89:27||Understand - More throughly.|
|89:28||Melteth - Like wax before the fire.|
|89:29||Grant me - Vouchsafe me an accurate knowledge of thy word, and let me govern myself by it in all things.|
|89:30||Laid - Or, set before me as a mark to aim at; as a rule to direct me.|
|89:32||Run - I will obey thy precepts with all readiness, fervency, and diligence. Enlarge - When thou shalt replenish my heart with wisdom, and love to thee and thy law.|
|89:36||Covetousness - He mentions this in particular, because it is most opposite to God's testimonies, and does most commonly hinder men from receiving his word, and from profiting by it: and because it is most pernicious, as being the root of all evil.|
|89:37||Vanity - The vain things of this present world, such as riches, honours, pleasures: from beholding them, with desire or affection.Quicken - Make me lively, vigorous and fervent in thy service.|
|89:38||Stablish - Confirm and perform thy promises.|
|89:39||I fear - For my instability in thy ways; which in respect to my own weakness, I have great cause to fear.|
|89:40||Longed - After a more solid knowledge and constant performance of them. In - According to thy faithfulness.|
|89:43||Take not - Do not deal so with me, that I shall be ashamed to mention thy word. Judgments - In thy word.|
|89:45||At liberty - Enjoy great freedom and comfort in thy ways.|
|89:48||Lift up - To receive and embrace thy precepts and promises.|
|89:49||Thy word - Thy promises.|
|89:52||Judgments - Thy ancient dispensations to the children of men in punishing the ungodly.|
|89:53||Horror - A mixed passion, made up of abhorrence of their sins, and dread and sorrow at the consideration of the judgments of God coming upon them.|
|89:54||The house - In this world, wherein I am a stranger and pilgrim, as all my fathers were.|
|89:55||Thy name - Thy holy nature and attributes, thy blessed word, and thy wonderful works. In the night - When darkness causes fear in others, I took pleasure in remembering thee; and when others gave themselves up to sleep, my thoughts and affections were working towards thee.|
|89:56||This - This comfortable remembrance.|
|89:57||Said - I have professed and owned it.|
|89:59||Thought - I seriously considered both my former courses, and my duty in all my future actions.|
|89:61||Robbed - Done me many injuries, for my respect to thy law.|
|89:66||Judgment - Whereby I may rightly discern between truth and falsehood. Knowledge - A spiritual experimental knowledge.|
|89:70||Fat - They are stupid and insensible.|
|89:74||Glad - For the encouragement they have by my example to trust in God. See me - Alive and in safety. Word - In thy promise, and have not been disappointed of my hope.|
|89:75||Judgments - Thy corrections. Of faithfulness - In pursuance of thy promises, and in order to my good.|
|89:79||Known - Loved and practised them.|
|89:80||Sound - That I may love and obey them sincerely, constantly, and universally.|
|89:81||Fainteth - With long desire and earnest expectation.|
|89:83||Bottle - A leathern bottle. My natural moisture is dryed and burnt up.|
|89:84||The days - The days of my life. I have but a little while to live; give me some respite before I die.|
|89:85||Who - Who have no respect to thy law.|
|89:86||Faithful - Just and true.|
|89:89||In heaven - With thee in thy heavenly habitation.|
|89:91||They - The heaven and the earth. Ordinances - As thou hast appointed. For - All things are subject to thy power and pleasure.|
|89:96||Perfection - Of the greatest and most perfect enjoyments in this world. Commandment - Thy word; one part of it being put for the whole.Broad - Or, large, both for extent, and for continuance: it is useful to all persons: it is of everlasting truth and efficacy; it will never deceive those who trust to it, as all worldly things will, but will make men happy both here and for ever.|
|89:100||Because - The practice of religion is the best way to understand it.|
|89:102||Taught me - By thy blessed spirit, illuminating my mind, and working upon my heart.|
|89:108||Offerings - The sacrifices of prayer and praise.|
|89:109||Is - Exposed to perpetual danger.|
|89:118||Deceit - Their deceitful devices, shall bring that destruction upon themselves which they design for others.|
|89:121||Judgment, &c. - Just judgment.|
|89:122||Surety - Do thou undertake and plead my cause.|
|89:123||The word - For the performance of thy faithful or merciful promise.|
|89:126||To work - To put forth thy power for the restraint of evil - doers.They - The wicked. Made void - Or, abrogated thy law, have openly cast off its authority.|
|89:127||Therefore - Because the general apostacy of others makes this duty more necessary.|
|89:129||Wonderful - In regard of the deep mysteries, the most excellent directions, and the exceeding great and precious promises of God contained in them.|
|89:131||Panted - I thirst after thy precepts, and pursue them eagerly.|
|89:133||Steps - My motions and actions.|
|89:136||Rivers - Plentiful tears, witness of my deep sorrow for God's dishonour, and for the miseries which sinners bring upon themselves.|
|89:140||Pure - Without the least mixture of falsehood.|
|89:142||Everlasting - The same in all ages and places.|
|89:143||Trouble - Outward troubles and anguish of spirit.|
|89:148||Watches - The middle watch, which was set in the middle of the night; and the morning watch, which was set some hours before the dawning of the day.|
|89:149||Judgment - According to thy word.|
|89:150||Nigh - To me, they are at hand and ready to seize upon me.Are far - They cast away from them all thoughts of thy law.|
|89:152||Of old - By long experience. Founded - Thou hast established them upon everlasting foundations.|
|89:160||The beginning - From the beginning of the world.|
|89:161||But - But I feared thine offence and displeasure more than their wrath.|
|89:164||Seven times - Many times; a certain number being put for an uncertain.|
|89:165||Offend - Heb. they shall have no stumbling - block, at which they shall stumble and fall into mischief.|
|89:175||Judgments - Thy word or testimonies, which are the only ground of my hope in thy help.|
David prays against lying tongues, and denounces judgment against them,
ver. 1 - 4.
Complains of his wicked and unpeaceable neighbours, ver. 5 - 7.
A song of degrees.Title of the psalm. Of degrees - Or, of accents, as the word properly signifies. This title is given to this and the fourteen following psalms, probably because they were sung upon the fifteen degrees, steps, or stairs of the temple, which the Jewish writers mention.
|89:4||Arrows - The wrath and vengeance of the mighty God, which in scripture is often compared to arrows, and here to coals of juniper, which burn very fiercely and retain their heat for a long time.|
|89:5||Mesech - Mesech and Kedar are two sorts of people often mentioned in scripture, and reckoned amongst the barbarous nations.But their names are here to be understood metaphorically. And so he explains himself in the next verse.|
David assures himself of help from God, ver. 1, 2.
He assures others of it, ver. 3 - 8.
A song of degrees.
|89:1||Hills - To Sion and Moriah, which are called the holy mountains.|
|89:5||Shade - To keep thee from the burning heat of the sun.|
|89:6||Smite - With excessive heat. Moon - With that cold and moisture which come into the air by it. Intemperate heats and colds are the springs of many diseases.|
This psalm seems to have been wrote for the use of the people, when
they came to Jerusalem at the three solemn feasts.
David here shews the joy with which they were to go up to Jerusalem,
ver. 1, 2.
The esteem they were to have of it, ver. 3 - 5.
The prayers they were to make for its welfare, ver, 6 - 9.
A song of degrees of David.
|89:4||The tribes - Whom God has chosen to be his people. Unto - Unto the ark, called the testimony, because of the tables of the covenant laid up in it, which are called God's testimony, and the tables of the testimony. And this is called the testimony of, or to Israel, because it was given by God to them. Give thanks - To worship God; this one eminent part thereof being put for all the rest.|
|89:5||Judgment - The supreme courts of justice for ecclesiastical and civil affairs. Thrones - The royal throne allotted by God to David and to his posterity, and the inferior seats of justice under his authority.|
The psalmist expresses and prays for deliverance from trouble,
ver. 1 - 4.
A song of degrees.
|89:2||Look - For supply of their wants, and for help and defence against their oppressors. Until - Until he help and save us.|
David describes the danger he and his people had been in, ver. 1 - 5.
Blesses God for delivering them, ver. 6 - 8.
A song of degrees of David.
|89:5||The proud - Our enemies, compared to proud waters, for their great multitude and swelling rage.|
The safety of them that trust in God, and the fate of the wicked,
ver. 1 - 5.
A song of degrees.
|89:3||The rod - Their power and authority. Not rest - Not continue long. The lot - Upon the habitations and persons of good men.Lest - Lest they should be driven to indirect courses to relieve themselves.|
|89:5||Lead them - Unto sinful courses.Israel - Upon the true Israel of God.|
This psalm was probably composed by Ezra, at the return of Israel
from Babylon. Those who are returned, are called upon to be
thankful; those who still remain there, are prayed for and encouraged,
ver. 1 - 6.
A song of degrees.
|89:1||Turned - Brought the captive Israelites out of Babylon into their own land. Dream - We were so surprized and astonished.|
|89:4||Turn - As thou hast brought us home, bring also the rest of our brethren. As - As thou art pleased sometimes to send floods of water into dry and barren grounds, such as the southern parts of Canaan were.|
We must trust in God for success in all enterprizes, ver. 1, 2.
And for children, ver. 3 - 5.
A song of degrees of Solomon.
|89:1||Build - Assist and bless those that build it.|
|89:2||You - Builders, or watchmen. To sit - To use constant and unwearied diligence. So - By his blessing. Giveth - Freely, without that immoderate toiling, wherewith others pursue it.|
|89:3||Children - The chief of these blessings. Heritage - Only from God's blessing, even as an inheritance is not the fruit of a man's own labour, but the gift of God.|
|89:4||Youth - These he prefers before other children, because they live longest with their parents, and to their comfort and support, whereas children born in old age seldom come to maturity before their parents death.|
|89:5||Full - Who hath a numerous issue. Shall speak - They shall courageously plead their cause in courts of judicature, not fearing to be crushed by the might of their adversaries.|
The happiness of them that fear God, ver. 1 - 6.
A song of degrees.
|89:3||Olive - plants - Numerous, growing and flourishing.|
The people of God commemorate their deliverance out of sore
afflictions, ver. 1 - 4.
The destruction of their enemies, ver. 5 - 8.
A song of degrees.
|89:1||From my youth - From the time that I was a people.|
|89:4||Righteous - Faithful or merciful. The cords - Wherewith the plow was drawn. By these cords he understands all their plots and endeavours.|
|89:6||House - tops - Which there were flat. Which - Having no deep root, never comes to maturity. And so all their designs shall be abortive.|
|89:8||The blessing - Which was an usual salutation given by passengers to reapers: so the meaning is, it never continues 'till the harvest comes.|
The psalmist confessing his sins, expresses his hope in God, ver. 1 - 6.
And exhorts Israel to hope in him, ver.7, 8.
A song of degrees.
|89:3||Mark - Observe them accurately and punish them as they deserve.Stand - At thy tribunal.|
|89:4||Forgiveness - Thou art able and ready to forgive repenting sinners.Feared - Not with a slavish, but with a childlike fear. This mercy of thine is the foundation of all religion, without which men would desperately proceed in their impious courses.|
|89:5||I wait - That he would pardon my sins.|
|89:6||They - Whether soldiers that keep the night - watches in an army, or the priests or Levites who did so in the temple.|
|89:7||Israel - Every true Israelite. Plenteous - Abundantly sufficient for all persons who accept it upon God's terms.|
David testifies his humility, and exhorts Israel to trust in God,
ver. 1 - 3.
A song of degrees of David.
|89:2||Surely - When my mind was provoked. Weaned - Wholly depending upon God's providence, as the poor helpless infant, relies upon its mother for support.|
Probably this psalm was wrote by Solomon to be sung at the
dedication of the temple, of which he desires God would come and take
possession, ver. 8, 9, 10.
With these words he concluded his prayer, 2 Chronicles 6:41,42.
He pleads David's piety towards God, ver. 1 - 7.
And God's promise to David, ver. 11 - 18.
A song of degrees.
|89:1||Afflictions - All his sufferings for thy sake.|
|89:5||Until - Until I have raised an house in which the ark may be put.|
|89:6||It - Of the ark. Ephratah - In the tribe of Ephraim, which was called also Ephratah. Found it - Afterwards we found it in Kirjath - jearim, which signifies a city of woods, in the territory whereof the ark was seated for twenty years.|
|89:7||Tabernacles - Into his temple. Footstool - The ark, is often said to sit between the cherubim, which were above the ark.|
|89:8||Rest - Into thy resting place, the temple so called, Isaiah 66:1, where thou hast now a fixed habitation.The ark - The seat of thy powerful and glorious presence.|
|89:10||David's sake - In regard of thy promises vouchsafed to David.Turn not - Cast me not out of thy presence. Of - Of me whom thou hast anointed to be king over thy people.|
|89:16||Salvation - With thy saving graces and blessings.|
|89:17||There - In Jerusalem. To bud - His power and glory to flourish. A lamp - A successor to continue for ever in his family, as this phrase is expounded 11:36 , 15:4, and particularly one eminent and glorious light, namely, the Messiah.|
The happiness of brotherly love, ver. 1 - 3.
A song of degrees of David.
|89:2||Ointment - It is no less grateful and refreshing than that oil which was poured forth upon Aaron's head at the time of his consecration to the priestly office. Skirts - Not to the lower skirt or bottom of his sacerdotal garment, but to the upper skirt of it, or the mouth of it, as the Hebrew word properly signifies.|
|89:3||Zion - It is as desirable as the dew which falls upon mount Hermon, nay, as desirable as that heavenly dew of God's ordinances and graces which he hath commanded to fall upon the mountains of Zion and Moriah, and others which are round about Jerusalem.There - Where brethren live in peace and unity.|
In this psalm the priests or Levites who watched all night in the
temple, exhort one another, and pray for one another, ver. 1 - 3.
A song of degrees.
|89:1||Servant - Peculiarly so called, priests and Levites.Night - Not only by day, but also by night, when their watch was more necessary. Stand - Serve or minister.|
|89:3||Thee - Thee whosoever thou art who dost faithfully perform the duty here commanded.|
An exhortation to praise God for his greatness and mighty works,
ver. 1 - 7.
For destroying his enemies, ver. 8 - 11.
For his mercy toward Israel, ver. 12 - 14.
The vanity of idols, ver. 15 - 18.
Another exhortation to praise God, ver. 19 - 20.
|89:2||Ye - Ye priest and Levites.|
|89:6||Seas - In the visible seas, and in the invisible depths both of the earth and of the waters.|
|89:7||From - From all parts of the earth, from one end to another.Rain - An eminent instance of his good providence.|
|89:14||Judge - Will in due time plead the cause of his people.Repent - He will recall that severe sentence which for their sins he had passed upon them.|
We must praise God as great and good in himself, ver. 1 - 3.
As the Creator of the world, ver. 4 - 9.
As Israel's God, ver. 10 - 22.
As our Redeemer, ver. 23, 24.
As God over all, ver. 25, 26.
|89:2||The God of gods - Who is infinitely superior to all that are called gods, whether angels, or princes, or idols.|
|89:22||Israel - He speaks of all that people as of one man, because they were united together in one body in the worship of God.|
|89:25||Food - To all living creatures. For which God deserves great praises, which the psalmist teaches us to render to God for them, because those who are most concerned, either cannot, or do not perform this duty.|
Probably this psalm was wrote toward the end of the Babylonish
captivity. Herein the captives complain of the scoffs of their
enemies, yet remember Jerusalem, and foresee the downfall of
Babylon, ver. 1 - 9.
|89:1||Sat - The usual posture of mourners.|
|89:2||Harps - Harps are here put for all instruments of musick.|
|89:3||A song - Such songs as you used to sing in the temple of Zion.|
|89:4||The Lord's - Those songs which were appointed by God to be sung only in his service.|
|89:6||If - If I do not value Jerusalem's prosperity more than all other delights.|
|89:7||The day - In the time of its destruction.|
|89:8||Happy - As being God's instrument to vindicate his honour, and execute his just judgments.|
David praises God for his goodness, and foretells that other kings
will praise him, ver. 1 - 5.
He rejoices in hope of still greater blessings, ver. 6 - 8.
A psalm of David.
|89:1||The gods - Before kings and princes.|
|89:2||Temple - Where the ark was. He was not permitted to enter into it.Magnified - For thou hast glorified thy word or promise unto me more than any other of thy glorious perfections.|
|89:4||The kings - A prophecy of the calling of the Gentiles.Hear - The gospel preached among then.|
|89:5||The ways - His wonderful counsel and gracious providences.|
|89:8||Perfect - Will finish the great work of my deliverance.Forsake not - Or, do not give over, the work of my salvation, which is thus far advanced, not by any human help, but by thy power and providence.|
This psalm is, by many of the Jewish doctors, esteemed the most
excellent in the whole book.
The omniscience of God is here asserted, ver. 1 - 6.
Proved by two arguments; That he is every where present, ver. 7 - 12.
And that he made us, ver. 13 - 16.
This may fill us with pleasing admiration of God, ver. 17, 18.
With an holy hatred of sin, ver. 19 - 22.
And with an holy satisfaction in our own integrity, ver. 23, 24.
To the chief musician, A psalm of David.
|89:2||Afar off - Thou knowest what my thoughts will be in such and such circumstances, long before I know it, yea from all eternity.|
|89:3||Compassest - Thou discernest every step I take. It is a metaphor from soldiers besieging their enemies, and setting watches round about them.|
|89:5||Beset me - With thy all - seeing providence. And laid - Thou keepest me, as it were with a strong hand, in thy sight and under thy power.|
|89:6||I cannot - Apprehend in what manner thou dost so presently know all things.|
|89:8||Hell - If I could hide myself in the lowest parts of the earth.|
|89:9||The wings - If I should flee from east to west: for the sea being the western border of Canaan, is often put for the west in scripture.And wings are poetically ascribed to the morning here, as they are elsewhere to the sun, and to the winds.|
|89:16||Imperfect - When I was first conceived. Book - In thy counsel and providence, by which thou didst contrive and effect this great work, according to that model which thou hadst appointed.|
|89:17||Thoughts - Thy counsels on my behalf. Thou didst not only form me at first, but ever since my conception and birth, thy thoughts have been employed for me.|
|89:18||Them - Thy wonderful counsels and works on my behalf come constantly into my mind.|
|89:22||Perfect hatred - See the difference between the Jewish and the Christian spirit!|
David prays and hopes for deliverance from his enemies, ver. 1 - 7.
Foretells their destruction, ver. 8 - 13.
To the chief musician, A psalm of David.
|89:3||Tongues - Using words as sharp and piercing as the sting of a serpent.|
|89:9||Mischief - The mischief which they design against me, shall fall upon themselves.|
|89:10||Coals - Divine vengeance, which is compared to coals of fire.|
|89:13||Dwell - Shall constantly enjoy thy gracious and powerful presence.|
David prays for acceptance and assistance, ver. 1 - 6.
For the deliverance of himself and friends, ver. 7 - 10.
A psalm of David.
|89:4||Incline not - Suffer it not to be inclined. Heart - Keep me not only from wicked speeches, but from all evil motions of my heart.Dainties - The pleasures or advantages which they gain by their wickedness.|
|89:5||Smite - By reproofs. Break - Not hurt, but heal and greatly refresh me. Calamities - In the calamities of those righteous persons who reproved him. When they came into such calamities as those wherein he was involved he would pity them and pray for them.|
|89:6||Judges - The chief of mine enemies. Overthrown - Or, cast down headlong by thine exemplary vengeance. Hear - Hearken unto my counsels and offers which now they despise.|
|89:7||Our bones - Our case is almost as hopeless as of those who are dead, and whose bones are scattered in several places.|
David complains to God and trusts in him, ver. 1 - 7
Maschil of David; A prayer when he was in the cave.
|89:3||Knowest - So as to direct me to it. My path - What paths I should chuse whereby I might escape.|
|89:4||Right - hand - The place where the patron or assistant used to stand.|
|89:5||Portion - Even in this life.|
|89:7||Prison - Set me at liberty. Compass - Shall flock to me from all parts, to rejoice and bless God with me and for me.|
David complains and prays for pardon and help, ver. 1 - 12.
A psalm of David.
|89:2||Justified - Upon terms of strict justice.|
|89:3||For - This is not a reason of what he last said, but an argument to enforce his petition delivered, ver. 1.Soul - My life; nothing less will satisfy him. Dead - I am in as hopeless a condition in the eye of man, as those that have lain long in the grave.|
|89:5||The days - What thou hast done for thy servants in former times.|
|89:6||As land - Thirsteth for rain.|
|89:8||Morning - Seasonably and speedily.|
David blesses God for his mercies, ver. 1 - 4.
Prays against his enemies, ver. 5 - 8.
Promises to praise him, ver.9 - 11.
The happiness of those who serve God, ver. 12 - 15.
A psalm of David.
|89:2||Subdued - Who hath disposed my peoples hearts to receive and obey me as their king.|
|89:5||Come - To help me. Smoke - As Sinai did at thy glorious appearance, Exodus 19:18. This is a figurative and poetical description of God's coming to take vengeance upon his enemies.|
|89:7||Strange children - Either of the Heathen nations: or of the rebellious Israelites.|
|89:8||Vanity - Vain brags and threatenings which shall come to nothing.Falsehood - Deceiving themselves, by being unable to do what they designed; and others, by not giving them that help which they promised.|
|89:12||That - This mercy I beg not only for my own sake, but for the sake of thy people, that they may enjoy those blessings which thou hast promised them; and particularly, that our sons, who are the strength and hopes of a nation, may be like plants, flourishing and growing in height and strength, as plants do in their youth; for when they grow old, they wither and decay. Cornerstone - Strong and beautiful.|
|89:14||Breaking in - Of enemies invading the land, or assaulting our cities, and making breaches in their walls. Going out - Of our people, either out of the cities to fight with an invading enemy: or out of the land into captivity.|
This also is an alphabetical psalm.
In it David praises God for his greatness, ver. 1 - 7.
For his goodness and everlasting kingdom, ver. 8 - 13.
For his providence, ver. 14 - 16.
For his mercy to his servants, ver. 17 - 21.
David's psalm of praise.
|89:14||All - All that look up to him for help.|
|89:15||All - Of all living creatures. Wait - Expect their supplies wholly from thy bounty. Expectation is here figuratively ascribed to brute creatures.|
|89:18||Nigh - To answer their prayers. In truth - With an upright heart.|
The psalmist praises God, and exhorts all to trust in him alone,
ver. 1 - 5.
Because of his power, faithfulness and everlasting kingdom, ver. 6 - 10.
|89:4||That day - As soon as ever he is dead. Thoughts - All his designs and endeavours either for himself or for others.|
|89:6||For ever - Both because he liveth for ever to fulfil his promises, and because he is eternally faithful.|
The psalmist praises God for his care over the church, ver. 1 - 14.
His government over all, ver. 15 - 18.
His giving his word to Israel, ver. 19, 20.
|89:4||Calleth them - He exactly knows them as we do those whom we can call by name.|
|89:9||Ravens - Which he mentions because they were most contemptible, especially to the Jews, to whom they were unclean: and because they are not only neglected by men, but also forsaken by their dams as soon as ever they can fly, and so are wholly left to the care of Divine providence.|
|89:10||Delighteth not - As if he needed either the one or the other for the accomplishment of his designs.|
|89:13||Thy gates - Thy strength consists not in thy walls, and gates, and bars, but in his protection.|
|89:14||Borders - In all thy land, even to its utmost borders.|
|89:15||Commandment - Which is sufficient without any instruments to execute whatsoever pleaseth him. Swiftly - The thing is done without delay.|
|89:16||Like wool - Not only in colour and shape, and softness, but also in use, keeping the fruits of the earth warm. Ashes - In colour and smallness of parts, as also in its burning quality.|
|89:17||Ice - Great hail - stones, which are of an icy nature, and are cast forth out of the clouds, like morsels or fragments.|
An exhortation to all creatures in heaven and earth, man especially,
to praise God, ver. 1 - 14.
|89:4||Heavens of heavens - Ye highest heavens, the place of God's throne.Waters - Ye clouds which are above a part of the heavens.|
|89:6||Established - He hath made them constant and incorruptible, not changeable, as the things of the lower world. A decree - Concerning their continuance.|
|89:7||Dragons - Either serpents, which hide in the deep caverns of the earth; or whales, and other sea - monsters, which dwell in the depths of the sea.|
|89:8||Fire - Lightnings and other fireworks of the air. Vapour - Or, fumes: hot exhalations. Fulfilling his word - Executing his commands, either for the comfort or punishment of the inhabitants of the earth.|
|89:13||Above - Above all the glories which are in earth and in heaven.|
|89:14||The horn - In scripture commonly denotes strength, victory, glory, and felicity.|
An exhortation to praise God for his love to his people, ver. 1 - 5.
And for enabling them to overcome their enemies, ver. 6 - 9.
|89:4||The Lord - He rejoiceth over them to do them good.Beautify - Heb. adorn, make them amiable and honourable in the eyes of the world, who now hate and despise them.The meek - All true Israelites are such.|
|89:5||In glory - For the honour which God putteth upon them.Beds - By night as well as by day.|
|89:7||Vengeance - For all their cruelties and injuries towards God's people. This was literally accomplished by David upon the Philistines, Ammonites, Syrians and other neighbouring nations.|
|89:9||Written - Appointed and declared in the holy scripture.|
An exhortation to praise God with all sorts of musical instruments,
ver. 1 - 6.
|89:1||Sanctuary - In his temple. The firmament - In heaven: there let the blessed angels praise him.|
|89:6||Also - Every living creature in heaven and in earth.|